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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126418, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838962

RESUMO

This short communication investigated biodiesel production from Euglena Sanguineamicroalgaeand custard appleusing nano CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst. Different solvents were used to extract the oil at a fixed speed, time, and temperature for the samples to estimate the optimized oil yield%. The catalyst was synthesized by sol gel method in nano-scale. It was further characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD. The algal oil was pre-treated and trans-esterified with a catalyst to produce alkyl esters. The optimized process variables were determined using response surface methodology by varying parameters such as methanol to oil ratio and catalyst weight% for algal bio-oil and MeOH to oil ratio, time, and catalyst weight% for seed oil. The GC-MS was done to characterize the presence of biodiesel. Kinetic studies were done for the optimized condition for the algal oil and seed oil and it follows the pseudo-first order reaction.


Assuntos
Annona , Euglena , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Esterificação , Cinética , Óleos Vegetais
2.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(6): 966-975, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674151

RESUMO

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) MEAM 1 is one of the main insect species that colonize tomato plants and cause direct and indirect damage. The use of botanical derivatives may be a valuable method of insect control to reduce the inappropriate use of synthetic insecticides on crops. In this study, we evaluated the bioactivity of ethanolic extracts prepared from Annonaceae species compared to that of the commercial insecticides based on acetogenins (Anosom® 1 EC, anonine 10,000 mg L-1) and thiamethoxam (Actara® 250 WG) on eggs, nymphs, and adults of the whitefly in tomato. Initially, the effects of the ethanolic seed extracts of Annona mucosa (Jacq.), Annona muricata L., and Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil on adult insect behavior were evaluated. The rates of infestation and oviposition deterrence indicated the inhibitory effects of the extract of A. muricata (500 mg L-1). Then, the possible systemic effects of the extracts were evaluated; however, no effects on nymphal development or insect viability were observed. The LC50 and LC90 of the ethanolic extract of A. mucosa seeds at 500 mg L-1 (10.83 and 200.24 mg L-1, respectively) were estimated and were used in ovicidal tests and compared to positive (Actara® 250 WG and Anosom® 1 EC), and negative controls (water: acetone, 1:1 v/v). At LC90, fewer eggs (35.00%) had hatched at 13 days after application than in the other treatments. The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of botanical derivatives of Annona spp. for the management of B. tabaci MEAM 1 in tomato.


Assuntos
Annona , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Animais , Ninfa
3.
J Helminthol ; 95: e53, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515021

RESUMO

Our work aimed to evaluate the possible effect of Annona muricata (Graviola) leaf extract on Trichinella spiralis in in vitro and in vivo studies. Trichinella spiralis worms were isolated from infected mice and transferred to three culture media - group I (with no drugs), group II (contained Graviola) and group III (contained albendazole) - then they were examined using the electron microscope. In the in vivo study, mice were divided into five groups: GI (infected untreated), GII (prophylactically treated with Graviola for seven days before infection), GIII (infected and treated with Graviola), GIV (infected and treated with albendazole) and GV (infected and treated with a combination of Graviola plus albendazole in half doses). Drug effects were assessed by adults and larvae load beside the histopathological small intestinal and muscular changes. A significant reduction of adult and larval counts occurred in treated groups in comparison to the control group. Histopathologically, marked improvement in the small intestinal and muscular changes was observed in treated groups. Also, massive destruction of the cultured adults' cuticle was detected in both drugs. This study revealed that Graviola leaves have potential activity against trichinellosis, especially in combination with albendazole, and could serve as an adjuvant to anti-trichinellosis drug therapy.


Assuntos
Annona , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Albendazol/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annona muricata and Khaya grandifoliola are ethnomedicinally used for the treatment of malaria and have been experimentally shown to have an anti-plasmodial effect, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of the ethanol extracts of their leaves on parasitemia, radical scavenging and cytokines in Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected BALB/c mice. METHODS: BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with chloroquine, A. muricata or K. grandifoliola extract for 4 days. The percentage of parasitemia and the level of cytokine expression were determined after treatment. Trace element, phytochemical and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging properties assays were done to study the antioxidant effects of AN and KG in vitro. RESULTS: P. berghei consistently increased parasitemia in BALB/c mice. The tested doses (100-, 200-, and 400 mg/kg) of A. muricata and K. grandifoliola attenuated the P. berghei-induced elevation of parasitemia and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-5, and IL-6) in vivo during the experimental period, though not as much as chloroquine. Moreover, both extracts scavenged the DPPH and NO radicals, though A. muricata had more anti-oxidant effect than K. grandifoliola in-vitro. CONCLUSION: The ethanol extracts of A. muricata and K. grandifoliola reduce parasitemia in P. berghei-treated mice BALB/c by scavenging free radicals and reducing cytokines, though the extracts were not as effective as chloroquine.


Assuntos
Annona , Citocinas/metabolismo , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Meliaceae , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Folhas de Planta , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110520, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399498

RESUMO

This review reports the nutritional, phytochemical compounds and biological properties of 4 fruits commonly consumed by people living in Amazon region, namely Biribá (Rollinia mucosa Jacq.), Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.), Pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and Tucumã (Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer). These fruits have been high held nutritional, functional and economic potential and contribute to the daily intake of nutrients, energy and bioactive compounds by people living in Amazon rainforest region. Phytochemical compounds with biological properties were detected in these fruits, for instance (but not limited to), annonaceous acetogenins in Biribá, geraniin and corilagin in Rambutan, rutin and catechin in Pupunha, and ß-carotene and flavonoids in Tucumã. The biological properties of Biribá, Rambutan, Pupunha and Tucumã have been evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays, especially antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, these Amazonian fruits can be exploited by the food industry as a food and therapeutic plant-material to develop valuable products, such as medicine products and can be used as sources for obtaining compounds for the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Annona , Arecaceae , Sapindaceae , Antioxidantes , Frutas , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0250394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237060

RESUMO

Plant species from Annonaceae are commonly used in traditional medicine to treat various cancer types. This study aimed to investigate the antiproliferative potential of an alkaloid and acetogenin-rich fraction from the fruit peel of Annona crassiflora in HepG2 cells. A liquid-liquid fractionation was carried out on the ethanol extract of A. crassiflora fruit peel in order to obtain an alkaloid and acetogenin-rich fraction (AF-Ac). Cytotoxicity, proliferation and migration were evaluated in the HepG2 cells, as well as the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vinculin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. In addition, intracellular Ca2+ was determined using Fluo4-AM and fluorescence microscopy. First, 9 aporphine alkaloids and 4 acetogenins that had not yet been identified in the fruit peel of A. crassiflora were found in AF-Ac. The treatment with 50 µg/mL AF-Ac reduced HepG2 cell viability, proliferation and migration (p < 0.001), which is in accordance with the reduced expression of PCNA and EGFR levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, AF-Ac increased intracellular Ca2+ in the HepG2 cells, mobilizing intracellular calcium stores, which might be involved in the anti-migration and anti-proliferation capacities of AF-Ac. Our results support the growth-inhibitory potential of AF-Ac on HepG2 cells and suggest that this effect is triggered, at least in part, by PCNA and EGFR modulation and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. This study showed biological activities not yet described for A. crassiflora fruit peel, which provide new possibilities for further in vivo studies to assess the antitumoral potential of A. crassiflora, especially its fruit peel.


Assuntos
Acetogeninas/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Annona/química , Frutas/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos
7.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065875

RESUMO

The Annonaceae fruits weevil (Optatus palmaris) causes high losses to the soursop production in Mexico. Damage occurs when larvae and adults feed on the fruits; however, there is limited research about control strategies against this pest. However, pheromones provide a high potential management scheme for this curculio. Thus, this research characterized the behavior and volatile production of O. palmaris in response to their feeding habits. Olfactometry assays established preference by weevils to volatiles produced by feeding males and soursop. The behavior observed suggests the presence of an aggregation pheromone and a kairomone. Subsequently, insect volatiles sampled by solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace detected a unique compound on feeding males increased especially when feeding. Feeding-starvation experiments showed an averaged fifteen-fold increase in the concentration of a monoterpenoid on males feeding on soursop, and a decrease of the release of this compound males stop feeding. GC-MS analysis of volatiles identified this compound as α-terpineol. Further olfactometry assays using α-terpineol and soursop, demonstrated that this combination is double attractive to Annonaceae weevils than only soursop volatiles. The results showed a complementation effect between α-terpineol and soursop volatiles. Thus, α-terpineol is the aggregation pheromone of O. palmaris, and its concentration is enhanced by host-plant volatiles.


Assuntos
Besouros/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/metabolismo , Feromônios/análise , Feromônios/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Annona/metabolismo , Annonaceae/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , México , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Olfatometria , Feromônios/química , Transdução de Sinais , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Inanição/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111592, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088572

RESUMO

Annonaceae family has broad uses in herbal medicine for treatment of several diseases, whether through seeds' or leaves' extracts. The present study investigates the antiproliferative and antitumor activity of Annona cherimola aqueous leaf (AAL) extract/infusion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines in vitro. High-resolution LC-MS was first used to analyze the composition of the aqueous extract. Cell proliferation assay, Annexin V staining, cell cycle analysis, dual Annexin V/PI staining, cell death quantification by ELISA, ROS level detection and Western Blotting were then performed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of AAL extract. The results obtained revealed a potent antioxidant activity of AAL extract. Moreover, the extract exhibited dose- and time-dependent antiproliferative effects on AML cell lines by decreasing cell viability with an IC50 of 5.03% (v/v) at 24 h of treatment of KG-1 cells. This decrease in viability was accompanied with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death with cell cycle arrest and flipping of the phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The respective overexpression and downregulation of proapoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase-8, cleaved PARP-1 and Bax and antiapoptotic proteins like Bcl-2 further validated the apoptotic pathway induced by AAL on AML cells. Finally, LC-MS revealed the presence of several compounds like fatty acids, terpenes, phenolics, cinnamic acids and flavonoids that could contribute to the antioxidant and anti-cancer effects of this herbal infusion. In addition to the generally known nutritional effects of the Annona cherimola fruit and leaves, the presented data validates the antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects of the leaf infusion on AML cell lines, proposing its potential therapeutic use against acute myeloid leukemia with future in vivo and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Terpenos/farmacologia
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246455, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161463

RESUMO

The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Assuntos
Annona , Annonaceae , Annona/genética , Brasil , Frutas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069113

RESUMO

Annona cherimola Mill., or the custard apple, is one of the species belonging to the Annonaceae family, is widely used in traditional medicine, and has been reported to be a valuable source of bioactive compounds. A unique class of secondary metabolites derived from this family are Annonaceous acetogenins, lipophilic polyketides considered to be amongst the most potent antitumor compounds. This review provides an overview of the chemical diversity, isolation procedures, bioactivity, modes of application and synthetic derivatives of acetogenins from A. cherimola Mill.


Assuntos
Acetogeninas/química , Acetogeninas/uso terapêutico , Annona/química , Acetogeninas/isolamento & purificação , Acetogeninas/farmacologia , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Carboidratos/química , Micelas , Polímeros/química
11.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 37-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green synthesized nanoparticles have been earmarked for use in nanomedicine including for the development of better anticancer drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to undertake biochemical evaluation of anticancer activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from ethanolic extracts of fruits (AgNPs-F) and leaves (AgNPs-L) of Annona muricata. METHODS: Previously synthesized silver nanoparticles were used for the study. The effects of the AgNPs and 5-Fluorouracil were studied on PC3, HeLa and PNT1A cells. The resazurin, migration and colonogenic assays as well as qRT-PCR were employed. RESULTS: The AgNPs-F displayed significant antiproliferative effects against HeLa cells with an IC50 of 38.58µg/ml and PC3 cells with an IC50 of 48.17µg/ml but selectively spared normal PNT1A cells (selectivity index of 7.8), in comparison with first line drug 5FU and AgNPs-L whose selectivity index were 3.56 and 2.26 respectively. The migration assay revealed potential inhibition of the metastatic activity of the cells by the AgNPs-F while the colonogenic assay indicated the permanent effect of the AgNPs-F on the cancer cells yet being reversible on the normal cells in contrast with 5FU and AgNPs-L. CASP9 was significantly over expressed in all HeLa cells treated with the AgNPs-F (1.53-fold), AgNPs-L (1.52-fold) and 5FU (4.30-fold). CXCL1 was under expressed in HeLa cells treated with AgNPs-F (0.69-fold) and AgNPs-L (0.58-fold) and over expressed in cells treated with 5FU (4.95-fold), but the difference was not statistically significant. CXCR2 was significantly over expressed in HeLa cells treated with 5FU (8.66-fold) and AgNPs-F (1.12-fold) but under expressed in cells treated with AgNPs-L (0.76-fold). CONCLUSIONS: Here we show that biosynthesized AgNPs especially AgNPs-F can be used in the development of novel and better anticancer drugs. The mechanism of action of the AgNPs involves activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway through upregulation of CASP9 and concerted down regulation of the CXCL1/ CXCR2 gene axis.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspase 9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Prata/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
12.
Food Chem ; 359: 129976, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957326

RESUMO

Impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) assisted process on preparation of custard apple leaf extract (CALE) using ethanol (70%, v/v) was studied. Different electric field strengths (2-6 kV/cm), pulse numbers (100-300 pulses) with specific energies (45-142 kJ/kg) for 2.5 to 5 min were implemented. Cell disintegration index was higher in CALE when PEF 6 kV/cm, 300 pulses, 142 kJ/kg for 5 min was applied. Extraction yield was higher (+5.2%) than the untreated counterpart (13.28%). Chlorophyll A and B contents were negligible in PEF pre-treated CALE. PEF improved radical scavenging activities assessed by DPPH, ABTS radical scavening activities and FRAP. The antibacterial properties of CALE against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were highest. Purpureacin 2 and rutin were abundant in PEF pre-treated CALE. Therefore PEF was the potential aid in augmenting extraction yield and bioactivities of the extract from custard apple leaves.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Eletricidade
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806119

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the third most common in Brazilian women. The chemotherapy used for the treatment of this disease can cause many side effects; then, to overcome this problem, new treatment options are necessary. Natural compounds represent one of the most promising sources for the development of new drugs. In this study, 13 different species of 6 families from the Brazilian Cerrado vegetation biome were screened against human cervical cancer cell lines (CCC). Some of these species were also evaluated in one normal keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The effect of crude extracts on cell viability was evaluated by a colorimetric method (MTS assay). Extracts from Annona crassiflora, Miconia albicans, Miconia chamissois, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, and Achyrocline alata showed half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values < 30 µg/mL for at least one CCC. A. crassiflora and S. adstringens extracts were selective for CCC. Mass spectrometry (Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (ESI FT-ICR MS)) of A. crassiflora identified fatty acids and flavonols as secondary compounds. One of the A. crassiflora fractions, 7C24 (from chloroform partition), increased H2AX phosphorylation (suggesting DNA damage), PARP cleavage, and cell cycle arrest in CCC. Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside and oleic acid were bioactive molecules identified in 7C24 fraction. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating bioactive molecules from natural sources for developing new anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Bioprospecção/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Annona/metabolismo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Flavonóis/química , Células HaCaT , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924791

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and the effects of Amazonian pulp fruits consumption, such as araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata), abiu grande (Pouteria caimito), araticum (Annona crassiflora), biri-biri (Averrhoa bilimbi L.), and yellow mangosteen (Garcinia xanthochymus), on hematologic, metabolic, renal, and hepatic function parameters in Wistar rats (n = 10 rats/group). The pulp of abiu had the highest levels of soluble solids, sugars, and pH. Biri-biri pulp had the highest levels of ascorbic acid and total titratable acidity, and a low pH. The araticum pulp had higher (p ≤ 0.05) ash content, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity than the pulp of other analyzed fruits. No significant increase in hematocrit, nor reduction of blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, and serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (TGP), creatinine, and urea was observed in experimental groups relative to the control group of rats after the consumption of fruits pulp. The intake of abiu and araticum pulps promoted a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in total leukocytes of the experimental groups as compared to the control group and only the intake of araticum significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) triglyceride blood levels in rats (99.50 mg/dL). The regular consumption of biri-biri pulp for 30 days significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (TGO) levels in rats (116.83 U/L) compared to the control group (98.00 U/L). More researches are needed to generate knowledge about these promising Amazonian fruits, supporting the native fruit production, in addition to promoting health in the population and sustainability in the Amazon region.


Assuntos
Annona/metabolismo , Averrhoa/metabolismo , Eugenia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Garcinia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pouteria/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Frutas/química , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919068

RESUMO

Annona squamosa L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from Annona squamosa leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Annona/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Annona/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919145

RESUMO

The antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic effects of the tea infusion extracts of leaves from Annona cherimola Miller (IELAc-0.5, IELAc-1.5, and IELAc-3.0) were evaluated on normoglycemic (NG) and streptozocin-induced diabetic (STID) mice. In the acute test, IELAc-1.5 at 300 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) exhibited antihyperglycemic activity on STID mice since the first hour of treatment. Then, its antidiabetic potential was analyzed in a subchronic evaluation. IELAc-1.5 was able to reduce the blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), cholesterol (CHO), and triglycerides (TG); high-density lipoprotein (HDL) showed an increase at the end of treatment. IELAc-1.5 did not modify the urine profile at the end of the evaluation, and neither toxicity nor macroscopic organ damage were observed in acute and subchronic assays. In addition, a major flavonol glycoside present in the tea infusion extracts was identified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The analysis of the tea infusion extracts by HPLC revealed that rutin was the major component. This study supports the use of tea infusions from Annona cherimola for the treatment of diabetes and suggests that rutin could be responsible, at least in part, for their antidiabetic properties.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Annona/química , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Chá
17.
Food Funct ; 12(10): 4621-4629, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908983

RESUMO

Annona muricata (graviola) is a medicinal plant that can be used to alleviate chronic human diseases by providing antioxidants and inducing immunomodulation. In this study, we found that treatment of AML12 hepatocytes with steam (SGE) and ethanol (EGE) extracts of graviola leaf downregulated the expression of fatty acid (FA) oxidation genes, including ACOX1, CPT1, and PPARα, with no change in the expression of FA synthesis genes. However, whereas EGE inhibited the differentiation and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and downregulated FA synthesis genes, no similar changes were observed in response to treatment with SGE. In an in vivo experiment using mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), body weight was reduced in response to treatment with EGE, which also dose-dependently alleviated liver hepatocyte ballooning induced by the consumption of a HFD. However, genes involved in FA oxidation and the secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were downregulated. We also found that the size of adipocytes was reduced in response to EGE treatment, and that there was a downregulated expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and FA synthesis. Furthermore, we detected increases in the levels of cholesterol in the plasma, whereas ALT activity was reduced. Collectively, these results indicates that EGE inhibits lipid influx into the liver and adipogenesis in adipose tissues. These bioactive properties of EGE indicate its potential as a natural ingredient that can be used to prevent obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Annona/química , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Acil-CoA Oxidase/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipogênese/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR alfa
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6224, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737634

RESUMO

In plants, Fruits and their wastes are the main sources of bioactive compounds. Currently, Annona fruits have attracted the attention of people interested in health-promoting foods due to their phytochemical content that their activities were not studied before. This study aimed to explore the potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anticancer activity of two cultivars Annona squamosa (Annona b. and Annona h.) seed, peel, and pulp. We also meausred phenolic, flavonoid, sulfated polysaccharide, tannins, and triterpenoids. Polyphenol identification was determined using RP-HPLC. Results of the antioxidant activity revealed that the highest activity was observed for Annona h. seed extract using DPPH and ABTS assays with IC50 6.07 ± 0.50 and 9.58 ± 0.53 µg/ml, respectively. The antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic strains revealed that the peel extracts of both Annona b. and Annona h. exhibited the best antimicrobial activity. We also assessed the IC50 values for anticancer activity in all six Annona b. and Annona h samples against four cancer cell lines colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC3), liver (HepG-2), and breast (MCF-7) using MTT assay. Annona b. and Annona h seed extracts had the lowest IC50 values for four cancer cell lines with 7.31 ± 0.03 and 15.99 ± 1.25 for PC-3 and MCF-7, respectively. Both seed extracts, Annona b. and Annona h., showed significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated p53 in all treated cell lines. Apoptosis was evaluated using nuclear staining, flow cytometric analysis, and immunohistochemistry of the proliferation marker (Ki-67). Additional studies are required to characterize the bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities of Annona seed and determine its mechanism as an anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Células CACO-2 , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Células PC-3 , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 114019, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716084

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine are the two drugs used as part of the standard therapy for toxoplasmosis, however; they may cause adverse side effects and fail to prevent relapse in many patients, rendering infected individuals at risk of reactivation upon becoming immunocompromised. Extracts from various parts of Annona muricata have been widely used medicinally for the management, control and/or treatment of several human diseases, acting against parasites that cause diseases in humans. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was performed to investigate the action of the ethanolic extract of A. muricata (EtOHAm) and its fractions in the control of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo, and the effect of EtOHAm on the inflammatory response and lipid profile alteration induced by in vivo T. gondii infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of EtOHAm and its fractions ethyl acetate (EtOAcAm), n-butanol (BuOHAm), aqueous (H2OAm), hexane (HexAm) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2Am) was evaluated in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts using the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cells were infected with T. gondii, treated with the extracts, and parasite proliferation was analyzed. For the in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with T. gondii and, treated with different concentrations of extract fractions that were effective in vitro (EtOHAm, EtOAcAm, HexAm and CH2Cl2Am). Tissue parasitism, histological alterations, systemic cytokine and lipid profile were investigated. RESULTS: EtOHAm, EtOAcAm, BuOHAm, H2OAm presented low cytotoxicity until doses of 200 µg/mL, while HexAm and CH2Cl2Am presented toxicity from doses of 100µg/mL. EtOHAm, HexAm and CH2Cl2Am decreased the parasitism in vitro, presenting a therapeutic index of 2.62, 2.44, and 2.96, respectively. In vivo, EtOHAm, HexAm and CH2Cl2Am improved the survival rate of infected animals, however, only EtOHAm was able to decrease the parasitism in the small intestine and lung. Additionally, EtOHAm decreased the systemic interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) systemically in infected mice, and was able to maintain the triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipid fractions at similar levels to uninfected animals. Although treatment with EtOHAm could not control the inflammation induced by oral infection in the tissues analyzed, it was able to preserve the number of goblet cells in the small intestine. CONCLUSIONS: Ethanolic A. muricata leaf extract could be considered as a good candidate for the development of a complementary/alternative therapy against toxoplasmosis, and also as an anti-inflammatory alternative for decreasing TNF and IFN-γ concentrations and lipid fractions in specific diseases.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células NIH 3T3 , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química
20.
J Complement Integr Med ; 18(2): 355-361, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that develop in many women of reproductive age. Surgery is the main approach to treatment while other options are also associated with adverse effects. Studies have shown that certain bioactive agents present in medicinal plants elicit their anti-tumor activity by induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) opening. This research therefore aimed at investigating the effect of methanol extract of Annona muricata (MEAM) on mPT pore opening in normal and monosodium glutamate-induced uterine hyperplasia using female Wistar rats. METHODS: Mitochondria, isolated from rat liver were exposed to different concentrations (20, 60, 100, 140 and 180 µg/mL) of MEAM. The mPT pore opening, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial ATPase (mATPase) activity and the percentage lipid peroxidation were assessed spectrophotometrically. Histological effects of MEAM on the liver, brain and uterus of normal and MSG-treated rats were investigated. RESULTS: The in vitro results showed a significant induction of mPT pore opening by 2.4, 4.2 and 6.4 folds, release of cytochrome c and enhancement of mATPase activity at 100,140 and 180 µg/mL, respectively. However, oral administration of MEAM did not induce mPT pore opening, neither any significant release of cytochrome c nor enhancement of mATPase activity at all the dosages used. However, histological assay revealed the presence of MSG-induced cellular damage and uterine hyperplasia which was ameliorated by MEAM co-administration. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MEAM contains phytochemicals that can ameliorate MSG-induced damage and uterine hyperplasia in rats; however, the mechanism might not be via upregulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poro de Transição de Permeabilidade Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Annona , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hiperplasia , Nigéria , Casca de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio
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