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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765529

RESUMO

Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.(AU)


Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.(AU)


Assuntos
Extratos do Timo/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Nanopartículas , Prata , Conservação de Alimentos
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765408

RESUMO

Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-¹), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-¹), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-¹) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-¹ (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 µgmL-¹, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 µgmL-¹ and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results [...].(AU)


Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-¹), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-¹) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-¹), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-¹ (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 µgmL-¹, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/biossíntese , Cromatografia/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Técnicas In Vitro
3.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765401

RESUMO

The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.(AU)


A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.(AU)


Assuntos
Eugenia/química , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Fitoterapia , Produtos com Ação Antimicrobiana , Antioxidantes/análise
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

RESUMO

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta) , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Prata , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626

RESUMO

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.


Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Fígado , Antioxidantes
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Idoso , Romã (Fruta) , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546

RESUMO

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.


Assuntos
Cordia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

RESUMO

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1475-1490, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502013

RESUMO

Infectious keratitis is a medical emergency resulting in significant visual morbidity. Indiscriminate use of antimicrobials leading to the emergence of resistant or refractory microorganisms has further worsened the prognosis. Coexisting ocular surface diseases, delay in diagnosis due to inadequate microbiological sample, a slow-growing/virulent organism, or systemic immunosuppressive state all contribute to the refractory response of the ulcer. With improved understanding of these varied ocular and systemic factors contributing to the refractory nature of the microbes, role of biofilm formation and recent research on improving the bioavailability of drugs along with the development of alternative therapies have helped provide the required multidimensional approach to effectively diagnose and manage cases of refractory corneal ulcers and prevent corneal perforations or further dissemination of disease. In this review, we explore the current literature and future directions of the diagnosis and treatment of refractory keratitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Perfuração da Córnea , Úlcera da Córnea , Ceratite , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Olho , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1513-1521, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502016

RESUMO

Patients with ocular infections are at increased risk of vision impairment and may require immediate medical care to preserve their vision. Management of ocular bacterial infections has evolved in recent years and includes a pragmatic selection of broad-spectrum antibiotics based on the causative bacteria. Nevertheless, the treatment of bacterial ocular infections is increasingly becoming a challenge, as the causative bacterium acquires resistance to antibiotics through intrinsic and acquired methods. From an Indian perspective, along with the challenges of antibiotic resistance, there are other factors such as lack of knowledge on epidemiology, and lack of data on local susceptibility patterns of ocular pathogens that have significant impact on the management of ocular infections. This narrative review summarizes the available knowledge on prescribing antibiotics for five common ocular infections in India. It further highlights the significance of the understanding of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns across India as a cornerstone to promote rational use of ocular antibiotics. This review indicates that large-scale antimicrobial resistance surveillance studies can facilitate the synchronization of ophthalmic antimicrobial prescription policies with local antibiotic resistance patterns. Further, establishment of an antimicrobial stewardship program in ophthalmology can potentially increase the efficacy of diagnostic tools, and implement earlier adoption of effective antibiotics. Overall, this review provides consolidated information and key considerations for treatment decision-making of common ocular infections in India.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas , Infecções Oculares , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 158, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The porous surface of acrylic orthodontic removable appliances creates a niche for microbial plaque accumulation, and changes the oral flora by raising cariogenic bacteria including Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical properties and antimicrobial activities of incorporating different concentrations of Curcumin-Nisin-poly(L-lactic acid) nanoparticle (CurNisNps) into orthodontic acrylic resin against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. METHODS: Following synthesis and characterization of CurNisNps, acrylic resin specimens with different concentrations of CurNisNps (0, 1, 2, 5, and 10% w/w) were fabricated. Flexural strength values, antimicrobial effects, anti-biofilm potential, and anti-metabolic activity against S. mutans and C. albicans were assessed at different time intervals. Also, the expression of the virulence-factor-related genes of S. mutans and C. albicans was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction following treatment with CurNisNps. RESULTS: Acrylic resin containing 10% CurNisNps (30.76 ± 3.91 MPa) showed flexural failure in comparison with acrylic resin specimens without CurNisNps (50.67 ± 1.82 MPa) as the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant decrease in the flexural strength values in samples containing 1, 2, and 5% of CurNisNps in comparison to the control group (P > 0.05). Acrylic resin with 5% CurNisNps showed the highest concentration of CurNisNps and clinically accepted flexural strength value (14.89 ± 3.26 MPa, P < 0.05) simultaneously. In the disc agar diffusion assay, 5% CurNisNps showed a high level of inhibitory activity for the test microorganisms. The reduction of growth inhibition zones of the different concentrations of CurNisNps against test microorganisms was positively associated with the time, in such a way that it was reduced significantly after 60 days. The anti-biofilm and anti-metabolic activities of acrylic resin specimens containing a 5% concentration of CurNisNps against S. mutans and C. albicans could significantly decrease the expression levels of gtfB (6.8-fold) and HWP (3.4-fold) in S. mutans and C. albicans, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support that 5% (w/w) of CurNisNps can serve as an excellent orthodontic acrylic resin additive against S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm without adverse effects on its mechanical property.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Nisina , Resinas Acrílicas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Candida albicans , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Nisina/farmacologia , Poliésteres , Polimetil Metacrilato/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7597, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534525

RESUMO

To apply the sterilisation effect of low-temperature plasma to the oral cavity, the issue of ozone from plasma must be addressed. In this study, a new technology for generating cold plasma with almost no ozone is developed and is named Nozone (no-ozone) Cold Plasma (NCP) technology. The antimicrobial efficacy of the NCP against four oral pathogens is tested, and its specific mechanism is elucidated. The treatment of NCP on oral pathogenic microbes on a solid medium generated a growth inhibition zone. When NCP is applied to oral pathogens in a liquid medium, the growth of microbes decreased by more than 105 colony forming units, and the bactericidal effect of NCP remained after the installation of dental tips. The bactericidal effect of NCP in the liquid medium is due to the increase in hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium. However, the bactericidal effect of NCP in the solid medium depends on the charged elements of the NCP. Furthermore, the surface bactericidal efficiency of the dental-tip-installed NCP is proportional to the pore size of the tips and inversely proportional to the length of the tips. Overall, we expect this NCP device to be widely used in dentistry in the near future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ozônio , Gases em Plasma , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7560, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534598

RESUMO

This work reveals a versatile new method to produce films with antimicrobial properties that can also bond materials together with robust tensile adhesive strength. Specifically, we demonstrate the formation of coatings by using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to convert a liquid small-molecule precursor, m-cresol, to a solid film via plasma-assisted on-surface polymerisation. The films are quite appealing from a sustainability perspective: they are produced using a low-energy process and from a molecule produced in abundance as a by-product of coal tar processing. This process consumes only 1.5 Wh of electricity to create a 1 cm2 film, which is much lower than other methods commonly used for film deposition, such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Plasma treatments were performed in plain air without the need for any carrier or precursor gas, with a variety of exposure durations. By varying the plasma parameters, it is possible to modify both the adhesive property of the film, which is at a maximum at a 1 min plasma exposure, and the antimicrobial property of the film against Escherichia coli, which is at a maximum at a 30 s exposure.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cresóis , Escherichia coli
14.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(5): 575-580, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491584

RESUMO

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a difficult complication requiring a comprehensive eradication protocol. Cure rates have essentially stalled in the last two decades, using methods of antimicrobial cement joint spacers and parenteral antimicrobial agents. Functional spacers with higher-dose antimicrobial-loaded cement and antimicrobial-loaded calcium sulphate beads have emphasized local antimicrobial delivery on the premise that high-dose local antimicrobial delivery will enhance eradication. However, with increasing antimicrobial pressures, microbiota have responded with adaptive mechanisms beyond traditional antimicrobial resistance genes. In this review we describe adaptive resistance mechanisms that are relevant to the treatment of PJI. Some mechanisms are well known, but others are new. The objective of this review is to inform clinicians of the known adaptive resistance mechanisms of microbes relevant to PJI. We also discuss the implications of these adaptive mechanisms in the future treatment of PJI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):575-580.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Artrite Infecciosa , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Andes Pediatr ; 93(1): 65-77, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the most frequent hemato-oncological emergency, with high morbidi ty and mortality in pediatrics. The objective of the study was the microbiological characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of infections associated with FN in pediatric hemato-oncological patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective cohort study with patients aged between 1 month and 18 years, with onco-hematological pathology according to ICD-10 codes, hospitalized in a tertiary healthcare center in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Based on the medical records of the period 2013-2017, the episodes of FN were identified, and the isolated microorganisms and their susceptibility pattern were described. Biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed with the Dade Behring Microscan« automated system. The resistant microorganism classification was performed based on the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the interpretation of the laboratory according to the cut-off points of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. RESULTS: Of 130 patients, 14.7% of the cultures obtained were positive. Bloods tream infection was observed in 17.5% of the episodes. The isolated microorganisms were mainly Gram-negative bacteria (75.8%). Enterobacteriaceae (EB) were the most frequent, led by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coagulase-negative Staphylo cocci. Of the EBs, 40.5% showed resistance to Piperacillin/Tazobactam, 33.3% to Cefepime, and 8.2% to Meropenem. According to the antimicrobial resistance pattern, it was observed that 16.4% of the positive EB cultures had an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase pattern and 5% a pattern suggestive of carbapenemases. All Gram-positive cocci were sensitive to Vancomycin. CONCLUSION: In the studied patients, the predominant pathogenic microorganisms were Gram-negative ones with resistance in dices similar to those of developing countries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Neutropenia Febril , Pediatria , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Criança , Enterobacteriaceae , Neutropenia Febril/complicações , Neutropenia Febril/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2469: 65-78, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508830

RESUMO

The biological production of nanoparticles has taken center stage among the various generation methods available owing to its environment-friendly characteristics and reduced energy requirements. A protocol for pigment-assisted silver nanoparticle (AgNP) synthesis was established, employing an extracellular composite pigment produced by the Ascomycota Talaromyces purpurogenus (presently Talaromyces purpureogenus). The extracellular pigment can reduce the precursor silver salt into nanoparticles in the presence of sodium hydroxide and light. Transmission electron microscopy may be used to characterize the bio-generated nanoparticles, which can also be tested for their biological properties using antimicrobial and anticancer assays.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Talaromyces
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 420, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have become a fundamental pillar in optimizing antimicrobial usage, improving patient care, and reducing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Herein we evaluated the impact of an ASP on antimicrobial consumption and AMR in Colombia. METHODS: We designed a retrospective observational study and measured trends in antibiotic consumption and AMR before and after the implementation of an ASP using interrupted time series analysis over a 4-year period (24 months before and 24 months after ASP implementation). RESULTS: ASPs were implemented according to the available resources in each of the institutions. Before ASP implementation, there was a trend toward an increase in the antibiotic consumption of all measured antimicrobials selected. Afterward, an overall decrease in antibiotic consumption was observed. The use of ertapenem and meropenem decreased in hospital wards, while a decrease in the use of ceftriaxone, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, and vancomycin was observed in intensive care units. After ASP implementation, the trend toward an increase of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli, and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reversed. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we showed that ASPs are a key strategy in tackling the emerging threat of AMR and have a positive impact on antibiotic consumption and resistance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona , Colômbia , Atenção à Saúde , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Meropeném/uso terapêutico
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(6): 103, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501420

RESUMO

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an ocular disease affecting bovine herds worldwide, and it causes significant economic loss. The etiologic agent of IBK is considered to be Moraxella bovis, but M. ovis and M. bovoculi are frequently recovered of animals presenting clinical signs of IBK. The therapeutic measures available for its control have limited efficacy. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using porphyrins as photosensitizing molecules is an alternative method that can be used to reduce microbial growth. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of aPDT using two water-soluble tetra-cationic porphyrins (H2TMeP and ZnTMeP) against 22 clinical isolates and standard strains of Moraxella spp. in vitro and in an ex vivo model. For the in vitro assay, 4.0 µM of porphyrin was incubated with approximately 1.0 × 104 CFU/mL of each Moraxella sp. isolate and exposed to artificial light for 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 min. Next, 50 µL of this solution was plated and incubated for 24 h until CFU measurement. For the ex vivo assay, corneas excised from the eyeballs of slaughtered cattle were irrigated with Moraxella spp. culture, followed by the addition of zinc(II) porphyrin ZnTMeP (4.0 µM). The corneal samples were irradiated for 0, 7.5, and 30 min, followed by swab collection, plating, and CFU count. The results demonstrated the in vitro inactivation of the strains and clinical isolates of Moraxella spp. after 2.5 min of irradiation using ZnTMeP, reaching complete inactivation until 7.5 min. In the ex vivo experiment, the use of ZnTMeP resulted in the most significant reduction in bacterial concentration after 30 min of irradiation. These results encourage future in vivo experiments to investigate the role of metalloporphyrin ZnTMeP in the inactivation of Moraxella spp. isolates causing IBK.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa , Ceratoconjuntivite , Infecções por Moraxellaceae , Fotoquimioterapia , Porfirinas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Moraxella , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/veterinária , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Ovinos
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 789366, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493523

RESUMO

Local tissue acidosis affects anti-tumor immunity. In contrast, data on tissue pH levels in infected tissues and their impact on antimicrobial activity is sparse. In this study, we assessed the pH levels in cutaneous Leishmania lesions. Leishmania major-infected skin tissue displayed pH levels of 6.7 indicating that lesional pH is acidic. Next, we tested the effect of low extracellular pH on the ability of macrophages to produce leishmanicidal NO and to fight the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Extracellular acidification led to a marked decrease in both NO production and leishmanicidal activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon γ (IFN-γ)-coactivated macrophages. This was not directly caused by a disruption of NOS2 expression, a shortage of reducing equivalents (NAPDH) or substrate (L-arginine), but by a direct, pH-mediated inhibition of NOS2 enzyme activity. Normalization of intracellular pH significantly increased NO production and antiparasitic activity of macrophages even in an acidic microenvironment. Overall, these findings indicate that low local tissue pH can curtail NO production and leishmanicidal activity of macrophages.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Leishmania major , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2451: 607-619, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505037

RESUMO

The current increase in antibiotic resistance worldwide and the emergence of microbial strains that are resistant to all known antibiotics have stimulated research into novel strategies such as aPDI that are thought to be unlikely to lead to the development of resistance. Although many studies have reported in vitro aPDI killing of microorganisms by a range of different photosensitizers, there are still limitations to the effectiveness of aPDI, and recurrence of bacterial growth may occur in animal studies after completion of the illumination. In this chapter we cover a novel and relatively simple method to improve the efficacy of aPDI against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and fungal yeast Candida albicans by the addition of potassium iodide, a nontoxic inorganic salt. Under some circumstances up to six-logs additional killing can be obtained.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Iodeto de Potássio , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Iodeto de Potássio/farmacologia
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