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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

RESUMO

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Assuntos
Animais , Bombyx , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Bactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259094, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364533

RESUMO

Due to extensive application of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, antimicrobial resistance has been increased. To overcome this challenge, rumen microbiologists search for new probiotics to improve the rate of livestock production. The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate breed-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as potential animal probiotics. The current study was conducted during 10 months from July 2020 to April 2021, in which a total of n=12 strains were isolated from different samples including milk, rumen, and feces of Nilli Ravi Buffaloes. These isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against common animal pathogens (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). All the isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses inferred that these strains showed close relations to the species of various genera; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis, and Lactococcus lactis. NMCC-Ru2 has exhibited the enormous potential of antimicrobial activity, 28 mm, for Salmonella typhimurium;23 mm for Listeria monocytogenes 21 mm for E.coil. Highest resistance was seen in NMCC-Ru2 agasint test antbiotic, like 25.5 mm for Tetracycline. Overall results revesl that the probiotic profile of isolates was achieved using standard criteria, particularly with animal probiotic properties


Devido à extensa aplicação de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento na alimentação animal, a resistência aos antimicrobianos aumentou. Para superar esse desafio, os microbiologistas do rúmen buscam novos probióticos para melhorar a produtividade do gado. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e avaliar bactérias lácticas específicas de raças (BAL) como potenciais probióticos animais. 12 cepas foram isoladas de diferentes amostras, incluindo leite, rúmen e fezes de búfalos Nilli Ravi. Esses isolados foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra patógenos animais comuns (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). Todos os isolados foram identificados por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e as análises filogenéticas inferiram que essas cepas apresentaram estreita relação com as espécies de vários gêneros; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis e Lactococcus lactis. O perfil probiótico dos isolados foi obtido usando critérios padrão, particularmente com propriedades probióticas animais.


Assuntos
Animais , Búfalos , Enterococcus , Probióticos , Trato Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus , Antibacterianos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258277, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364531

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharide is used widely in many foods and pharmaceutical industries and produced by using different ways such as extracting it from plants or producing it by using plants and microorganisms' enzymes. In a previous study, we extracted Fructosyltransferase (Ftase) enzyme from pineapple residue and produced FOS. In this study, we measured the antagonistic activity of two synbiotics, the first synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and the produced FOS, the second synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and standard FOS, against pathogenic bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and B cereus). The results showed that the antagonistic activity of both synbiotic types was very close, as there were no significant differences between them except in the antagonistic activity against S. aureus, there was a significant difference between the synbiotic containing the standard FOS, which was the highest in its antagonistic activity compared to the synbiotic containing the produced FOS in this study. The activity of the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) extracted from pineapple residue was evident in enhancing the activity of the probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus), which had a major role in the production of acids and compounds that inhibited the pathogenic bacteria. The diameters of inhibition areas in the current study ranged between 19.33-28 mm, and E. coli was more susceptible to inhibition, followed by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. cereus, respectively.


O fruto-oligossacarídeo (FOS) é amplamente utilizado em muitos alimentos e indústrias farmacêuticas, e é produzido por meio de diferentes maneiras, como extraí-lo de plantas ou produzi-lo usando enzimas de plantas e microrganismos. Em um estudo anterior, extraímos a enzima frutosiltransferase (Ftase) do resíduo de abacaxi e produzimos FOS. Neste estudo, medimos a atividade antagônica de dois simbióticos: o primeiro simbiótico contendo Lactobacillus acidophilus e o FOS produzido, e o segundo simbiótico contendo Lactobacillus acidophilus e o FOS padrão, contra bactérias patogênicas (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus e B. cereus). Os resultados mostraram que a atividade antagônica de ambos os tipos simbióticos foi muito próxima, pois não houve diferenças significativas entre eles, exceto na atividade antagônica contra S. aureus, em que houve uma diferença significativa entre o simbiótico contendo o FOS padrão, que foi o mais alto em sua atividade antagônica, em comparação com o simbiótico contendo o FOS produzido neste estudo. A atividade do fruto-oligossacarídeo (FOS) extraído do resíduo de abacaxi ficou evidente no aumento da atividade da bactéria probiótica (L. acidophilus), que teve papel importante na produção de ácidos e compostos inibidores das bactérias patogênicas. Os diâmetros das áreas de inibição no estudo atual variaram entre 19,33 e 28 mm, e E. coli foi mais suscetível à inibição, seguida por S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e B. cereus, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Ananas , Simbióticos , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Antibacterianos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253508, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360218

RESUMO

Present research work represents antiviral and antibacterial value of body fat of Saara hardwickii commonly called as spiny tailed lizard. Oil was extracted from body fats located in the ventral region of this animal using hydrocarbons e.g., n-hexane, methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of lizard oil was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines ofEscherichia coli, Styphalococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris alone and with antibiotic ampicillin. For antibacterial potential, Ethyl acetate and Butanol solvent extract showed best zone of inhibition (7mm) with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. For antiviral potential, Butanol and Methanol extract showed best HA (Hemagglutination) titer of 04 with NDV and IBV viral strain respectively. It is concluded that lizard oil has antimicrobial potential against different pathogens strains (virus, bacteria).


O presente trabalho de pesquisa apresenta a importância antiviral e antibacteriana da gordura corporal de Saara hardwickii, comumente chamado de lagarto de cauda espinhosa. O óleo foi extraído de gorduras corporais localizadas na região ventral desse animal usando hidrocarbonetos, por exemplo, n-hexano, metanol, butanol e acetato de etila, como solvente. A atividade antibacteriana do óleo do lagarto foi testada em linhagens padrão e multirresistentes de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Proteus vulgaris, de forma isolada e com antibiótico ampicilina. Para o potencial antibacteriano, acetato de etila e extrato de butanol apresentaram melhor zona de inibição (7 mm) com P. aeruginosa e S. aureus, respectivamente. Para o potencial antiviral, o extrato de butanol e o extrato de metanol apresentaram melhor título de hemaglutinação de 4 com as cepas virais NDV e IBV, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o óleo do lagarto possui potencial antimicrobiano contra diferentes cepas de patógenos (vírus e bactérias).


Assuntos
Animais , Antivirais , Tecido Adiposo , Lagartos , Antibacterianos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222

RESUMO

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.


Assuntos
Vaginite/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Moringa , Antibacterianos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

RESUMO

In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Biotecnologia , Lacase , Enzimas , Antibacterianos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e264869, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403869

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the bioactive components and antibacterial activities of cold methanolic extract leaves (CMMEL) of Artemisia absinthium L. CMMEL was tested for phytochemicals, GC-MS analyses was performed to identify the bioactive components, and anti-bacterial properties. The phytochemical analysis of CMMEL revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, saponins, and amino acids. GC-MS analysis of CMMEL of A. absinthium L. revealed several unique bioactive compounds, including margaspidin, stigmasterol, octadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic, corymbolone, and bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2. The antibacterial spectrum of CMMEL can be sequenced as Streptococcus pyogenes (8.83 ± 1.8 mm) > Escherichia coli (7.6 ± 0.6 mm) > Bacillus subtilis (6.6 ± 1.6 mm) > Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.5 ± 0.3 mm) > Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.1 ± 1.1 mm) > Staphylococcus aureus (5.23 ± 0.8 mm). Although the CMMEL of A. absinthium L. showed the presence of many bioactive compounds but did not substantially inhibit the growth of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria, according to the findings.


O estudo teve como objetivo determinar os componentes bioativos e atividades antibacterianas de folhas de extrato metanólico frio (CMMEL) de Artemisia absinthium L. CMMEL foi testado para fitoquímicos, análises GC-MS foram realizadas para identificar os componentes bioativos e propriedades antibacterianas. A análise fitoquímica da CMMEL revelou a presença de carboidratos, esteroides, saponinas e aminoácidos. A análise GC-MS de CMMEL de A. absinthium L. revelou vários compostos bioativos exclusivos, incluindo margaspidina, estigmasterol, ácido octadecanoico, hexadecanoico, corimbolona e biciclo [2.2.1] heptan-2. O espectro antibacteriano de CMMEL pode ser sequenciado como Streptococcus pyogenes (8,83 ± 1,8 mm) > Escherichia coli (7,6 ± 0,6 mm) > Bacillus subtilis (6,6 ± 1,6 mm) > Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,5 ± 0,3 mm) > Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6,1 ± 1,1 mm) > Staphylococcus aureus (5,23 ± 0,8 mm). Embora o CMMEL de A. absinthium L. tenha mostrado a presença de muitos compostos bioativos, mas não inibiu substancialmente o crescimento de bactérias gram-positivas ou gram-negativas, de acordo com os achados.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Artemisia absinthium , Antibacterianos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e263364, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403862

RESUMO

Soaps play an important role in our hygiene and health, as they not only have a bactericidal effect but also remove dirt from the human body. To evaluate the effectiveness of soaps with antimicrobial activity from different commercial brands sold in Brazil. Tests of the antimicrobial activity of different soaps were carried out through diffusion in agar against the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans. All commercial soaps tested transfer antimicrobial inhibition halo formation against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa bacteria. Only two commercial soaps inhibit the species A. baumannii and C. albicans. None of the seven products studied showed inhibition of E. cloacae, P. mirabilis, and E. coli bacteria. When comparing the information contained in the packaging of the products with the results obtained during a survey, divergences were observed. The soaps that provide greater efficiency against the tested microorganisms were presented in presentations 1 and 2, which become useful against the bacteria species S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii and a fungus species C. albicans. Marks 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 parallel the same sensitivity result opposite as bacteria of the species S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, with quantitative variation only of the inhibition halo. There was a divergence between the information contained in the packaging of the seven products under study and the results of the experimental tests.


Os sabonetes têm um papel importante para a nossa higiene e saúde, pois eles além de ter efeito bactericida, também removem as sujeiras presentes no corpo humano. Avaliar a eficácia de sabonetes com atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas comerciais vendidas no Brasil. Foram realizados ensaios da atividade antimicrobiana dos diferentes sabonetes através do método difusão em ágar frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis e Candida albicans. Todos os sabonetes comerciais testados apresentaram formação de halo de inibição antimicrobiana frente às bactérias S. aureus e P. aeruginosa. Apenas dois sabonetes comerciais apresentaram inibição das espécies A. baumannii e C. albicans. Nenhum dos sete produtos estudados apresentou inibição das bactérias E. cloacae, P. mirabilis e E. coli. Na comparação das informações contidas nas embalagens dos produtos com os resultados obtidos durante a pesquisa realizada foram observadas divergências. Os sabonetes que apresentaram maior eficiência contra os microrganismos testados foram aqueles das apresentações 1 e 2, que se mostraram eficazes contra as espécies de bactérias S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e A. baumannii e contra a espécie de fungo C. albicans. As marcas 3, 4, 5, 6 e 7 apresentaram o mesmo resultado de sensibilidade frente as bactérias das espécies S. aureus e P. aeruginosa, com variação quantitativa apenas do halo de inibição. Houve divergência entre as informações contidas nas embalagens dos sete produtos em estudo e os resultados dos testes experimentais.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260029, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384106

RESUMO

Asphodelus fistulosus (A. fistulosus) is a wild plant grows in Jordan. Traditionally, it is used to treat different medical conditions and diseases such as respiratory ailments, against burns and dermatomucosal infections.This study aims to find out the effects of A. fistulosus aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts on Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) as gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) as gram negative bacteria and to investigate which one will be affected either by aqueous and/or ethanolic crude extracts of A. fistulosus shooting parts that were collected from Jerash in the north of Jordan. Agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the crude extracts. In addition, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) as well as MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) were determined against both types of bacteria. The results showed that flower aqueous extract of A. fistulosus was very effective against E. coli (20.0 ± 0.50) mm and caused a (14.0 ± 0.50) mm inhibition to S. aureus. The ethanolic extract of stem was very effective cauesed a (19.0 ± 0.50) mm inhibition in both bacterial species. Respectively, both S. aureus and E. coli were inhibited by ethanolic and aqueous extracts (mixture1 and mixture2) (15.0 ± 0.00 mm and 10.5 ± 0.50 mm). The highest antimbacterial activity was observed for the leaves aqueous extract against E.coli (0.06120 mg/mL). The obtained MIC values from A. fistulosus parts extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity ranged between 7.606 and 0.06120 mg/mL. The highest antimicrobial activity was recorded in the leaves aqueous extract against E. coli.The MBC value of stem aqueous extract was 5.00 mg/mL against both S. aureus and E. coli. On the other hand, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves gave MBC values 5.00 mg/mL, and 0.156 mg/mL, respectively, against E. coli.Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that there is good inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic of A. fistulosus shooting parts extracts on growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Adding to that, stem ethanolic extract has the most effective against S. aureus while aqueous extract of flower has the most effective against E. coli.So, it is recommended to have further future studies on the A. fistulosus shooting parts crude extract bioactive components and the mechanism of how these constituents affect these types of bacteria.


Asphodelus fistulosus (A. fistulosus) é uma planta selvagem que cresce na Jordânia. Tradicionalmente, é usada para tratar diferentes condições médicas e doenças, como doenças respiratórias, contra queimaduras e infecções dermatomucosas. Bactérias positivas e Escherichia coli (E. coli) como bactérias gram-negativas e investigar qual delas será afetada por extratos brutos aquosos e/ou etanólicos de partes de tiro de A. fistulosus que foram coletadas em Jerash no norte da Jordânia. O método de difusão em poço de ágar foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos extratos brutos. Além disso, MIC (concentração inibitória mínima) e MBC (concentração bactericida mínima) foram determinados contra ambos os tipos de bactérias. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato aquoso de flores de A. fistulosus foi muito eficaz contra E. coli (20,0 + 0,50 mm) e causou uma inibição (14,0 + 0,50 mm) para S. aureus. O extrato etanólico do caule foi muito eficaz, causando inibição (19,0 + 0,50 mm) em ambas as espécies bacterianas. Respectivamente, tanto S. aureus quanto E. coli foram inibidos pelos extratos etanólico e aquoso (mistura 1 e mistura 2) (15,0 + 0,00 mm e 10,5 + 0,50 mm). A maior atividade antibacteriana foi observada para o extrato aquoso das folhas contra E. coli (0,06120 mg/mL). Os valores de CIM obtidos dos extratos de partes de A. fistulosus demonstraram atividade antibacteriana variando entre 7,606 e 0,06120 mg/mL. A maior atividade antimicrobiana foi registrada no extrato aquoso das folhas contra E. coli. O valor de CBM do extrato aquoso do caule foi de 5,00 mg/mL contra S. aureus e E. coli. Por outro lado, os extratos etanólico e aquoso das folhas apresentaram valores de CBM de 5,00 mg/mL e 0,156 mg/mL, respectivamente, contra E. coli, efeito de extratos aquosos e etanólicos de partes de tiro de A. fistulosus no crescimento de E. coli e S. aureus. Somando-se a isso, o extrato etanólico do caule é o mais eficaz contra S. aureus enquanto o extrato aquoso da flor é o mais eficaz contra E. coli. Assim, recomenda-se a realização de estudos futuros sobre os componentes bioativos do extrato bruto de partes fotografais de A. fistulosus e o mecanismo de como esses constituintes afetam esses tipos de bactérias.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças Respiratórias , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259351, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384096

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from the leaf extract of Brassica oleracea L. Acephala group (collard green) followed by their characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The antibacterial properties of zinc nanoparticles were tested against Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC ® 9027™), Escherichia coli (ATCC ® 8739™), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC® BAA-1705™) and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC ® 6538™) and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC ® 13932™), at four different concentrations (50.00 µg/ml, 100.00 µg/ml, 500.00 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml) of zinc oxide nanoparticles suspension. Results revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles exhibit strong antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at 500.00 µg/ml-1 mg/ml concentrations. An increase in efficacy of nanoparticles with the decrease of their size was also evident. This is a first ever report on Brassica oleracea, L. based nanoparticles which demonstrates that 500.00 µg-1 mg/ml conc. of zinc oxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity against both Gram -ve and Gram +ve bacteria and have the potential to be considered as an antibacterial agent in future.


Nanopartículas de óxido de zinco foram sintetizadas a partir do extrato foliar de Brassica oleracea L., grupo Acephala (couve), seguidas de sua caracterização em Microscópio Eletrônico de Varredura (MEV) e Raio X por Energia Dispersiva (EDX). As propriedades antibacterianas das nanopartículas de zinco foram testadas em bactérias Gram-negativas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC® 9027™), Escherichia coli (ATCC® 8739™) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC® BAA-1705™), e bactérias Gram-positivas, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 6538™) e Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC® 13932™), em quatro concentrações diferentes (50,00 µg / ml; 100,00 µg / ml; 500,00 µg / ml; e 1 mg / ml) de suspensão de nanopartículas de óxido de zinco. Os resultados revelaram que as nanopartículas sintetizadas exibem fortes efeitos antibacterianos contra P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumonia, S. aureus e E. coli em concentrações de 500,00 µg / ml-1 mg / ml. Um aumento na eficácia das nanopartículas com a diminuição de seu tamanho também foi evidente. Este é o primeiro relatório sobre nanopartículas à base de B. oleracea L. que demonstra que 500,00 µg-1 mg / ml de concentração de nanopartículas de óxido de zinco têm atividade antibacteriana contra bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positivas e que essas nanopartículas têm potencial para ser consideradas um agente antibacteriano no futuro.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Brassica , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258114, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374698

RESUMO

The study was aimed to analyse the effects of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), Oxytetracycline di-hydrate and Tylosin phosphate on the intestinal microflora in broiler chicken. The AGPs were provided in different concentrations solely or in combinations for 42 days of rearing. Faecal samples were collected from the intestine (duodenum, jejunum and caeca) of broiler chicken on 14th, 28th and 42nd days of trial. Samples were cultured on different selective medium and bacterial identification was performed by different biochemical and molecular diagnostic tools. Results showed a significant effect of AGPs on the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens in the intestine. Interestingly, an impaired growth was observed for both bacterium showing a significant effect (P<0.05) of AGPs on E. coli and C. perfringens on day 14th, 28th, and 42nd. This effect was observed solely and in combination while using AGPs. Data further showed that the effect was more prominent in combination and with an increase concentration of AGPs. Remarkably, no impairment was seen on the growth of L. reuteri at different sites of intestine and duration (14th, 28th, and 42nd days). The results showed that the use of AGPs in diet has no harmful effect on beneficial bacteria, however, an impaired growth was seen on the harmful bacteria. It is suggested that a combination of AGPs (OXY-1.0+TP-0.5) is economical and have no harmful effect on the broiler chicken. The use of AGPs in a recommended dose and for a specific period of time are safe to use in poultry both as growth promoter and for the prevention of diseases.


O estudo teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos dos antibióticos promotores de crescimento (AGPs), di-hidrato de oxitetraciclina e fosfato de tilosina na microflora intestinal de frangos de corte. Os AGPs foram fornecidos em diferentes concentrações isoladamente ou em combinações por 42 dias de criação. Amostras fecais foram coletadas do intestino (duodeno, jejuno e ceco) de frangos de corte no 14º, 28º e 42º dias de ensaio. As amostras foram cultivadas em diferentes meios seletivos e a identificação bacteriana foi realizada por diferentes ferramentas de diagnóstico bioquímico e molecular. Os resultados mostraram um efeito significativo dos AGPs no crescimento de microrganismos patogênicos como Escherichia coli e Clostridium perfringens no intestino. Curiosamente, um crescimento prejudicado foi observado para ambas as bactérias, mostrando um efeito significativo (P <0,05) de AGPs em E. coli e C. perfringens nos dias 14, 28 e 42. Este efeito foi observado apenas e em combinação com o uso de AGPs. Os dados mostraram ainda que o efeito foi mais proeminente em combinação e com um aumento da concentração de AGPs. Nenhum comprometimento foi observado no crescimento de L. reuteri em diferentes locais do intestino e duração (14º, 28º e 42º dias). Os resultados mostraram que o uso de AGPs na dieta não tem efeito nocivo nas bactérias benéficas, no entanto, foi observado um crescimento prejudicado nas bactérias nocivas. Sugere-se que uma combinação de AGPs (OXY-1.0+TP-0.5) seja econômica e não tenha efeito prejudicial sobre o frango de corte. O uso de AGPs em uma dose recomendada e por um período de tempo específico é seguro para uso em aves tanto como promotor de crescimento quanto para prevenção de doenças.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corte , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249742, 2024. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374679

RESUMO

Antioxidants are materials that scavenge or remove free radicals from living systems. The oxidation process ends in the production of free radicals. These free radicals are the chief birthplace of cancerous cells. Antioxidizing agents remove free radical intermediates by terminating oxidation processes by being oxidized themselves. On the other hand, infectious diseases affect the world on a large scale. To fight these diseases several synthetic compounds have been used. Plant based medications play important role in this regard. So, the current research aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant effect of Berberis lycium Royle root bark (BLR) extract. Berberis lycium Royle was used for phytochemical analysis and also as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. Current study revealed that BLR was rich in phytochemicals and toxic against tested pathogenic bacteria. BLR showed the highest activity against S. pyogenes (13.3±0.8 mm). The lowest antibacterial activity was reported against E. coli (0±0 mm). In case of minimum inhibitory concentration, it was observed that BLR with 10 µg/mL concentration showed the highest activity while 2.5 µg/mL of BLR showed the least inhibitory activity. The highest In vitro antioxidant activity was recorded as 65% at 100 µg/mL. In case of in vivo antioxidant activity level of CAT, GSH and SOD were decreased while that of MDA was enhanced in groups treated with CCl4 as compared to the control group. BLR extract treatment reversed all these changes significantly. Current results indicate that BLR is effective against bacterial pathogens and also has antioxidant potential.


Os antioxidantes são materiais que eliminam ou removem os radicais livres dos sistemas vivos. O processo de oxidação termina na produção de radicais livres. Esses radicais livres são o principal local de nascimento das células cancerosas. Os agentes antioxidantes removem os intermediários dos radicais livres ao encerrar os processos de oxidação ao serem eles próprios oxidados. Por outro lado, as doenças infecciosas afetam o mundo em grande escala. Para combater essas doenças, diversos compostos sintéticos têm sido utilizados. Os medicamentos à base de plantas desempenham um papel importante a este respeito. Assim, o objetivo da pesquisa atual é investigar o efeito antibacteriano e antioxidante do extrato da casca da raiz de Berberis lycium Royle (BLR). Berberis lycium Royle foi utilizado para análises fitoquímicas e também como agentes antimicrobianos e antioxidantes. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em ágar em poço. A partir do estudo atual, observou-se que o BLR era rico em fitoquímicos e tóxico contra bactérias patogênicas testadas. BLR apresentou maior atividade contra S. pyogenes (13,3 ± 0,8 mm). A menor atividade antibacteriana foi relatada contra E. coli (0 ± 0 mm). No caso de concentração inibitória mínima, observou-se que BLR com concentração de 10 µg / mL apresentou maior atividade, enquanto BLR 2,5 µg / mL apresentou menor atividade inibitória. A maior atividade antioxidante in vitro foi registrada como 65% a 100 µg / mL. No caso do nível de atividade antioxidante in vivo de CAT, GSH e SOD diminuiu, enquanto o de MDA aumentou nos grupos tratados com CCl4 em comparação com o grupo controle. O tratamento com extrato de BLR reverteu todas essas mudanças significativamente. Os resultados atuais indicam que o BLR é eficaz contra patógenos bacterianos e também tem atividade antioxidante.


Assuntos
Berberis , Fitoterapia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259449, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374645

RESUMO

The presence of pathogenic bacteria in food is considered as a primary cause of food-borne illness and food quality deterioration worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of five essential oils (EOs) against multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens. In the current study Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus were isolated from raw milk and biochemically characterized. The anti-bacterial effect of different antibiotics and EOs (thyme, oregano, lemongrass, mint, and rosemary) was determined using the standard disc diffusion method. The antibiogram study revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin while Staphylococcus was resistant to streptomycin, amoxicillin, and lincomycin. Moderate resistance was observed to doxycycline, amikacin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin and cefixime. Isolates were found less resistant to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. EOs showed a broad range of antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except P. aeruginosa. Of these, thyme was more effective against most of the multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and formed the largest zone of inhibition (26 mm) against Escherichia followed by oregano oil (18 mm) against Staphylococcus (p<0.05). Klebsiella spp and Citrobacter spp showed resistance to mint and lemongrass oil respectively. The EOs such as lemongrass, mint and rosemary were less active against all the bacteria. The findings of the recent study suggest the use of EOs as natural antibacterial agents for food preservation.


A presença de bactérias patogênicas em alimentos é considerada a principal causa de doenças transmitidas por alimentos e deterioração da qualidade dos alimentos em todo o mundo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a eficácia de cinco óleos essenciais (OEs) contra patógenos de origem alimentar multirresistentes. No presente estudo, bactérias Gram-negativas (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas e Klebsiella) e as bactérias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus foram isoladas do leite cru e caracterizadas bioquimicamente. O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes antibióticos e OEs (tomilho, orégano, capim-limão, hortelã e alecrim) foi determinado usando o método padrão de difusão em disco. O estudo do antibiograma revelou que as bactérias Gram-negativas eram altamente resistentes à penicilina, enquanto o Staphylococcus era resistente à estreptomicina, amoxicilina e lincomicina. Foi observada resistência moderada à doxiciclina, amicacina, enrofloxacina, canamicina e cefixima. Os isolados foram encontrados menos resistentes à gentamicina, cloranfenicol e ciprofloxacina. Os OEs mostraram uma ampla gama de atividade antimicrobiana contra todas as bactérias, exceto P. aeruginosa. Destes, o tomilho foi mais eficaz contra a maioria das cepas bacterianas multirresistentes e formou a maior zona de inibição (26 mm) contra Escherichia seguido de óleo de orégano (18 mm) contra Staphylococcus (p<0,05). Klebsiella spp e Citrobacter spp apresentaram resistência ao óleo de menta e capim-limão, respectivamente. Os OEs como capim-limão, hortelã e alecrim foram menos ativos contra todas as bactérias. Os resultados do estudo recente sugerem o uso de OEs como agentes antibacterianos naturais para conservação de alimentos.


Assuntos
Óleos , Leite , Antibacterianos
14.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 22(1): 10, 2023 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonization is a risk factor for CRE infection. CRE infection results in an increase in mortality in patients with cirrhosis. However, minimal data regarding the prevalence and the risk factors of CRE colonization in patients with liver disease yet without liver transplantation are available. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology characteristics of CRE fecal carriage among patients with liver disease. METHODS: Stool specimens from 574 adult inpatients with liver disease were collected from December 2020 to April 2021. CRE were screened using selective chromogenic agar medium and identified by the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method. Carbapenemase genes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KPN) isolates and Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia Coli (CR-ECO) isolates. RESULTS: The total number of stool specimens (732) were collected from 574 patients with liver disease. 43 non-duplicated CRE strains were isolated from 39 patients with a carriage rate of 6.79% (39/574). The carriage rate was 15.60% (17/109) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Multivariate analysis indicated that ACLF (P = 0.018), the history of pulmonary infection within past 3 months (P = 0.001) and the use of third generation cephalosporin/ß-lactamases inhibitor within past 3 months (P = 0.000) were independent risk factors of CRE colonization in patients with liver disease. Klebsiella Pnuemoniae (KPN) (51.28%) and Escherichia coli (ECO) (30.77%) were main strains in these patients. All CRE strains showed high resistance to most antimicrobials except for polymyxin B and tigecycline. Most (83.72%, 36/43) of the CRE carried carbapenemase genes. blaKPC-2 was the major carbapenemase gene. The molecular epidemiology of KPN were dominated by ST11, while the STs of ECO were scattered. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that CRE fecal carriage rates were higher in patients with ACLF than in patients without liver failure. ACLF, the history of pulmonary infection within past 3 months and the use of third generation cephalosporin/ß-lactamases inhibitor within past 3 months were independent risk factors of CRE colonization in patients with liver disease. Regular CRE screening for hospitalized patients with liver disease should be conducted to limit the spread of CRE strain.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Hepatopatias , Adulto , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , beta-Lactamases/genética , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Fatores de Risco , Cefalosporinas
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 29, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Skin and soft tissue infections are common because of exposure to aquatic environment, while severe infections caused by Aeromonas veronii are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of severe skin and soft tissue infection of the left upper limb caused by Aeromonas veronii. A 50-year-old Chinese woman, who had a history of cardiac disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, accidentally injured her left thumb while cutting a fish. Early antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement was performed before the result of bacterial culture came back. Whole-genome sequencing was further performed to confirm the pathogen and reveal the drug resistance and virulence genes. The wound was gradually repaired after 1 month of treatment, and the left hand recovered well in appearance and function after 3 months of rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis, surgical intervention, and administration of appropriate antibiotics are crucial for patients who are suspected of having skin and soft tissue infection, or septicemia caused by Aeromonas veronii.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Aeromonas veronii/genética , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Extremidade Superior
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 446: 130705, 2023 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587600

RESUMO

Antibiotic fermentation residue is a key issue for the sustainable operation of pharmaceutical companies, and its improper disposal may cause antibiotic resistance transfer in the environment. However, little is known about the resource recycling strategy of this pharmaceutical waste. Herein, we used hydrothermal spray-dried (HT+SD) and multi-plate dryer (MD) methods to produce bio-organic fertilizers and applied them to an internal recycling model of a field trial. The concentrations of antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin, and erythromycin) in the bio-fertilizer, wastewater, and exhaust gas were in the range of 0.002-0.68 mg/kg, ≤ 0.35 ng/mL, and 0.03-0.89 ng/mL, respectively. The organic matter and total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents were approximately 80% and 10%, respectively. The soil bacterial community was similar among the fertilizer treatments in the same crop cultivation. A total of 233 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and 43 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected, including seven Rank I ARGs and five Rank II ARGs. Random forest analysis showed that gene acc(3)-Via and plasmid trb-C were biomarkers, for which the resistance and the transfer mechanisms were antibiotic inactivation and conjugation, respectively. The results imply that AFR recycling disposal mode is a promising prospect for pharmaceutical waste management.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fertilizantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Fermentação , Fazendas , Fertilizantes/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161243, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587667

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is widely distributed in aquatic environments and has multiple adverse effects on aquatic organisms such as the ivory shell (Babylonia areolata). However, its effects on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and gut microbiota of B. areolata remain unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.03, 0.18 and 1.08 mg/L) of Cd on intestinal microbial communities and ARGs in B. areolata through 16S rRNA gene sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR. The results showed that the structure and diversity of ARGs and microbiota in B. areolata gut were altered upon Cd exposure. Tetracycline, Vancomycin and Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance genes were identified as the major ARGs in B. areolata gut. The absolute abundance and alpha diversity of ARGs in B. areolata gut increased with the rise of cadmium concentration. The microbial communities at genus level were enriched in the low and medium Cd concentration groups, while decreased in the high Cd concentration group compared to the control groups. In addition, the influence of microbiota on the ARG profile was more significant than that of Cd concentration and MGEs in B. areolata gut. Null model analysis demonstrated that stochastic processes dominated ARG assembly in the Cd-exposed groups and were enhanced with the increasing Cd concentrations. Four opportunistic bacterial pathogens (Bacteroides, Legionella, Acinetobacter and Escherichia) detected in B. areolata gut maybe the potential hosts of ARGs. Our findings provide references for the hazards assessment of environmental Cd exposure of gut microbiome in aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Microbiota , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161264, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587700

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is becoming a major sanitary concern worldwide. The extensive use of large quantities of antibiotics to sustain human activity has led to the rapid acquisition and maintenance of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in bacteria and to their spread into the environment. Eventually, these can be disseminated over long distances by atmospheric transport. Here, we assessed the presence of ARGs in clouds as an indicator of long-distance travel potential of antibiotic resistance in the atmosphere. We hypothesized that a variety of ARGs can reach the altitude of clouds mainly located within the free troposphere. Once incorporated in the atmosphere, they are efficiently transported and their respective concentrations should differ depending on the sources and the geographical origin of the air masses. We deployed high-flow rate impingers and collected twelve clouds between September 2019 and October 2021 at the meteorological station of the puy de Dôme summit (1465 m a.s.l., France). Total airborne bacteria concentration was assessed by flow cytometry, and ARGs subtypes of the main families of antibiotic resistance (quinolone, sulfonamide, tetracycline; glycopeptide, aminoglycoside, ß-lactamase, macrolide) including one mobile genetic element (transposase) were quantified by qPCR. Our results indicate the presence of 29 different ARGs' subtypes at concentrations ranging from 1.01 × 103 to 1.61 × 104 copies m-3 of air. Clear distinctions could be observed between clouds in air masses transported over marine areas (Atlantic Ocean) and clouds influenced by continental surfaces. Specifically, quinolones (mostly qepA) resistance genes were prevalent in marine clouds (54 % of the total ARGs on average), whereas higher contributions of sulfonamide, tetracycline; glycopeptide, ß-lactamase and macrolide were found in continental clouds. This study constitutes the first evidence for the presence of microbial ARGs in clouds at concentrations comparable to other natural environments. This highlights the atmosphere as routes for the dissemination of ARGs at large scale.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Quinolonas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Tetraciclina/análise , Bactérias/genética , Sulfanilamida , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , França
19.
ACS Synth Biol ; 12(1): 319-328, 2023 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592614

RESUMO

Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria release nanosized extracellular vesicles called membrane vesicles (MVs, 20-400 nm), which have great potential in various biomedical applications due to their abilities to deliver effector molecules and induce therapeutic responses. To fully utilize bacterial MVs for therapeutic purposes, regulated and enhanced production of MVs would be highly advantageous. In this study, we developed a universal method to enhance MV yields in both G+/G- bacteria through an autonomous controlled peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGase) expression system. A significant increase (9.37-fold) of MV concentration was observed in engineered E. coli Nissle 1917 compared to the wild-type. With the help of this autonomous system, for the first time we experimentally confirmed horizontal gene transfer and nutrient acquisition in a cocultured bacterial consortium. Furthermore, the engineered probiotic E. coli strains with high yield of MVs showed higher activation of the innate immune responses in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) and human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116), thereby demonstrating the great potential of engineering probiotics in immunology and further living therapeutics in humans.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Vesículas Extracelulares , Humanos , Escherichia coli/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias , Imunidade Inata
20.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 11(1): e01046, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588162

RESUMO

The current recommendation for therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin has recently suggested AUC-guided dosing in patients with serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. The study objective was to evaluate mathematical equations and trapezoidal methods for calculating the 24 h area under the plasma vancomycin concentration-time curve (AUC24). The analysis of plasma vancomycin concentrations was performed in 20 adult patients treated with intravenous vancomycin. For each patient, AUC24 was estimated using two methods including, equation and trapezoidal calculation. The AUC24 from two methods was analyzed for correlation. The correlation between the equation and trapezoidal methods was strong. The coefficient of determination (R2 ) values was greater than .99. The two plasma vancomycin concentrations to achieve the highest correlation were concentration at 2.5 to 3 h after starting the infusion and concentration at 1 h before the next dose. Moreover, the AUC24 calculation from trapezoidal and equation methods showed that 19 out of 20 patients (95%) had AUC24 of more than 400 mg·h/L, and more than 50% in this group had AUC24/MIC greater than 600. Of those patients with AUC-trapezoidal >600, 15.38% of patients had trough under 15 mg/L, 15.38% of patients had trough in the range 15 to 20 mg/L and 69.23% of patients had trough more than 20 mg/L. The results of AUC-equation were similar to those of the AUC-trapezoidal method. Our study confirmed that the AUC monitoring is more appropriate than the trough vancomycin concentration. Given these considerations, the AUC-equation method is better and more practical to use in part of a point-of-care treatment, especially in the part of the Bayesian program is not available. The best sampling time point of the peak concentration was 0.5-1 h after 2-h infusion.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Adulto , Humanos , Vancomicina , Antibacterianos , Teorema de Bayes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/induzido quimicamente , Área Sob a Curva , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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