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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 122, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994864

RESUMO

Oxytetracycline (OTC), is a widely used veterinary antibiotic for treatment and prophylaxis in aquaculture. As an emerging pollutant, OTC in the environment exerts selective pressure on aquatic organisms causing proliferation of antibiotic resistant genes. In the present study, an OTC tolerant isolate labelled as pw2 was selected among the 11 OTC tolerant isolates, isolated from the aquaculture effluent, for investigating its OTC degrading potential. The cell morphology, biochemical characteristics, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence of the isolated strain indicated that it belonged to the genus Planococcus. The OTC removal percentage was estimated through measuring its residual concentration in the culture medium with high performance liquid chromatography. The strain exhibited maximum removal efficiency of 90.62%, with initial OTC concentration of 10 µg/ml. The optimum degrading conditions were 35 °C and pH 7. The degradation rate of OTC with (biotic) and without strain pw2 (abiotic) was 3.253 and 1.149 mg/l/d, respectively. The half-life was recorded to be 2.13 d in the presence of strain pw2, in contrast to 6.03 days recorded without strain pw2. The total (biotic + abiotic) OTC degradation efficiency was 75.74, 83.93, 90.62, and 86.47% for the initial OTC concentrations of 1 to 25 µg/ml, respectively. Addition of carbon and nitrogen did not influence the OTC removal which indicates Planococcus sp. pw2 use OTC as sole energy source. Thus, Planococcus sp. pw2 plays a vital role in reducing the OTC concentration in the environment, offering a promising method for treatment of aquaculture effluent containing OTC.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina , Antibacterianos , Aquicultura , Bactérias , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 20, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) causes serious infections with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the epidemiology and transmission mechanisms of CR-hvKP and the corresponding carbapenem-resistant plasmids require further investigation. Herein, we have characterized an ST11 K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 from the blood sample encoding both hypervirulence and carbapenem resistance phenotypes from a patient in Egypt. RESULTS: K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 showed multidrug-resistance phenotypes, where it was highly resistant to almost all tested antibiotics including carbapenems. And hypervirulence phenotypes of EBSI041 was confirmed by the model of Galleria mellonella infection. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that the hybrid plasmid pEBSI041-1 carried a set of virulence factors rmpA, rmpA2, iucABCD and iutA, and six resistance genes aph(3')-VI, armA, msr(E), mph(E), qnrS, and sul2. Besides, blaOXA-48 and blaSHV-12 were harboured in a novel conjugative IncL-type plasmid pEBSI041-2. The blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pEBSI041-3, a non-conjugative plasmid lacking the conjugative transfer genes, could be transferred with the help of pEBSI041-2, and the two plasmids could fuse into a new plasmid during co-transfer. Moreover, the emergence of the p16HN-263_KPC-like plasmids is likely due to the integration of pEBSI041-3 and pEBSI041-4 via IS26-mediated rearrangement. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the complete genome sequence of KPC-2- and OXA-48-coproducing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae from Egypt. These results give new insights into the adaptation and evolution of K. pneumoniae during nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Egito , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
3.
Rev Med Liege ; 77(1): 32-38, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029338

RESUMO

Macrolides are one of the treatments of choice in community-acquired pneumonia, either when the clinical and/or biological elements suggest an infection by an intracellular bacteria (so-called atypical), or when the severity of the clinical picture justifies their empirical use. This work is a retrospective monocentric study carried out at the University Hospital of Liege on 25 consecutive patients hospitalized during the year 2019. It aims to specify whether the use of a particular macrolide, clarithromycin, actually meets the national recommendations both in terms of indication, dosage or duration. The results showed justified and adequate use in only 44 % of cases. Nevertheless, the indication was overwhelmingly mentioned in the medical record (96 %). Furthermore, the comparison with national data showed a much higher than average use at the University Hospital of Liege. An action plan is suggested to discuss these results within the Antibiotic Therapy Management Group and then communicate them to the prescribers who are concerned. The aim is to adapt the use of macrolides at the University Hospital of Liege to be more in line with national recommendations.


Les macrolides sont un des traitements de choix dans les pneumopathies communautaires, soit lorsque les éléments cliniques et/ou biologiques suggèrent une infection par une bactérie intracellulaire (dite atypique), soit lorsque la sévérité du tableau clinique justifie d'emblée leur usage empirique. Ce travail est une étude rétrospective monocentrique réalisée au CHU de Liège sur 25 dossiers consécutifs de patients hospitalisés durant l'année 2019. Il vise à préciser si l'usage d'un macrolide particulier, la clarithromycine, répond effectivement aux recommandations nationales, tant en matière d'indication, de posologie ou de durée. Les résultats ont montré un usage justifié et adéquat dans 44 % des cas seulement. Néanmoins, l'indication était très majoritairement mentionnée dans le dossier médical (96 %). Par ailleurs, la comparaison avec les données nationales a montré un usage bien supérieur à la moyenne au CHU de Liège. Un plan d'action est suggéré afin de discuter ces résultats au sein du Groupe de Gestion de l'Antibiothérapie pour, ensuite, les communiquer aux prescripteurs concernés. Cette stratégie est proposée afin d'adapter l'usage des macrolides au CHU de Liège pour qu'il s'accorde davantage avec les recommandations nationales.


Assuntos
Claritromicina , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Macrolídeos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Gen Dent ; 70(1): 40-44, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978989

RESUMO

This study sought to compare a bioceramic sealer (TotalFill) and a calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) sealer (Sealapex) in terms of their pH, calcium ion (Ca²âº) release, and antibacterial effect against Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. For the pH and Ca²âº release tests, 20 polyethylene tubes (10 mm in height and 1 mm in internal diameter) were filled with the appropriate sealer (n = 10 per sealer), immersed in glass flasks each containing 10 mL of deionized water, and stored in an incubator at 37°C. The water was changed after 1, 7, 28, and 90 days. At each water change, the eluates were measured with an advanced electrochemistry meter to determine the pH and with a flame atomic absorption spectrometer to determine the Ca²âº release. The antibacterial effect was measured using the turbidimetry-based direct contact test in which the wells of a microtiter plate were coated with a thin, even layer of freshly prepared sealer (10 wells per sealer), which was allowed to set before application of a suspension of E faecalis. Control wells were obtained by placing an identical bacterial suspension in 10 uncoated wells. The optical density of the sealer and control groups was measured immediately and 1, 3, and 7 days after sealer preparation. Data were analyzed for normality with the Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student t test, and 1-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc tests were all utilized with a significance level of P < 0.05. TotalFill maintained significantly higher pH and Ca²âº release levels than Sealapex at all evaluation times (P < 0.05). Both sealers demonstrated significantly greater antibacterial effect (lower optical density) than the control group; however, TotalFill resulted in significantly lower optical density values than Sealapex (P < 0.05). TotalFill bioceramic sealer demonstrated superior Ca(OH)2-related properties compared to Sealapex Ca(OH)2 sealer.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resinas Epóxi , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Teste de Materiais , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Silicatos
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 126, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997845

RESUMO

The mechanism of berberine hydrochloride (BBH) inhibiting the biofilm formation of Hafnia alvei was investigated in this study. The antibiofilm potential of BBH was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as crystal violet staining. The quorum-sensing (QS) inhibition was revealed by determination of QS-related genes expression and related signal molecules production using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The binding of BBH to receptor proteins was simulated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that BBH at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) significantly reduced the biofilm formation of H. alvei in a dose dependent manner. BBH inhibited the bacterial swimming motility, decreased the transcription of halI and halR genes, and reduced the production of signal molecule C14-HSL. It bound to HalR protein mainly through Van der Waals force and electrostatic interaction force. Based on these results, it was concluded that BBH inhibits the biofilm formation of H. alvei and the mechanism is related to its interference with QS through down-regulating the expression of halI and halR genes.


Assuntos
Berberina , Hafnia alvei , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Percepção de Quorum
6.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s81-s93, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998313

RESUMO

Betalactams are the most widely used antimicrobials for their safety and efficacy. These include the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. Penicillin allergy ranks first in relation to drug allergy. 10 to 20 % of the population is labeled as allergic to it, often wrongly. Cross reaction is reported in 2 to 5 % between penicillins and cephalosporin. There is no cross reaction between penicillins and aztreonam, but there is with ceftazidime. All the mechanisms of the Gell and Coombs classification are included in the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin. Stratification according to risk allows us to take the most objective behavior to label the patient as allergic to. In the natural history of penicillin allergy, 80-90 % of patients lose this sensitivity by 10 years. If necessary, the patient can undergo a desensitization protocol. The immuno-allergist is a key piece in the selection of the patient, the elaboration of the challenge and desensitization protocols, in a controlled environment.


Los betalactámicos son los antimicrobianos más utilizados por su seguridad y eficacia. En este grupo se incluyen las penicilinas, las cefalosporinas, los carbapenémicos y los monobactámicos. La penicilina constituye la primera causa de alergia a medicamentos: 10 a 20 % de la población se etiqueta como alérgica a la misma, en muchas ocasiones erróneamente. Se ha reportado reacción cruzada entre penicilinas y cefalosporina en 2 a 5 %. No hay reacción cruzada entre penicilinas y aztreonam, pero sí con ceftazidima. En la fisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a penicilina se incluyen todos los mecanismos de la clasificación de Gell y Coombs. La estratificación de acuerdo con el riesgo permite tomar la decisión más objetiva para etiquetar al paciente como alérgico. En la evolución natural de la alergia a la penicilina, 80 a 90 % de los pacientes pierde dicha sensibilidad a los 10 años. De ser indispensable, el paciente puede ser sometido a un protocolo de desensibilización. El médico inmunoalergologo es una pieza clave en la selección del paciente, la elaboración de los protocolos de reto y la desensibilización en un ambiente controlado.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Penicilinas , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Carbapenêmicos , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Reações Cruzadas , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Humanos , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Testes Cutâneos
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 31-36, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999676

RESUMO

Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been revealed to play not only a significant role in quinolone resistance but also this drug resistance can spread from one bacterium to another. There is limited data regarding the prevalence of PMQR are available from Bangladesh. So, the aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes among clinical isolates of ciprofloxacin resistant Proteus spp. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2018 to June 2019. Fourty (40) Proteus spp. was isolated from 300 culture positive samples. Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris were identified by culture and biochemical test. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by disc-diffusion technique. Quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS and aac(6')-1b-cr) among ciprofloxacin resistant Proteus spp. were detected by PCR. Thirty (75%) ciprofloxacin resistant isolates were detected during disk-diffusion technique. Among them, quinolone resistance genes were found positive 11(36.67%) for aac(6')-Ib-cr, 6(20%) for qnrA, 5(16.67%) for qnrD, 4(13.33%) for qnrS and 3(10%) for qnrB genes. Co-existance of qnrA + aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrD + qnrS were found in 3(10%) wound swab & pus and urine samples respectively followed by qnrA + qnrB in 2(6.67%) wound swab and pus and qnrA+qnrS in 1(3.33%) urine sample. The results of this study showed presence of high (66.67%) percentage of PMQR genes as well as high (30%) rate of co-carriage of the two genes among Proteus spp. isolates. The incidence of PMQR genes was found to be high which could be due to the increased prescription of fluoroquinolones. Thus, there is a need for rational usage of fluoroquinolones.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Proteus , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 41-48, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999678

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance mediated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Acinetobacter species is an emerging problem worldwide. In this cross-sectional study total 341 specimens were collected over a period of one year from January 2017 to January 2018. Specimens were collected from ICU and Surgery unit of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Specimens were collected from ICU and Surgery Unit of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Samples were processed for culture by standard conventional methods and susceptibility testing and determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Antibiotic discs and their strength were according to the CLSI 2017 guideline. Molecular study was done to detect the species by OXA-51 gene and drug resistance genes (IMP, VIM, NDM, TEM, SHV, CTX, SPM, SIM and GIM). Species identification was done by OXA-51 gene which is intrinsic to Acinetobacter baumannii. Among the 46 isolates, 36(78.26%) were positive for Oxa-51 gene, 16(34.8%) for TEM gene, 9(19.6%) for VIM gene, 3(6.5%) for NDM gene and 1(2.2%) for IMP gene. This study gives an alarming sign towards high prevalence of cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance due to production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo-betalactamases, respectively. Early detection, proper antibiotic policies, and compliance towards infection control practices are the best defenses against these organisms.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Centros de Atenção Terciária , beta-Lactamases/genética
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 94-98, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999686

RESUMO

Among the quinolones, fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents used for treating many clinical infections including Salmonellosis. Although high level of resistance to fluoroquinolones remains low in Salmonella but reduced susceptibility is increasing worldwide. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) of qnr type (qnrA, B and S) has been identified now a day in several enterobacterial species including Salmonella spp. This cross-sectional study was held at department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from March 2019 to February 2020. This study was conducted to determine the current quinolone resistance pattern and to detect the presence of qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes among Salmonella isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of 36 Salmonella isolates were done by disc diffusion method. MIC of ciprofloxacin was detected by agar dilution method. Then amplification with specific primers of qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes were performed for all Salmonella isolates. The present study observed 80.5% resistance to nalidixic acid, 33.3% to ciprofloxacin and 19.4% to ofloxacin by disc diffusion method. qnr A gene was detected in 2(5.5%) isolates, where as qnrS was detected in 5 (13.8%) isolates. None of the isolates was positive for qnrB gene. All the qnrA positive isolates showed resistance to Ciprofloxacin (MIC=128µg/ml) and Ofloxacin. In conclusion, presence of qnr genes in the study isolates is alarming, because, rapid dissemination might occur due to conjugative plasmid mediated horizontal transfer.


Assuntos
Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Salmonella/genética
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 180-185, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999700

RESUMO

Rapid spread of multidrug resistant microorganisms is a matter of great concern throughout the glove including Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the causative organisms for urinary tract infection (UTI) and their sensitivity patterns to antibiotics. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients admitted with UTI (n=60) at a tertiary level hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2019 to September 2019. Data were collected through clinical record reviews. Data of all these 60 cases were analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the 60 patients, culture and sensitivity report was available for 42 patients. Therefore, data were further analyzed for these 42 cases. Median age of patients was 35 years and 80% were female. The main organisms isolated from urine culture of UTI patients were E. coli (64%), Klebsiella (12%) and Enterococci species (10%). Susceptibility to antibiotics was analyzed only for E. coli (n=27) since the number of isolates of other organisms were small. E. coli was found to be resistant to most of the first- and second-line antibiotics, such as Amoxicillin (100%), Amoxyclav (72%), Co-trimoxazole (89%), Nalidixic acid (78%), Ceftazidim (94%), Ceftriaxone (73%), Cefuroxime (100%), Ciprofloxacin (59%), Cephotaxime (80%), Cefixime (100%) and Moxifloxacin (100%). E. coli was the predominant organism responsible for UTI and was resistant to most of the first- and second-line antibiotics. Immediate action is needed to develop empirical guideline for empirical management of UTI and establish surveillance system for monitoring.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 131, 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000007

RESUMO

There is a rapid rise in the incidence of quinolone resistant bacteria in Nigeria. Most studies in Nigeria have focused on isolates from the clinical settings, with few focusing on isolates of environmental origin. This study aimed to investigate the antibiogram and carriage of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes by quinolone-resistant isolates obtained from a pool of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) recovered from sewage leaking out of some surface-leaking sanitary sewers in a University community in Nigeria. Isolation of E. coli from the sewage samples was done on CHROMagar E. coli, after enrichment of the samples was done in Brain Heart Infusion broth amended with 6 µg/mL of cefotaxime. Identification of presumptive E. coli was done using molecular methods (detection of uidA gene), while susceptibility to antibiotics was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Detection of PMQR genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-lb-cr, qepA and oqxAB) was carried out using primer-specific PCR. A total of 32 non-repetitive cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were obtained from the sewage, with 21 being quinolone-resistant. The quinolone-resistant isolates showed varying level of resistance to the tested antibiotics, with imipenem being the only exception with 0% resistance. The PMQR genes: aac(6')-lb-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and qepA and oqxAB were detected in 90.5%, 61.9%, 47.6%, 38.1%, 4.8% and 0% respectively of the isolates. The findings of this study showed a high level of resistance to antibiotics and carriage of PMQR genes by quinolone-resistant E. coli obtained from the leaking sanitary sewers, suggesting a potential environmental and public health concern.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(3): 37, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018528

RESUMO

Thiamphenicol (TAP) is an amphenicol antibiotic, which has a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Since it is widely used in animals and aquaculture, its residues in environment may bring potential risk for human health and ecosystems. While TAP can be removed through conventional physical or chemical methods, its bioremediation using microorganisms is less studied. Here, we report the removal of TAP by a bacterial strain, Aeromonas hydrophila HS01, which can remove more than 90.0% of TAP in a living cell-dependent manner. Our results indicated that its removal efficiency can be greatly affected by the growth condition. Proteomics studies revealed a number of differentially expressed proteins of HS01 in the presence of TAP, which may play critical roles in the transportation and degradation of TAP. All these results indicate bacterial strain A. hydrophila HS01 is a new microbial resource for efficiently removing TAP, and may shed new insights in developing bioremediation approaches for TAP pollution.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Tianfenicol/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aquicultura , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Tianfenicol/farmacologia
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(3): 39, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018535

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, viruses and tumors is a serious threat to public health. Among natural peptides, indolicidin, a 13-residue peptide belonging to the cathelicidin family, deserves special attention. Indolicidin has a broad spectrum of biological activity and is active against a wide range of targets, such as bacteria (Gram+ and Gram-), fungi and viruses. Here, we review the most important features of the biological activity, potential applications and perspectives of indolicidin and its analogs. Although not yet approved for commercialization, this peptide has great potential to be applied in different areas, including the medical, biomedical, food industry and other unexplored areas. To achieve this goal, a multidisciplinary team of researchers must work together to fine tune peptides that overall lead to novel analogs and formulations to combat existing and possibly future diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catelicidinas/genética , Catelicidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(3): 41, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018552

RESUMO

The most crucial and expensive fragment in the broiler chicken production industry is the feed. Because of the rising demand, finding a cheap and effective feed is an urgent necessity. Fermentation of broiler feed by probiotic fungal starters can enhance the nutrient's availability and digestibility while preventing pathogenic growth. In this study different Rhizopus spp. have been isolated from agricultural soils around Izmir, Turkey, and tested for their probiotic potential and fermentative capacity. The isolated Rhizopus strains first underwent microscopical fluorescent investigation to exclude endofungal bacterial presence, then, those without endofungal bacteria (totally 82) were tested for antimicrobial activity counter bacterial and fungal pathogens. The ones with wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity (totally 10) were tested for gastrointestinal tolerance and antioxidant ability. Upon phenotypic and genotypic identification, the 10 isolates were found to belong to Rhizopus oryzae species. While all 10 strains showed variable gastrointestinal tolerance and antioxidant activities, three of them (92/1, 236/2, and 284) had relatively high antioxidant activity. Upon fermentative capacity assay, compared to unfermented commercial feed, there was a general decrease in crude fiber content by 56% after fermentation by 92/1 isolate for 4 days and 236/2 isolate for 2 days. The highest increase in crude protein content (by 14.5%) occurred after a 4-day fermentation period by 236/2 isolate. The highest increase in metabolizable energy was 8.64%, by the 284 isolate after 2 days of fermentation. In conclusion, the three strains showed good probiotic properties and fermentative capacities hence can be beneficial for the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Probióticos , Rhizopus oryzae/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Rhizopus oryzae/genética , Rhizopus oryzae/isolamento & purificação , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 50, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has risen in patients with urinary tract infections. The objective of this study was to determine explore the risk factors of ESBL-E infection in hospitalized patients and establish a predictive model. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with an Enterobacteriaceae-positive urine sample at the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from January 2018 to December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL-E were analyzed, and multivariate analysis of related factors was performed. From these, a nomogram was established to predict the possibility of ESBL-E infection. Simultaneously, susceptibility testing of a broad array of carbapenem antibiotics was performed on ESBL-E cultures to explore possible alternative treatment options. RESULTS: Of the total 874 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), 272 (31.1%) were ESBL-E positive. In the predictive analysis, five variables were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E infection: male gender (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.066-2.416), older age (OR = 4.100, 95% CI 1.678-12.343), a hospital stay in preceding 3 months (OR = 1.872, 95% CI 1.141-3.067), invasive urological procedure (OR = 1.810, 95% CI 1.197-2.729), and antibiotic use within the previous 3 months (OR = 1.833, 95% CI 1.055-3.188). In multivariate analysis, the data set was divided into a training set of 611 patients and a validation set of 263 patients The model developed to predict ESBL-E infection was effective, with the AuROC of 0.650 (95% CI 0.577-0.725). Among the antibiotics tested, several showed very high effectiveness against ESBL-E: amikacin (85.7%), carbapenems (83.8%), tigecycline (97.1%) and polymyxin (98.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram is useful for estimating a UTI patient's likelihood of infection with ESBL-E. It could improve clinical decision making and enable more efficient empirical treatment. Empirical treatment may be informed by the results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Infecções Urinárias , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos , Enterobacteriaceae , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 56, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031883

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of bael leaf powder (BLP) on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, and caecal microbiology of broiler chickens. Following completely randomised design, a total of 288-day-old CARIBRO-Vishal broiler chickens were randomly divided into six treatment groups consisting of experimental diets formulated as follows - T1 (basal diet), T2 (basal diet + 250 mg bacitracin methylene disalicylate-BMD/kg diet), T3 (basal diet + 5 g BLP/kg diet) T4 (basal diet + 10 g BLP/kg diet), T5 (basal diet + 15 g BLP/kg diet), and T6 (basal diet + 20 g BLP/kg diet). Proximate analysis of green bael leaves revealed 65.6% moisture and on dry matter basis, BLP contained 14.31% protein, 1.89% fat, 16.30% crude fibre, 4.25% calcium, and 2.08% phosphorous. This study revealed no adverse effects of BLP supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The BLP supplementation at 20 g/kg diet resulted in higher relative weights of bursa and thymus with better cell mediated (higher foot web index) and humoral immune (higher antibody titre against sheep RBCs) responses in broiler chicken. Lower abdominal fat deposition was observed in broiler chicken fed 20 g BLP/kg diet. Significantly lower serum uric acid, creatinine, AST, and ALT were observed in BLP supplemented chicken which indicates nephro-protective and hepato-protective functions of BLP. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and tissue cholesterol content of broiler chicken decreased progressively with increasing dietary BLP levels. The supplementation of 20 g BLP/kg diet resulted in lower E. coli and Coliform counts, whereas, increasing trend was observed in Lactobacillus count in caecum of broiler chicken. In conclusion, the BLP supplementation at 20 g/kg diet exerted immunomodulatory, anti-hyperlipidaemic, and antibacterial effects in broiler chicken without any adverse effects on the growth performance.


Assuntos
Aegle , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Folhas de Planta , Pós , Ovinos , Ácido Úrico
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 137, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032196

RESUMO

Although the spread of plasmid-mediated antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a public health concern, food contamination with plasmid-mediated antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in Vietnam has not been well investigated. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant, and endemic blaCTX-M in extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli isolates. Colistin and carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from chickens in Vietnam and Japan. Colistin-resistant and AmpC/ESBL-producing E. coli (52% and 93%, respectively) were detected in chickens from Vietnam, in comparison to 52.7%, AmpC/ESBL-producing E. coli found in chicken from Japan. Carbapenem-resistant E. coli has not been isolated in Vietnam and Japan. Genotyping revealed that colistin-resistant E. coli harboured mcr-1, and most of the AmpC/ESBL-related genes were blaCTX-M-55 and blaCTX-M-65 together with blaTEM in Vietnamese chickens and blaCMY-2 in Japanese chickens. Multi-drug resistance analysis showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates had greater resistance to quinolones, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol than colistin-resistant E. coli isolates from Vietnam, suggesting the selection of multiple antibiotic resistance genes in ESBL-producing E. coli. In conclusion, colistin-resistant E. coli was detected in approximately half of the chicken samples, the majority of which harboured mcr-1. The high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli has remained constant in the last 5 years. The predominant blaCTX-M in ESBL-producing E. coli was blaCTX-M-55 or blaCTX-M-65, with the coexistence of blaTEM in Vietnam. These results can be implemented in monitoring systems to overcome the development of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Colistina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Carne , Plasmídeos/genética , Vietnã , beta-Lactamases/genética
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 135, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024941

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens, and a causative agent of a variety of infections in humans and animals. Most studies concentrated on characterization of staphylococcus isolates and its antimicrobial resistance from various illness of veterinary importance, but there is no specific study that is available on isolates from reproductive tract of small ruminants and especially its semen. Hence, in the current study, a total of 48 semen samples were collected from healthy bucks of different breeds to investigate the occurrence of S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of the Staphylococcus isolates were determined to assess the adverse effects of them on buck fertility. The bacterial isolates were tentatively confirmed as Staphylococcus spp. based on the Gram's staining, growth on Mannitol salt agar and catalase test. Overall, 75% (n = 36) of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. from the total 48 buck semen ejaculates from different breeds and among them 23 (63.89%) were coagulase-negative (CoNS) and 13 (36.11%) were coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) strains. The species identified by molecular characterization are S. aureus, S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, and S. epidermidis from buck semen. Further, these isolates exhibited varying degrees of multidrug resistance genotypically as well as phenotypically. The presence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes may pose a potential threat to reproductive health of animals, the animal handlers and livestock keepers, while simultaneously highlighting the need for vigilant monitoring of these isolates at the time of semen cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sêmen , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 200: 113876, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974262

RESUMO

The present antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) techniques based on bacterial culture, gene amplification and mass spectrometry are highly time consuming, labour intensive or expensive. Impedance spectroscopy is an emerging tool for rapid bacterial analysis as it is label-free, real-time, affordable and high-throughput. The over-reliance of this technique on complex chip designs and cell enrichment strategies has, however, slowed its foray into clinical AST. We demonstrate a label-free approach in which a low conductivity zwitterionic buffer is used for boosting impedance sensitivity in simple interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) allowing rapid AST in just 20 min without any liquid flow, biofunctionalization or cell enrichment steps. The detection principle relies on measuring changes in solution resistance due to antibiotic-induced bacterial cell death or growth. While the death-based approach is faster (20 min), it's restricted to surface-acting bactericidal antibiotics. The cell growth approach is longer (60-80 min) but more versatile as it applies to all drug types. Results for antibiotic sensitivity analysis and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination are illustrated for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus against a wide class of antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, polymyxins, carbapenems etc.).


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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