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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical and pathology education has gone through an immense transformation from traditional face-to-face teaching mode to virtual mode during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of online histopathology teaching in medical education during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Griffith University, Australia. METHODS: Second-year medical students (n = 150) who had previously completed one year of face-to-face histopathology teaching, completed an online questionnaire rating their learning experiences before and during the COVID-19 pandemic after the completion of their histology and pathology practical sessions. The students' histopathology assessment results were then compared to the histopathology results of a prior second-year cohort to determine if the switch to online histopathology teaching had an impact on students' learning outcome. RESULTS: A thematic analysis of the qualitative comments strongly indicated that online histopathology teaching was instrumental, more comfortable to engage in and better structured compared to face-to-face teaching. Compared to the previous year's practical assessment, individual performance was not significantly different (p = 0.30) and compared to the prior cohort completing the same curriculum the mean overall mark was significantly improved from 65.36% ± 13.12% to 75.83% ± 14.84% (p < 0.05) during the COVID-19 impacted online teaching period. CONCLUSIONS: The transformation of teaching methods during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic improved student engagement without any adverse effects on student learning outcomes in histology and pathology education.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2016357, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012424

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To map the current literature on functional neuroimaging use in medical education research as a novel measurement modality for neurocognitive engagement, learning, and expertise development. METHOD: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, ERIC, and Web of Science, and hand-searched reference lists of relevant articles on April 4, 2019, and updated the search on July 7, 2020. Two authors screened the abstracts and then full-text articles for eligibility based on inclusion criteria. The data were then charted, synthesized, and analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Sixty-seven articles published between 2007 and 2020 were included in this scoping review. These studies used three main neuroimaging modalities: functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and electroencephalography. Most of the publications (90%, n = 60) were from the last 10 years (2011-2020). Although these studies were conducted in 16 countries, 68.7% (n = 46) were from three countries: the USA (n = 21), UK (n = 15), and Canada (n = 10). These studies were mainly non-experimental (74.6%, n = 50). Most used neuroimaging techniques to examine psychomotor skill development (57%, n = 38), but several investigated neurocognitive correlates of clinical reasoning skills (22%, n = 15). CONCLUSION: This scoping review maps the available literature on functional neuroimaging use in medical education. Despite the heterogeneity in research questions, study designs, and outcome measures, we identified a few common themes. Included studies are encouraging of the potential for neuroimaging to complement commonly used measures in education research and may help validate/challenge established theoretical assumptions and provide insight into training methods. This review highlighted several areas for further research. The use of these emerging technologies appears ripe for developing precision education, establishing viable study protocols for realistic operational settings, examining team dynamics, and exploring applications for real-time monitoring/intervention during critical clinical tasks.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Atenção à Saúde , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Neuroimagem
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(Suppl 1): 34, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug combination, offering an insight into the increased therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity, plays an essential role in the therapy of many complex diseases. Although significant efforts have been devoted to the identification of drugs, the identification of drug combination is still a challenge. The current algorithms assume that the independence of feature selection and drug prediction procedures, which may result in an undesirable performance. RESULTS: To address this issue, we develop a novel Semi-supervised Heterogeneous Network Embedding algorithm (called SeHNE) to predict the combination patterns of drugs by exploiting the graph embedding. Specifically, the ATC similarity of drugs, drug-target, and protein-protein interaction networks are integrated to construct the heterogeneous networks. Then, SeHNE jointly learns drug features by exploiting the topological structure of heterogeneous networks and predicting drug combination. One distinct advantage of SeHNE is that features of drugs are extracted under the guidance of classification, which improves the quality of features, thereby enhancing the performance of prediction of drugs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more accurate than state-of-the-art methods on various data, implying that the joint learning is promising for the identification of drug combination. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model and algorithm provide an effective strategy for the prediction of combinatorial patterns of drugs, implying that the graph-based drug prediction is promising for the discovery of drugs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Combinação de Medicamentos , Aprendizagem
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 32, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The execution of undergraduate thesis is a period in which students have an opportunity to develop their scientific knowledge. However, many barriers could prevent the learning process. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the scientific dissemination of results from undergraduate theses in physical therapy programs and verify the existence of barriers and challenges in the preparation of undergraduate thesis. Second, to investigate whether project characteristics and thesis development barriers were associated with the dissemination of undergraduate thesis results. METHODS: Physical therapists who graduated as of 2015, from 50 different educational institutions, answered an online questionnaire about barriers faced during the execution of undergraduate thesis and about scientific dissemination of their results. RESULTS: Of 324 participants, 43% (n = 138) of participants disseminated their results, and the main form of dissemination was publishing in national journals (18%, n = 58). Regarding the barriers, 76% (n = 246) of participants reported facing some difficulties, and the main challenge highlighted was the lack of scientific knowledge (28%, n = 91). Chances of dissemination were associated with barriers related to scientific understanding and operational factors, such as the type of institution, institutional facilities, and involvement with other projects. CONCLUSION: Scientific knowledge seems to be a determining factor for the good development of undergraduate theses. In addition, it is clear the need to stimulate more qualified dissemination that reaches a larger audience. Changes in operational and teaching factors may improve the undergraduate thesis quality. However, the importance of rethinking scientific education within physical therapy programs draws attention.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Editoração
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 34, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a flipped classroom, students acquire knowledge before class and deepen and apply this knowledge during class. This way, lower-order learning goals are achieved before class and higher-order skills are reached during class. This study aims to provide an overview of the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors can be stimulated. The effectiveness of the flipped classroom is conceptualized in this study as test scores, the achievement of higher learning goals, and student perceptions. METHODS: A state-of-the-art review was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were consulted. The timeframe is 2016 till 2020. The studies were qualitatively analyzed according to the grounded theory method. RESULTS: After screening the studies based on the inclusion-and exclusion criteria, 88 studies were included in this review. The qualitative analysis of these studies revealed six main factors that affect the effectiveness of the flipped classroom: student characteristics, teacher characteristics, implementation, task characteristics, out-of-class activities, and in-class activities. Mediating factors are, amongst other factors, the learner's level of self-regulated learning, teacher's role and motivation, assessment approach, and guidance during self-study by means of prompts or feedback. These factors can be positively stimulated by structuring the learning process and focusing the teacher training on competencies and learning-and teaching approaches that are essential for the flipped classroom. CONCLUSION: This paper provides insight into the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors could be stimulated. In order to stimulate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, the positively and negatively affecting factors and mediating factors should be taken into account in the design of the flipped classroom. The interventions mentioned in this paper could also be used to enhance the effectiveness.


Assuntos
Currículo , Aprendizagem , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes
8.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2024488, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For years, US medical schools have relied on community-based, private clinicians to educate medical students. There has been a steady decline in the number of physicians willing to take on medical students in their clinical practices. Recent issues related to the pandemic raise questions about how many patients students should see to have a meaningful clinical experience. METHODS: As part of a 16-week longitudinal clinical experience, medical students spend 2 days each week in a family medicine or internal medicine clinic. As repetition enhances learning, maximizing the number of patients students see is important. Using a mixed integer linear program, we sought to determine the optimal schedule that maximizes the number of patients whom students see during a rotation. Patient visits were collected from January to April 2018 for clinics used by the medical school. By maximizing the minimum number of patients per learner over all non-empty day-clinic combinations, we deliver equitable rotation plans based on our assumptions. RESULTS: For this pilot study, multiple experiments were performed with different numbers of students assigned to clinics. Each experiment also generated a weekly rotation plan for a given student. Based on this optimization model, the minimum number of patients per student over 16 weeks was 87 (3 patients per day) and actually increased the number of students who could be assigned to one of the clinics from 1 student per rotation to 8 students. CONCLUSIONS: The mixed integer linear program assigned more students to clinics that have more total visits in order to achieve the optimal and fairest learning quality. In addition, by conducting various experiments on different numbers of students, we observed that we were able to allocate more students without affecting the number of patients students see.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Projetos Piloto , Faculdades de Medicina
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 19, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical reasoning is a core competency for every physician, as well as one of the most complex skills to learn. This study aims to provide insight into the perspective of learners by asking students about their own experiences with learning clinical reasoning throughout the medical Master's curriculum. METHODS: We adopted a constructivist approach to organise three semi-structured focus groups within the Master's curriculum at the medical school of the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen (Netherlands) between August and December 2019. Analysis was performed through template analysis. RESULTS: The study included 18 participants who (1) defined and interpreted clinical reasoning, (2) assessed the teaching methods and (3) discussed how they used their context in order to learn and perform clinical reasoning during their clinical rotations. They referred to a variety of contexts, including the clinical environment and various actors within it (e.g. supervisors, peers and patients). CONCLUSION: With regard to the process by which medical students learn clinical reasoning in practice, this study stresses the importance of integrating context into the clinical reasoning process and the manner in which it is learnt. The full incorporation of the benefits of dialogue with the practice of clinical reasoning will require additional attention to educational interventions that empower students to (1) start conversations with their supervisors; (2) increase their engagement in peer and patient learning; (3) recognise bias and copy patterns in their learning process; and (4) embrace and propagate their role as boundary crossers.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Raciocínio Clínico , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 4, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A blended learning environment is multifaceted and widely used in medical education. However, there is no validated instrument for exploring students' learning in a blended learning environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for exploring how medical students learn in an undergraduate medical program that employs a blended learning approach. METHOD: Using Artino's seven step approach, we developed a questionnaire to investigate how medical students learn in a blended learning environment. For pilot testing, 120 students completed this 19-item questionnaire. These 19-items were evaluated for construct and convergent validity across an expert medical education panel. Further item testing was analysed with principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation for item reduction and factor estimation. Hence, validity was thoroughly addressed to ensure the questionnaire was representative of the key focus questions. Cronbach's Alpha was used for item reliability testing, and Spearman's Rho was used for the correlation between the questionnaire items and the extensively used MSLQ. Hence, validity and reliability were systematically addressed. RESULTS: Exploratory Factor analysis identified four factors F1 and F3: Resources: Accessibility & Guidance (14-items), F2: Learning behaviours: Social and Contextual (5-items), and F4: Motivational factors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (4-items). Internal consistency and reliability tests were satisfactory (Cronbach's Alpha ranged from 0.764 to 0.770). CONCLUSIONS: The resulting Blended Learning Questionnaire (BLQ) was determined to be a reliable instrument to explore undergraduate medical students' learning in a blended learning environment.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 125-127, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983166

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to guide students on reflective essay writing, evaluate their understanding and explore the immediate impact of a well-designed session on learning of students. A 1.5-hour learning session was designed following Gagne's nine events of instruction and conducted on final year MBBS students to guide them on reflective practice and its significance. The session was evaluated by a self-designed, structured questionnaire given as a pre-test and post-test. Of 158 students, self-scoring of reflective essay, by hand raising method, revealed that nearly 60% students were critical reflectors, 30% were reflectors and 10% were non-reflectors. Five out of nine questions showed a significant effect (p <0.001) in two-tailed t-test. This learning session led to a significant improvement in understanding of students regarding role of reflective practice in modifying their future behaviour, and its role in making them a better professional. Key Words: Learning, Reflections, Satisfaction, Feedback, Written, Educational assessment, Medical students.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Redação
12.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(1): 10-12, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978474

RESUMO

Health care studies that use Q methodology have increased dramatically in recent years, but most nurses have not learned about this mixed methods approach in their research classes. This teaching column will help readers understand some of the unique terms and characteristics of Q methodology. Understanding this method can help nurses performing evidence-based practice and education. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(1):10-12.].


Assuntos
Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Leitura , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Aprendizagem
13.
N C Med J ; 83(1): 26-28, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980649

RESUMO

The Pathways to Grade-Level Reading initiative created partnerships among North Carolina's early learning and education, public agency, policy, philanthropic, and business leaders to define a common vision, shared measures of success, and coordinated strategies to support the optimal development of all North Carolina children beginning at birth to reach third-grade reading profiency.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Leitura , Criança , Família , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizagem , North Carolina
14.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2011692, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905444

RESUMO

Integration of core concepts is an important aspect of medical curriculum enhancement. Challenges to improving integration include the risk of curtailing the basic sciences in the process and the push to decrease contact hours in medical curricula. Self-paced learning tools can be developed that deliberately relate basic and clinical sciences to aid students in making interdisciplinary connections. The purpose of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a self-paced learning module that would be applicable to integration of different disciplines in medical education. The module was intended to improve integration between histology and anatomic pathology before a respiratory pathology laboratory session. Qualtrics XM, a survey software commonly available at educational institutions, was used in a novel manner to create the module. Module activities included pre- and post-module quizzes; four short videos emphasizing normal histological features and recalling associated pathologies; three categorization activities designed for students to recognize normal versus abnormal characteristics of lung specimens; and post-activity feedback. Preliminary data from first-year medical students showed that post-module quiz scores were significantly higher than pre-module quiz scores (p < 0.001) and that module users' pre-laboratory pathology self-efficacy was significantly higher than non-users (p < 0.05). These data suggest that module use facilitated short-term knowledge gain and improved pathology self-efficacy before the laboratory session. Online modules can be developed affordably using Qualtrics XM to integrate anatomical sciences with other disciplines, while providing students interactive learning resources without increasing contact hours. The module presented in this report focused on normal versus abnormal morphology, guiding students through recognizing the continuum from healthy to disease states before learning about the pathologies more in depth. A similar module design would likely be effective in integrating other disciplines in medicine, especially in disciplines that require recognition of changes in morphology.


Assuntos
Autoeficácia , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem
15.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105206, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to synthesize qualitative evidence on nursing students' experiences with service learning (SL). DESIGN: A systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Comprehensive searches were performed using databases including PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINHAL (EBSCO), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science, Wangfang (Chinese), CNKI (Chinese), Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar (Chinese). REVIEW METHODS: The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. We conducted a meta-aggregation to synthesize the findings of the included studies. The Confidence in the Output of Qualitative Research Synthesis (ConQual) approach was used to assess confidence in the synthesized findings. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were identified, and 39 studies were included in the meta-aggregation. One hundred and sixty-seven findings, 16 categories, and 6 synthesized findings were identified. The six synthesized findings identified from the 39 studies concerned the following topics: adaption and emotion shifting, knowledge translation and skills development, leadership and collaboration in multidisciplinary teams, cultural sensitivity, discovery of nursing roles and professional growth, and overall appraisal and suggestions. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend empowering nursing students by developing their self-confidence in their leadership abilities and their identities before they participate in SL programs. During SL, educators should provide sufficient space for students and should not become involved in students' teams to avoid decreasing their self-confidence in their leadership abilities. After SL programs, maintaining long-term relationships between the university and the community is a prerequisite for students working smoothly in the community and is a key factor for program sustainability.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Neural Netw ; 145: 260-270, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781214

RESUMO

Learning complex tasks from scratch is challenging and often impossible for humans as well as for artificial agents. Instead, a curriculum can be used, which decomposes a complex task - the target task - into a sequence of source tasks. Each source task is a simplified version of the next source task with increasing complexity. Learning then occurs gradually by training on each source task while using knowledge from the curriculum's prior source tasks. In this study, we present a new algorithm that combines curriculum learning with Hindsight Experience Replay (HER), to learn sequential object manipulation tasks for multiple goals and sparse feedback. The algorithm exploits the recurrent structure inherent in many object manipulation tasks and implements the entire learning process in the original simulation without adjusting it to each source task. We test our algorithm on three challenging throwing tasks in simulation and show significant improvements compared to vanilla-HER.


Assuntos
Currículo , Aprendizagem , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
17.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105211, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that the clinical learning environment can both facilitate and hinder students' learning. Students' perceptions need to be evaluated, preferably using nationally and internationally validated instruments. In Sweden, there is a lack of research about students' evaluation in acute care settings and from the perspectives of different levels of students. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore and compare perceptions of the clinical learning environment of first- and second-cycle nursing students in an acute care setting using the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale (CLES+T). DESIGN: The design involves cross-sectional data collection with comparisons between groups. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from a convenience sample of first- and second-cycle students at the end of their clinical placements in an acute care setting at a university hospital. METHODS: A paper version and a web version of the culturally adapted version of CLES+T was filled out by the students. An independent t-test was used to explore the differences between CLES+T scores and distribution methods and educational level. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: Overall, the students (N = 179) were satisfied with the clinical learning environment. There was no significant difference in the total score (m = 4.31, SD = 0.63) between first- and second-cycle students except for the subscale of "Premises of nursing on the ward" and the individual items "The ward's nursing philosophy was clearly defined" and "Patients received individual nursing care", showing that the first-cycle students were more satisfied compared to the second-cycle students. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (α = 0.97 vs. 0.96) for the paper survey and the web survey, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide initial support for the CLES+T as a useful instrument to evaluate the clinical learning environment at different levels of education and in different contexts regardless of distribution method.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Neural Netw ; 145: 300-307, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785445

RESUMO

Clipping on learning rates in Adam leads to an effective stochastic algorithm-AdaBound. In spite of its effectiveness in practice, convergence analysis of AdaBound has not been fully explored, especially for non-convex optimization. To this end, we address the convergence of the last individual output of AdaBound for non-convex stochastic optimization problems, which is called individual convergence. We prove that, with the iteration of the AdaBound, the cost function converges to a finite value and the corresponding gradient converges to zero. The novelty of this proof is that the convergence conditions on the bound functions and momentum factors are much more relaxed than the existing results, especially when we remove the monotonicity and convergence of the bound functions, and only keep their boundedness. The momentum factors can be fixed to be constant, without the restriction of monotonically decreasing. This provides a new perspective on understanding the bound functions and momentum factors of AdaBound. At last, numerical experiments are provided to corroborate our theory and show that the convergence of AdaBound extends to more general bound functions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizagem
19.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105216, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interdisciplinary teaching provides students with multiple perspectives through instruction from faculty and students in other academic areas. Providing interdisciplinary teaching to students in nursing and interdisciplinary programs could help foster collaborations between students in nursing and students in fields such as design or engineering, which could expand students' understanding of the skills required to develop a working prototype. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an effect of interdisciplinary teaching on nursing students' creative thinking abilities. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study of two experimental and one control group with a pre-test/post-test design. SETTING: The study was conducted between September 2018 and January 2020 in classrooms of a university of science and technology in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing students (N = 191) enrolled in capstone courses participated in this study. Two groups of students were assigned to the intervention: Group 1, comprised of typical students (n = 80) or Group 2, comprised of students with teaching assistantships (n = 30). The control group (n = 81) was typical students. The intervention groups received instruction from interdisciplinary faculty in nursing and design and creativity training. The control group was taught by nursing faculty only, without creativity training. METHODS: The Taiwanese version of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural (TTCT-F) instrument assessed students' creative thinking abilities at the beginning (pre-test) and end of the 18-week course (post-test). Differences in pre-test/post-test scores between groups were examined with analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Comparisons between mean total and subscale scores for TTCT-F for the two intervention groups and controls demonstrated only Group 2 students (teaching assistants) had significantly higher scores than the control group. Teaching assistants also had significantly higher scores than Group 1. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest interdisciplinary teaching benefited creative thinking abilities of nursing students holding teaching assistantships. Therefore, it may be more important to first emphasize improvements in academic performance for typical nursing students in Taiwan and then incorporate interdisciplinary teaching into nursing programs to improve creative thinking.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criatividade , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Ensino
20.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 156-168, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293988

RESUMO

People are willing to spend time and money to receive information and content they are curious about, such as answers to trivia questions, suggesting they find information rewarding. In neurotypical adults, states of high curiosity satisfaction are also known to enhance the learning and memory of information encountered in that state. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between curiosity, satisfaction, and learning was altered in a group with specific learning difficulty (dyslexia). Using a willingness-to-wait paradigm, we observed that adults with and without dyslexia are willing to spend time waiting for verbal and visual information. This indicates that the same "wanting" mechanisms are seen in individuals with dyslexia for information. We then examined whether information that was desirable was also associated with enhanced memory. Our findings indicate that information does function like a reward, with the gap between expected and received information driving memory. However, this memory effect was attenuated in individuals with dyslexia. These findings point to the need to understand how reward drives learning and why this relationship might differ in dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Comportamento Exploratório , Adulto , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Recompensa
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