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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(1): 183769, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506798

RESUMO

Currently, multidrug-resistant bacteria are rapidly increasing worldwide because of the misuse or overuse of antibiotics. In particular, few options exist for treating infections caused by long-persisting oxacillin-resistant strains and recently proliferating carbapenem-resistant strains. Therefore, alternative treatments are urgently needed. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Lycosin-II is a peptide consisting of 21 amino acids isolated from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. Lycosin-II showed strong antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibition effects against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolated from patients. In addition, Lycosin-II was not cytotoxic against human foreskin fibroblast Hs27 or hemolytic against sheep red blood cells at the concentration of which exerted antibacterial activity. The mechanism of action of Lycosin-II involves binding to lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial membranes, respectively, to destroy the bacterial membrane. Moreover, Lycosin-II showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are increased during bacterial infection in Hs27 cells. These results suggest that Lycosin-II can serve as a therapeutic agent against infections with multidrug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Aranha/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/genética , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Ovinos , Venenos de Aranha/farmacologia , Aranhas/química
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 969-976, Oct.-Dec. 2021. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762607

RESUMO

Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a predatory arthropod with potential for conservation biological control. In addition to being considered a bioindicator of environmental quality, this arthropod provides an important service for agriculture by reducing insect-pest populations. In this work we seek to understand how the plants Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees and Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) and their different clump sizes affect the population density, spatial distribution and determination of the minimum number of samples to estimate its population density during the winter. Among the evaluated host plants, S. angustifolium and A. bicornis presented higher population density than E. retusa, but we observed that the clump diameter significantly influences the population density and the minimum number of samples. We observed a gregarious behavior in plants of A. bicornis and E. retusa. For S. angustifolium, a uniform distribution was observed.(AU)


Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) é um artrópode predador com potencial para controle biológico de conservação. Além de ser considerado um bioindicador da qualidade ambiental, esse artrópode fornece um importante serviço para a agricultura, reduzindo as populações de insetos-praga. Neste trabalho buscamos entender como as plantas Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees e Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) e seus diferentes tamanhos de touceira afetam a densidade populacional, distribuição espacial e a determinação do número mínimo de amostras para estimar sua densidade populacional durante o inverno. Entre as plantas hospedeiras avaliadas, S. angustifolium e A. bicornis apresentaram maior densidade populacional que E. retusa, observamos que o diâmetro da touceira influencia significativamente a densidade populacional e o número mínimo de amostras. Observamos um comportamento gregário nas plantas de A. bicornis e E. retusa. Para S. angustifolium, uma distribuição uniforme foi observada.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Tamanho da Amostra , Andropogon , Saccharum
3.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(6): 60, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748107

RESUMO

Entanglements are common in both natural and artificial systems and can result in both beneficial and harmful effects. Most spider webs are static structures held under constant tension and do not tangle. However, many spiders actively load tension into their webs by coiling silk threads that are released to "fire" webs at prey. Here we test whether or not tangling occurs during the rapid release of webs built by the triangle spider Hyptiotes cavatus. We use high-speed videography to examine the release of the spider's web, looking for signs of tangling both visually on the videos and on acceleration graphs. The spider tenses the web by pulling on a silken anchor line using a leg-over-leg movement, deforming the silk into permanent coils and storing excess slack in a loose bundle between the spider's legs. This 1-3cm long bundle of coils straightens during the web's release in as few as 4ms. Though the messy silk coils are pressed closely together, the web's release is never impeded by catastrophic tangling. This lack of serious tangling is perhaps due to the permanent coils preventing random movement of the silk. The coils also compact the loose silk, preventing interference with the spider's movement. The ability to coil its anchor line allows H. cavatus to permanently restructure its silk, facilitating its active web-hunting behavior. Our findings broaden our knowledge of silk manipulation by spiders and may give insights into creating tangle-free systems through structural changes.


Assuntos
Seda , Aranhas , Animais , Comportamento Predatório
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 682-688, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loxoscelism is an important public health problem in Chile and South America, due to the higher rate of cutaneous-visceral involvement. The diagnosis of loxoscelism is mostly clinical without established diagnostic criteria. There is little evidence to support any treatment used in this condition. AIM: To characterize the clinical features and epidemiology of loxoscelism among patients consulting at the Emergency and Dermatology Services of a clinical hospital between 2013 and 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of patients registered in the electronic clinical record system with a confirmed diagnosis of loxoscelism. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory tests and treatment variables were analyzed. RESULTS: We reviewed data from 200 patients. Ninety-four percent presented cutaneous loxoscelism and 5.5% cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Systemic symptoms were present in 73% of patients with cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Patients who developed systemic symptoms had an 18 times higher risk of developing cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Laboratory abnormalities were more common in patients with cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Not all patients with hematuria had cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Most patients required analgesia. Anti-loxosceles serum was not used in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Many questions remain to be answered regarding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Studies are required to validate diagnostic criteria for loxoscelism, predictors for visceral involvement and response to treatment.


Assuntos
Picaduras de Aranhas , Venenos de Aranha , Aranhas , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dor , Picaduras de Aranhas/diagnóstico , Picaduras de Aranhas/epidemiologia , Picaduras de Aranhas/terapia
5.
Zootaxa ; 5032(4): 533-548, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811111

RESUMO

Seven new species of Otacilia Thorell, 1897 from China are described and illustrated, all from both sexes: O. ensifera sp. nov. and O. arcuata sp. nov. from Hunan Province; O. spiralis sp. nov. from Hunan Province and Chongqing City; O. lubrica sp. nov. and O. wuli sp. nov. from Chongqing City; O. dentigera sp. nov. from Sichuan Province; and O. shanxi sp. nov. from Shanxi Province. Based on Jin et al. (2016), the seven new species described here belong to two species groups: O. ensifera sp. nov., O. shanxi sp. nov., O. spiralis sp. nov. and O. lubrica sp. nov. belong to the armatissima-group, while O. wuli sp. nov., O. dentigera sp. nov. and O. arcuata sp. nov. belong to the longituba-group.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Zootaxa ; 5057(3): 115-128, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811201

RESUMO

Three new species of zodariid spiders are described from Turkey: Zodarion ozkutuki spec. nov., Zodarion turkesi spec. nov. and Zodarion yagmuri spec. nov. New photographs of genitalia are provided for Zodarion van Bosmans 2009.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália , Turquia
7.
Zootaxa ; 5057(2): 241-259, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811211

RESUMO

Gypogyna Simon, 1900 is revised. Three species are recognized and diagnosed. The type species, Gypogyna forceps Simon, 1900, is redescribed and recorded from several localities in South America. Gypogyna amazonica Ruiz sp. nov. is described based on a male from Manaus, Brazil. Gypogyna mexicana Ruiz Bustamante sp. nov. is described based on specimens of both sexes from the state of Jalisco, Mexico. In addition, some comments on cheliceral dentiton and genital morphology are discussed.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
8.
Zootaxa ; 5057(1): 127-139, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811218

RESUMO

A new genus and species of the tropiduchid planthopper of the tribe Tropiduchini is described as Bitara augusta gen. et sp. nov. from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. It is the 18th species of Tropiduchini and the 9th genus known east of the Wallace line. It is another taxon with characteristic asymmetric genitalia within this tribe.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rubiaceae , Aranhas , Animais
9.
Zootaxa ; 5004(4): 564-576, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811288

RESUMO

Three species of the genus Miagrammopes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 are described from China, including two new species, M. rutundus Liang Xu, n. sp. from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and M. auriculatus Cai Xu, n. sp. from Tibet Autonomous Region, and one known species, M. bifurcatus Dong, Yan, Zhu Song, 2004. The female of M. bifurcatus is described for the first time. Both detailed illustration and a distribution map of the three species are provided.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino
10.
Zootaxa ; 5004(2): 201-250, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811308

RESUMO

The genus Tupirinna Bonaldo, 2000 is revised, including 20 species. New records of T. rosae Bonaldo, 2000 from Par, Brazil are given. Tupirinna albofasciata (Mello-Leito, 1943) is redescribed based on the female lectotype, here designated. The following 17 new species are described, diagnosed, and illustrated: T. platnicki sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Par, Brazil); T. zebra sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Amazonas and Mato Grosso, Brazil); T. caraca sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from south and southeast Brazil); T. urucu sp. nov. (♂ from Amazonas, Brazil); T. coari sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Amazonas, Brazil); T. lata sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from the states of Bahia, Espirto Santo, Minas Gerais, So Paulo and Santa Catarina, Brazil); T. regiae sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Amazonas and Par, Brazil); T. mutum sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Par and Mato Grosso, Brazil); T. cruzes sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Rio de Janeiro, So Paulo and Santa Catarina, Brazil); T. palmares sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from northeast Brazil); T. una sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Bahia, Brazil); T. gigantea sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Vaups, Colmbia and Peru); T. oba sp. nov. (♀ from Bahia, Brazil); T. goeldi sp. nov. (♀ from Par, Brazil); T. ibiapaba sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Cear, Brazil); T. luctuosa sp. nov. (♀ from Minas Gerais, Brazil) and T. araguaia sp. nov. (♂ and ♀ from Par, Brazil). Additionally, two species groups are delimited based on genitalic morphology. Distribution maps and an identification key to the males and females of all known species of Tupirinna are also provided.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Genitália , Masculino
11.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252088, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755814

RESUMO

Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Assuntos
Acacia , Insetos , Aranhas , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
13.
Zootaxa ; 5020(1): 1-30, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810422

RESUMO

Five new species of mimetid spiders from China are described: Mimetus subulatus n. sp., M. clavatus n. sp., M. dentatus n. sp., M. niveosignatus n. sp. and M. uncatus n. sp. The phylogenetic placement of these new species is inferred based on a cladistic analysis of an expanded version of the morphological dataset of Benavides and Hormiga (2020). The new species form a clade that can be distinguished from other Mimetus species by the presence of a subtegular apophysis between paracymbium and subtegulum, pilose cuticular projections on the membranous part of the conductor in the male palp and by a bicameral structure of the spermathecae in females. The new species are part of a clade that includes Mimetus syllepsicus Hentz, 1832, the type species of the genus. The genus Mimetus as currently circumscribed is not monophyletic, as the clade that includes all the Mimetus species also includes the genera Australomimetus Heimer, 1986 and Anansi Benavides and Hormiga, 2017, corroborating the results of Benavides and Hormiga (2020).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Aranhas/genética
14.
Zootaxa ; 5016(4): 523-542, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810432

RESUMO

Species of the genus Ectatosticta Simon, 1892 are studied from China, including seven known species E. bajie Lin Li, 2021 from Sichuan Prov., E. davidi (Simon, 1889) from Shaanxi, E. deltshevi Platnick Jger, 2009 from Qinghai, E. rulai Lin Li, 2021 from Sichuan, E. wukong Lin Li, 2020 from Sichuan, E. xuanzang Lin Li, 2020 from Tibet, E. yukuni Lin Li, 2021 from Shaanxi, and four new species: E. nyingchiensis sp. nov. from Tibet, E. pingwuensis sp. nov. from Sichuan, E. shennongjiaensis sp. nov. from Hubei and E. songpanensis sp. nov. from Sichuan. We provide detailed descriptions, including DNA barcode information, and images of all the species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , China , DNA , Aranhas/genética
15.
Zootaxa ; 5016(3): 333-364, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810444

RESUMO

Originally described from Greenland, Juxtacribrilina annulata (Fabricius, 1780) (previously known as Cribrilina annulata) has long been regarded as having a circumpolar, Arctic-boreal distribution. The genus Juxtacribrilina Yang, Seo, Min, Grischenko Gordon, 2018 accommodated J. annulata and three related North Pacific species formerly in Cribrilina Gray, 1848 that lack avicularia, have a reduced (hood-like, cap-like, or vestigial) ooecium closely associated with modified latero-oral spines to form an ooecial complex, and produce frontally or marginally positioned dwarf ovicellate zooids. While the recently described NW Pacific species J. mutabilis and J. flavomaris, which have a vestigial ooecium like a short, flattened spine, clearly differ from J. annulata, the differences between J. annulata and other Pacific populations remained unclear. Here we provide descriptions for five species from the North Pacific region. We identified a specimen from the Sea of Okhotsk as J. annulata. Among the other four species, J. ezoensis n. sp. has a trans-Pacific distribution (abundant at Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan; also detected in the Commander Islands and at Ketchikan, Southeast Alaska); J. pushkini n. sp. was found only at Ketchikan; J. dobrovolskii n. sp. was found only at Shikotan Island in the Lesser Kuril Chain; and J. tumida n. sp. was found only at Kodiak, Gulf of Alaska. These four species all differ from J. annulata in having one or two frontal pore chambers on the proximal gymnocyst of most zooids; in budding frontal dwarf ovicellate zooids from these chambers rather than from basal pore chambers; in producing dwarf zooids more abundantly; and in having ooecia that are somewhat to markedly more reduced (cap-like rather than hood-like) and more closely integrated with the modified latero-oral spines. Furthermore, in the Pacific species, the ooecium in basal zooids arises from the roof of the distal pore chamber of the maternal zooid; ovicellate zooids can thus also bud a distal autozooid and are often arranged in columnar series with other zooids. In J. annulata, the hood-like kenozooidal ooecium budded from the maternal zooid replaces the distal autozooid, and ovicellate zooids are thus usually not embedded in a columnar series.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Aranhas , Animais
16.
Zootaxa ; 4999(1): 77-86, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810502

RESUMO

The castianeirine spider genus Myrmecotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 is reported from Paraguay for the first time, with the description of a new species, Myrmecotypus mboitui sp. nov. (♂♀) from the eembuc Wetlands Complex of south-western Paraguay. The species belongs to a small group of Myrmecotypus with elongated and constricted abdomens. Illustrations of the diagnostic characters of the new species are provided. An updated key to the species of Myrmecotypus is presented.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Paraguai
17.
Zootaxa ; 5006(1): 208-212, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810574

RESUMO

An illustrated description of Raveniola mikhailovi sp. n. from Chatkal Mt. Ridge is provided. The new taxon resembles R. virgata (Simon, 1891); it differs from the latter species in having a somewhat more compact eye group, combined with a narrower tegulum and a relatively longer embolus, and with noticeably longer inner stalks of the spermathecae.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais
18.
Zootaxa ; 5006(1): 195-207, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810575

RESUMO

The monotypic genus Bucliona Benoit, 1977 (type Clubiona dubia O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 from Saint Helena Island), previously considered a junior synonym of Clubiona Latreille, 1804, is resurrected. Three species are assigned to the genus Bucliona: B. dubia comb. reval., B. kirilli sp. n. (♂, Kenya), and B. jucunda (Karsch, 1879) comb. n., ex Clubiona (♂♀, Far East Asia).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Quênia
19.
Zootaxa ; 5006(1): 110-120, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810581

RESUMO

A new speciesChinattus mikhailovi sp. nov. (♂♀, from Pakistan, Peshawar)is diagnosed, described and illustrated. New records of Chinattus validus (Xie, Peng et Kim, 1993) from Nepal, India (Himachal Pradesh) and Vietnam, and C. chichila Logunov, 2003 from Nepal are presented. The collecting localities of all three species are mapped. A brief discussion of the state of knowledge of the genus Chinattus Logunov, 1999 is provided as well.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos , Aranhas , Animais , Índia , Nepal , Paquistão
20.
Zootaxa ; 5006(1): 73-89, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810586

RESUMO

A new species, Dysdera mikhailovi sp. nov. (♀), is described from Tajikistan (nr. Dushanbe). A poorly known species Dysdera subcylindrica Charitonov, 1956 from Central Asia is redescribed based on newly collected material. Dysdera dushengi Lin, Chang et Li, 2020, known from western Xinjiang (China) is reported from Kazakhstan for the first time. (Re)descriptions, figures, diagnoses and distribution maps of all the studied species are provided.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais
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