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1.
Brasília; Conselho Nacional de Saúde; 7 jul. 2021. 2 p.
Não convencional em Português | CNS - Conselho Nacional de Saúde do Brasil | ID: biblio-1255210

RESUMO

Vem a público ad referendum do Pleno do Conselho Nacional de Saúde manifestar repúdio às declarações do Ministro da Economia, Paulo Guedes, e da Ministra da Agricultura, Tereza Cristina, feitas no 1º Fórum da Cadeia Nacional de Abastecimento, ocorrido em 17 de junho de 2021, no qual se propôs a ampliação do prazo de validade dos alimentos, aliada à adoção de modelo que permita vendas de baixo custo e doações, a partir de determinado prazo, incorporadas à reformulação do Programa Bolsa Família, formulação esta que visa ao preenchimento da lacuna institucional para o enfrentamento à fome no Brasil, o que torna essa proposta ainda mais lamentável.


Assuntos
Doações , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Áreas de Pobreza , Fome
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10450, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001984

RESUMO

To identify differentially expressed proteins associated with energy metabolism and tenderness during the postmortem aging of yak longissimus lumborum muscle samples, we collected tissue samples from yaks raised at different altitudes. At 12 h post-slaughter, we identified 290 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in these samples, whereas 436 such DEPs were detected after 72 h. Identified DEPs were clustered into four main functional categories: cell structural proteins, glycogen metabolic proteins, energy reserve metabolic proteins, and cellular polysaccharide metabolic proteins. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins were associated with carbon metabolism, glycolysis, and the biosynthesis of amino acids. Our functional insights regarding these identified proteins contribute to a more detailed molecular understanding of the processes of energy metabolism in yak muscle tissue, and represent a valuable resource for future investigations.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/normas , Altitude , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteômica , Controle de Qualidade , Tibet
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 65-71, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831448

RESUMO

Three different storage temperatures including room temperature (RT), 4 °C and -20 °C were investigated in this study, with respects to their effects on the retrogradation property and in vitro digestibility of gelatinized sago starch. Storage at -20 °C resulted in the highest amount of both intra- and intermolecular double helices and a fracture-like structure under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These crystallites were more homogenous while less thermally stable than that from RT and 4 °C storage conditions. Storage at RT significantly increased the stability and heterogeneity of the formed crystallites, resulting in a sponge-like structure under SEM. Causally, the digestion rate of retrograded sago starch by α-amylase was significantly lowered after storage at -20 °C compared to that at RT and 4 °C. The crystallite heterogeneity, thermal stability, and ratio of inter- to intramolecular double helices were possibly the main driven factors for the observed digestion rates instead of the amount and micro-morphology of the crystallites. These results supply potential tools for the manufacture of food products with slower starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Amido Resistente , Arecaceae/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Temperatura
4.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6877-6883, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248603

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary natural astaxanthin (ASTA) (from the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis) and storage at 4°C and 25°C on the quality of eggs from laying hens. Nongda No. 3 laying hens (n = 450) were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 15 hens each. All birds were assigned to a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg natural ASTA for 4 wk. A total of 540 eggs were collected at the end of the 4-week feeding trial. Sixty fresh eggs were collected and measured for egg quality within 24 h after collection. The other 480 eggs were used in a factorial arrangement with 5 dietary ASTA levels, 4 storage times, and 2 storage temperatures. During the 8-week storage period at 4°C and 25°C, egg quality measurements were performed every 2 wk on 12 eggs per treatment. No significant effects (P > 0.05) on yolk index, yolk pH, Haugh units, weight loss, or eggshell strength were observed with increasing concentrations of dietary ASTA. Yolk color darkened linearly with increasing dose of ASTA (P < 0.05). During storage of eggs, yolk index and Haugh units decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas yolk pH and weight loss increased (P < 0.05). An interaction was observed between dietary ASTA level and storage time on yolk index, yolk color, and Haugh units (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dietary ASTA from H. pluvialis delayed the decrease in yolk index and yolk color during storage at 4°C and 25°C. Therefore, we speculate that there may be a combined effect of dietary ASTA level and storage time on egg internal quality; this information may provide additional options by which to extend the storage time of eggs.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Óvulo , Temperatura , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Clorofíceas/química , Dieta/veterinária , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantofilas/farmacologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5991, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239625

RESUMO

Spoiled perishable products, such as food and drugs exposed to inappropriate temperature, cause million illnesses every year. Risks range from intoxication due to pathogen-contaminated edibles, to suboptimal potency of temperature-sensitive vaccines. High-performance and low-cost indicators are needed, based on conformable materials whose properties change continuously and irreversibly depending on the experienced time-temperature profile. However, these systems can be limited by unclear reading, especially for colour-blind people, and are often difficult to be encoded with a tailored response to detect excess temperature over varying temporal profiles. Here we report on optically-programmed, non-colorimetric indicators based on nano-textured non-wovens encoded by their cross-linking degree. This combination allows a desired time-temperature response to be achieved, to address different perishable products. The devices operate by visual contrast with ambient light, which is explained by backscattering calculations for the complex fibrous material. Optical nanomaterials with photo-encoded thermal properties might establish new design rules for intelligent labels.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Nanoestruturas/química , Embalagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos/normas , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Indicadores e Reagentes/química
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 1866-1874, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971165

RESUMO

The retrogradation of starch occurs in the process of freezing storage of par-baked baguette, resulting in easy staling and a decrease of consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to assess whether the staling of par-baked baguette could be improved by the addition of Arabic gum (AG), Sodium alginate (SA), and Sesbania gum (SG). The physical, thermal dynamic, and microstructure properties of par-baked baguette during frozen storage were analyzed. The addition of hydrocolloid increased the moisture of the baguette and delayed the water migration, which was beneficial to improve the dough formation and gas capacity, hinder the growth of ice crystals, and reduce the hardness of the baguette. These properties were more pronounced with increasing freezing storage periods. These hydrocolloids could slow down the rate of recrystallization, which reduced the enthalpy change and crystallinity of par-baked baguette. It was also found that the hydrocolloids incorporated baguette was smooth in the crumb microstructure. In general, these results suggested that the incorporation of hydrocolloids improved the quality and anti-staling mechanism of the par-baked baguette during frozen storage which can be used as potential improvers to increase freezing stability in the formulation of the baguette.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Coloides/química , Amido/química , Culinária , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Congelamento , Humanos , Água/química
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925932

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to assess foodstuff storage throughout Recent Prehistory (5600-50 BCE) from the standpoint of the three different types (household, surplus and supra-household) identified in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The volumetric data of the underground silos serves as a proxy to evaluate the link between them and the agricultural systems and technological changes. The study also assesses the ability, and specifically, the will of the ancient communities of the northeastern Iberia to generate domestic and extra-domestic surpluses.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Características da Família/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825493

RESUMO

With high fat and protein content, maize germ is easily infected with fungus and mycotoxins during its storage. The qualities and safety of germ and its processing products may be affected by the storage. However, studies on the effect of storage on quality and polluted mycotoxin level of maize germ are limited. In this study, maize germ was stored with different initial moisture contents (5.03, 9.07, 11.82 and 17.97%) or at different relative humidity (75, 85 and 95%) for 30 days. The quality indices of germ (moisture content and crude fat content) and their produced germ oils (color, acid value and peroxide value) as well as the zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels of germ, oils and meals were analyzed. Results showed that maize germ with high initial moisture contents (11.82, 17.97%) or kept at high humidity (95%) became badly moldy at the end of storage. Meanwhile, the qualities of these germ and oils showed great changes. However, the ZEN and DON contents of this maize germ, oils and meals stayed at similar levels (p < 0.05). Therefore, the storage could produce influence on the qualities of germ and oils, but showed limited effect on the DON and ZEN levels of germ and their processing products. According to this study, the storage condition of germ with no more than 9% moisture content and no higher than 75% humidity was recommended. This study would be benefit for the control of germ qualities and safety during its storage.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Micotoxinas/análise , Zea mays/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455848

RESUMO

Due to the increasing popularity of unfiltered beer, new methods for its preservation are needed. High-pressure processing (HPP) was applied as a final treatment of packed beer in order to assure storage stability and to retain the desired product quality. Pressures of 250 MPa and 550 MPa for 5 min were used to process unfiltered lager beers. The impact of pressure on basic analytical characteristics was evaluated, and foam stability, the content of carbonyl compounds and sensory properties were monitored during two months of storage. Most of the basic analytical parameters remained unaffected after pressure treatment, and a beneficial effect on foam stability was demonstrated. Changes in the concentration of staling aldehydes were observed during storage. Some features of the sensory profile were affected by HPP as well as by the time of storage. Our study evaluated the suitability of HPP as a novel method for shelf-life extension of unfiltered lager beer.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Filtração/normas , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Pressão
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(4): 823-831, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248604

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of hexanoic acid (Hex) as a silage additive. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of Hex, Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) and their combination (Hex + Lp) on the aerobic stability of napier grass silage was investigated. Napier grass was ensiled without additives (C) or with Lp, Hex or Hex + Lp for 60 days followed by 7 days of aerobic exposure. After 60 days of ensiling, the Lp silage had the lowest pH and the highest lactic acid (LA) concentration among all silage, whereas the highest water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was observed in Hex + Lp silage, followed by Hex silage. After 60 days of ensiling, the population of yeasts in C and Lp silages was > 3·0 log10 CFU per g FW, while that of Hex and Hex + Lp was <2·0 log10 CFU per g FW. During aerobic exposure, the pH in the Lp and C silages increased (P < 0·05) above 7·0 on day 5. The pH of Hex silage was the lowest among all silages on day 3 and 5, followed by a significant (P < 0·05) increase until 7 days of aerobic exposure. There were no significant changes in pH and AA of Hex + Lp silage over the duration of aerobic exposure. The concentrations of LA in C, Lp and Hex silages decreased while that of Hex + Lp silage remained stable after 3 days of aerobic exposure. The Hex delayed the decline of WSC contents and the increase in yeasts over the aerobic exposure period. CONCLUSION: Addition of Hex (97 h) and Hex + Lp (>168 h) improved aerobic stability (P < 0·05) as compared to the control (83 h). SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Hex or in combination with L. plantarum inhibited the proliferation of yeasts during aerobic exposure of napier grass. Thus, Hex is an alternative antifungal additive to improve aerobic stability.


Assuntos
Caproatos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Silagem/microbiologia , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Caproatos/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/análise , Poaceae/química , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Silagem/análise , Leveduras/metabolismo
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(7)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230958

RESUMO

The rapid and non-destructive detection of mechanical damage to fruit during postharvest supply chains is important for monitoring fruit deterioration in time and optimizing freshness preservation and packaging strategies. As fruit is usually packed during supply chain operations, it is difficult to detect whether it has suffered mechanical damage by visual observation and spectral imaging technologies. In this study, based on the volatile substances (VOCs) in yellow peaches, the electronic nose (e-nose) technology was applied to non-destructively predict the levels of compression damage in yellow peaches, discriminate the damaged fruit and predict the time after the damage. A comparison of the models, established based on the samples at different times after damage, was also carried out. The results show that, at 24 h after damage, the correct answer rate for identifying the damaged fruit was 93.33%, and the residual predictive deviation in predicting the levels of compression damage and the time after the damage, was 2.139 and 2.114, respectively. The results of e-nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) showed that the VOCs changed after being compressed-this was the basis of the e-nose detection. Therefore, the e-nose is a promising candidate for the detection of compression damage in yellow peach.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Prunus persica/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(1): 78-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896291

RESUMO

The quality of extra virgin olive oils is affected mainly by hydrolytic and oxidative reactions. The present paper investigated the changes of major and minor components and oxidation indices of three monovarietal extra virgin olive oils after 18 months of storage at room temperature and in dark glass bottles conditions. After storage, the basic quality parameters such as free acidity, peroxide values, extinction coefficients, fatty acids composition, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, did not exceed the upper limits set by European Community Regulations for extra-virgin olive oils. Given the importance of the phenolic fraction, UHPLC-HESI-MS metodology was used. A decrease in 3,4-DHPEA-EDA (oleacin) and p-HPEA-EDA (oleochantal) was detected whereas, an increase of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol was measured as a consequence of degradation of ligstroside and oleuropein derivatives. Based on the results it is possible to observe the high nutritional value of the studied oils even after 18 months of conservation.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Azeite de Oliva/normas , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Glucosídeos/química , Iridoides/química , Itália , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Oxirredução , Piranos/química
13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(5): 792-803.e5, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millions of food-insecure households in the United States obtain food from food pantries each year. These foods are often of insufficient nutritional quality. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the frequency with which Arkansas food pantries offer foods included in Feeding America's Detailed Foods to Encourage (F2E) framework, and examine food pantry characteristics associated with increased frequency of offering F2E and other foods. DESIGN: This was a 27-item cross-sectional online survey that assessed food pantries' characteristics (eg, storage capacities, number of clients served) and typical food offerings. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Partnering with five of Arkansas's six food banks, 764 e-mail invitations were sent to food agency managers across the state. A final sample of 357 food pantries was included in the analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes of interest were the frequencies of offering specific F2E and F2E in general. The F2E framework was developed by Feeding America to more accurately assess food banks' inventories, and its categories (Fruits and Vegetables; Protein; Dairy; and Grains) are generally consistent with MyPlate. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Descriptive statistics were computed for all food pantry characteristics and frequency of foods offered. Associations between food pantry characteristics and the frequency of offering F2E were examined via multiple linear regression and path analysis. RESULTS: Only 18.5% of food pantries had written nutrition guidelines, and only 19.3% offered client choice distribution. The F2E most commonly offered were meat/poultry/seafood without breading and not fried (59.6%) and peanut butter (58.2%). The least commonly offered F2E were nuts/seeds with nothing added (3.8%) and low-fat/1%/skim cheese (8.2%). Written nutrition guidelines (P<0.001), client choice distribution (P=0.003), and adequate refrigerator storage (P=0.010) were associated with more frequently offering F2E. CONCLUSIONS: This study fills a gap in knowledge by documenting food pantry characteristics that are associated with the frequencies of offering specific types of healthy foods.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Arkansas , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/normas , Laticínios/provisão & distribuição , Proteínas na Dieta/normas , Proteínas na Dieta/provisão & distribuição , Grão Comestível/normas , Grão Comestível/provisão & distribuição , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Frutas/normas , Frutas/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras/normas , Verduras/provisão & distribuição
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e156883, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1122162

RESUMO

The quality of raw milk depends on initial microbial contamination and conditions of storage until industry processing. Considering the influence of time and storage temperature on raw milk microbiota, the objective of this work was to quantify and monitor the multiplication of these groups under different conditions. For this purpose, 41 samples of raw milk were collected immediately after milking, stored in the following storage conditions: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h and 7 °C/60 h and analyses of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic microorganisms. The milk samples analyzed in the study had an initial mean count of mesophilic aerobes of 5.38 Log CFU/mL at Time Zero. The milk stored at 25 °C/2 h and 35 °C/2 h kept the mesophilic aerobic counts within the limits established by the legislation (5.48 Log CFU/mL), with an increase in counts of psychrotrophic and proteolytic microorganisms. When stored at 7 °C/24 h and 7 °C/48 h, the count of mesophiles exceeded the established parameters. A significant increase in the count of proteolytic psychrotrophs and psychrotrophs was also observed during storage at 7 °C from 24 h. The results of this study indicate that the temperature of 7 °C is not suitable for the milk conservation, since it was not able to control the microbial multiplication. Thus, the results contribute to the change in milk storage temperature proposed by the new Brazilian legislation.(AU)


A qualidade do leite cru depende da contaminação microbiana inicial e das condições de armazenamento até o processamento na indústria. Considerando a influência do tempo e da temperatura de armazenamento na microbiota do leite cru, o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e monitorar a multiplicação desses grupos de microrganismos sob diferentes condições. Para tanto, foram coletadas 41 amostras de leite cru imediatamente após a ordenha, armazenadas nas seguintes condições de armazenamento: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h e 7 °C/60 h para análise de microrganismos psicrotróficos, aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. As amostras de leite analisadas no estudo apresentaram uma contagem média inicial de aeróbios mesófilos de 5.38 Log UFC/mL no Tempo Zero. O leite armazenado a 25 °C/2 h e 35 °C/2 h manteve as contagens aeróbias mesófilas dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação (5,48 Log UFC/mL), com aumento nas contagens de microrganismos psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. Quando armazenado a 7 °C/24 h e 7 °C/48 h a contagem de mesófilos excedeu os parâmetros estabelecidos. Um aumento significativo na contagem de psicrotróficos e psicrotróficos proteolíticos também foi observado durante o armazenamento a 7 °C a partir das 24 h. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que a temperatura de 7 °C não é adequada para a conservação do leite, uma vez que não foi capaz de controlar a multiplicação microbiana. Assim, os resultados contribuem para a mudança na temperatura de armazenamento de leite proposta pela nova legislação brasileira.(AU)


Assuntos
Leite/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Microbiota , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Brasil
15.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 57(1): e156883, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29245

RESUMO

The quality of raw milk depends on initial microbial contamination and conditions of storage until industry processing. Considering the influence of time and storage temperature on raw milk microbiota, the objective of this work was to quantify and monitor the multiplication of these groups under different conditions. For this purpose, 41 samples of raw milk were collected immediately after milking, stored in the following storage conditions: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h and 7 °C/60 h and analyses of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic microorganisms. The milk samples analyzed in the study had an initial mean count of mesophilic aerobes of 5.38 Log CFU/mL at Time Zero. The milk stored at 25 °C/2 h and 35 °C/2 h kept the mesophilic aerobic counts within the limits established by the legislation (5.48 Log CFU/mL), with an increase in counts of psychrotrophic and proteolytic microorganisms. When stored at 7 °C/24 h and 7 °C/48 h, the count of mesophiles exceeded the established parameters. A significant increase in the count of proteolytic psychrotrophs and psychrotrophs was also observed during storage at 7 °C from 24 h. The results of this study indicate that the temperature of 7 °C is not suitable for the milk conservation, since it was not able to control the microbial multiplication. Thus, the results contribute to the change in milk storage temperature proposed by the new Brazilian legislation.(AU)


A qualidade do leite cru depende da contaminação microbiana inicial e das condições de armazenamento até o processamento na indústria. Considerando a influência do tempo e da temperatura de armazenamento na microbiota do leite cru, o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e monitorar a multiplicação desses grupos de microrganismos sob diferentes condições. Para tanto, foram coletadas 41 amostras de leite cru imediatamente após a ordenha, armazenadas nas seguintes condições de armazenamento: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h e 7 °C/60 h para análise de microrganismos psicrotróficos, aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. As amostras de leite analisadas no estudo apresentaram uma contagem média inicial de aeróbios mesófilos de 5.38 Log UFC/mL no Tempo Zero. O leite armazenado a 25 °C/2 h e 35 °C/2 h manteve as contagens aeróbias mesófilas dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação (5,48 Log UFC/mL), com aumento nas contagens de microrganismos psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. Quando armazenado a 7 °C/24 h e 7 °C/48 h a contagem de mesófilos excedeu os parâmetros estabelecidos. Um aumento significativo na contagem de psicrotróficos e psicrotróficos proteolíticos também foi observado durante o armazenamento a 7 °C a partir das 24 h. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que a temperatura de 7 °C não é adequada para a conservação do leite, uma vez que não foi capaz de controlar a multiplicação microbiana. Assim, os resultados contribuem para a mudança na temperatura de armazenamento de leite proposta pela nova legislação brasileira.(AU)


Assuntos
Leite/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Microbiota , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Brasil
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846481

RESUMO

Electron-beam irradiation (EBI) is a cold sterilization technology used in the irradiation processing of food, including rice. Herein, the effects of EBI on the swelling power, color, pasting, and sensory properties of white rice after short-term storage were analyzed. Samples were electron-beam irradiated at 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 kGy and stored at 25 °C or 37 °C for up to 75 days. Results showed that swelling power and major pasting viscosities (including peak, breakdown, and setback viscosities) at both storage temperatures decreased with increased irradiation dose. Negative correlations were also observed between the major viscosities of pasting properties and irradiation dose at both storage temperatures. During sensory evaluation, extremely low scores for rice hardness, appearance, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained for rice subjected to high EBI dose (>4 kGy). However, rice stored at 37 °C showed lower performance than rice at 25 °C in terms of the abovementioned parameters. By contrast, the sensory properties at irradiation doses between 2 and 4 kGy were better than those of the control group at both storage temperatures. All these findings indicated the potential of low-dose (<4 kGy) EBI as pretreatment for improving the quality of white rice during storage.


Assuntos
Irradiação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Controle de Qualidade , Amido/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Elétrons , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Viscosidade
17.
Br J Nurs ; 28(13): 890-891, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303049

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, University of Southampton, discusses strategies used to keep patients in hospital safe from infection.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Segurança do Paciente , Inglaterra , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/normas , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Medicina Estatal
18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339942

RESUMO

Although the literature on the Maillard reaction in infant formulas is extensive, most studies have focused on model systems, and in only a few cases on real food systems. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the status of the Maillard reaction, both the early and advanced phases, in a variety of commercial infant formulas available on the Swedish market. Ten powder and liquid milk-based infant formulas from three manufacturers were selected to determine available lysine and CML contents, the two established indicators of the reaction. The products were also characterized with respect to protein content, carbohydrates composition, water content and water activity. In order to be able to compare the impact of different processing steps applied on powder and liquid formulas, the solid formulas contained similar ingredients as their corresponding liquid ones. Our findings showed that powder and liquid formulas contained similar available lysine concentrations regardless of the manufacturer, showing 27.14-36.57% decrease in the available lysine, compared to the reference skim milk powder in this study. The CML concentrations were in a broad range of 68.77-507.99 mg / kg protein. In the case of one manufacturer, liquid infant formulas had significantly higher CML content, compared to the powder products (p < 0.05). The results from this study are a step taken towards better understanding of the extent of the Maillard reaction in real complex systems of infant formulas.


Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/análise , Reação de Maillard , Comércio , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Pós , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1657-1661, abr.-maio 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-20733

RESUMO

A demanda de pescado tem crescido devido às mudanças de hábitos alimentares da população, sendo frequente a comercialização em feiras e mercados públicos. Contudo, os hábitos irregulares como a falta de atenção ao manipular e armazenar o pescado pode desencadear graves problemas à saúde pública. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições higiênicos sanitários da comercialização de pescado no Mercado do Peixe de São Luís - MA. Foi utilizado o método observacional direto e aplicação de check list fundado na RDC nº 275 do Ministério da Saúde. Os resultados evidenciaram algumas desconformidades relacionadas ao manejo de resíduos, vestimenta dos manipuladores e resfriamento de pescado, não atendendo os padrões de higiene e acondicionamento para comercialização de pescado.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Manipulação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Lista de Checagem/normas
20.
Plant Dis ; 103(7): 1584-1594, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025905

RESUMO

Very few studies have investigated the host-pathogen interaction of Penicillium spp. on nectarine. Penicillium digitatum was identified as pathogenic and highly aggressive on nectarine. A strong association was made with host age/ripeness. This points to a new mechanism or life strategy used by P. digitatum to infect and colonize previously thought nonhosts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postharvest storage of nectarine on the infection and colonization of P. digitatum and Penicillium expansum at molecular and physical (firmness and pH) levels. The impact of environmental conditions (cold storage) and pathogen pressure (inoculum load) was also investigated. Although disease incidence was much lower, lesions caused by P. digitatum were similar in size to those caused by P. expansum on freshly harvested nectarine. Disease incidence and lesion diameter significantly increased (larger than P. expansum) on longer stored fruit. Cold storage had the largest effect on P. digitatum. Inoculum load had a meaningful effect on both Penicillium spp. Storage significantly affected pH modulation and gene expression. The pathogens not only decreased but also, increased and maintained (similar to initial pH of the host) pH of infected tissue. The polygalacturonase (PG) gene and creA were upregulated by P. digitatum on 7-day postharvest fruit (other genes were unaffected). It partly explains the larger lesions on older or riper fruit. A different expression profile was observed from P. expansum: strong downregulation in PG and slight upregulation in pacC. Very different life strategies were used by the two Penicillium spp. when infecting nectarine. Unlike what is known on citrus, P. digitatum showed an opportunistic lifestyle that takes advantage of specific host and environmental conditions. It is largely still unclear (gene expression) what specifically triggers the increase in disease incidence (infection) and lesion diameter (colonization) of P. digitatum on older or riper fruit. The differences between in vivo and in vitro studies make it difficult to directly correlate results. Additional research is still needed to differentiate and understand the infection and colonization of these pathogens on the same host.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Penicillium , Prunus persica , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Penicillium/fisiologia , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/microbiologia
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