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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 852900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694539

RESUMO

Helminth infections remain a global public health issue, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where roundworms from theTrichuris and Ascaris genera are most prevalent. These geohelminths not only impact human health but most importantly also affect animal well-being, in particular the swine industry. Host-helminth parasite interactions are complex and at the same time essential to understand the biology, dynamics and pathophysiology of these infections. Within these interactions, the immunomodulatory capacity of these helminths in the host has been extensively studied. Moreover, in recent years a growing interest on how helminths interact with the intestinal microbiota of the host has sparked, highlighting how this relationship plays an essential role in the establishment of initial infection, survival and persistence of the parasite, as well as in the development of chronic infections. Identifying the changes generated by these helminths on the composition and structure of the host intestinal microbiota constitutes a field of great scientific interest, since this can provide essential and actionable information for designing effective control and therapeutic strategies. Helminths like Trichuris and Ascaris are a focus of special importance due to their high prevalence, higher reinfection rates, resistance to anthelmintic therapy and unavailability of vaccines. Therefore, characterizing interactions between these helminths and the host intestinal microbiota represents an important approach to better understand the nature of this dynamic interface and explore novel therapeutic alternatives based on management of host microbiota. Given the extraordinary impact this may have from a biological, clinical, and epidemiological public health standpoint, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge and future perspectives examining the parasite-microbiota interplay and its impact on host immunity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Ascaris , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Suínos , Trichuris
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010312, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446843

RESUMO

Intestinal helminth parasites (worms) have afflicted humans throughout history and their eggs are readily detected in archaeological deposits including at locations where intestinal parasites are no longer considered endemic (e.g. the UK). Parasites provide valuable archaeological insights into historical health, sanitation, hygiene, dietary and culinary practices, as well as other factors. Differences in the prevalence of helminths over time may help us understand factors that affected the rate of infection of these parasites in past populations. While communal deposits often contain relatively high numbers of parasite eggs, these cannot be used to calculate prevalence rates, which are a key epidemiological measure of infection. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was investigated through time in England, based on analysis of 464 human burials from 17 sites, dating from the Prehistoric to Industrial periods. Eggs from two faecal-oral transmitted nematodes (Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp.) and the food-derived cestodes (Taenia spp. and Diphyllobothrium latum syn Dibothriocephalus latus) were identified, although only Ascaris was detected at a high frequency. The changing prevalence of nematode infections can be attributed to changes in effective sanitation or other factors that affect these faecal-oral transmitted parasites and the presence of cestode infections reflect dietary and culinary preferences. These results indicate that the impact of helminth infections on past populations varied over time, and that some locations witnessed a dramatic reduction in parasite prevalence during the industrial era (18th-19th century), whereas other locations continued to experience high prevalence levels. The factors underlying these reductions and the variation in prevalence provide a key historical context for modern anthelmintic programs.


Assuntos
Diphyllobothrium , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Ascaris , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010307, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains largely unknown where and how infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris, Trichuris, Necator and Ancylostoma) occur. We therefore aimed to identify possible sources of infection by assessing the environmental contamination in an STH-endemic area. METHODS: We first performed a series of laboratory experiments designed to optimize a soil straining-flotation method to detect and quantify Ascaris and Trichuris eggs in soil, and to validate the diagnostic performance of the optimized method when followed by microscopy and qPCR. In a second phase, we applied this method to assess the level of STH contamination in 399 environmental samples collected from 10 school compounds, 50 households and 9 open markets in Jimma Town (Ethiopia). Subsequently, we explored associations between the environmental contamination and both the corresponding STH epidemiology at the level of the schools and the household characteristics. Finally, we assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards STHs in school children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our soil straining-flotation method has an analytical sensitivity of 50 eggs per 100 grams of soil and egg recovery rate of 36.0% (Ascaris) and 8.0% (Trichuris). The analysis of field samples with both microscopy and qPCR revealed the presence of 8 different helminth species of medical importance, including but not limited to the human STHs. There was a significant association between the environmental contamination and prevalence of any STH infections at the school level only. The KAP indicated a lack of knowledge and awareness of STHs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our optimized straining-flotation method has a moderate diagnostic performance and revealed that life stages of helminths are ubiquitous in the environment, which might be due to the poor sanitary facilities at both the schools and the households, and a poor level of KAP towards STHs. Further research is required to gain more insights into the contribution of these life stages to transmission.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Ascaris , Ascaris lumbricoides , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Trichuris
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162680

RESUMO

Wastewater sludge represents an important resource for reuse in agriculture. However, potentially harmful pathogens are a main threat in this context. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the presence of helminth ova and protozoan cysts in dried sewage sludge samples collected from ten wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in eight governorates in Tunisia. Based on morphological criteria, protozoan cysts of Giardia spp., Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, and Entamoeba coli, were detected in all dried sludge composite samples (N = 116) from the investigated WWTPs. The mean concentration ranged from 1.4 to 10.7 cysts per 100 g dry matter (DM). The identified helminth eggs were Ascaris spp., Strongyles, Taeniid eggs, Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, and hookworm species. Ascaris spp. and Taeniid eggs were detected in 56.9 and 74.1% of analyzed samples, respectively. The presence of Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis diminuta, and Toxocara spp. eggs in dried sewage sludge samples was low (0.9, 1.7, and 2.6%, respectively). The mean concentration of helminth eggs during the three-year study was less than 1 egg/100 g DM. All examined dried sewage sludge sample contents were below the WHO (2006) and US EPA (2003) recommendations, and thus, the sludge can potentially be reused in agriculture.


Assuntos
Ascaris , Esgotos , Agricultura , Animais , Toxocara , Tunísia
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 837, 2022 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149688

RESUMO

Small RNA pathways play key and diverse regulatory roles in C. elegans, but our understanding of their conservation and contributions in other nematodes is limited. We analyzed small RNA pathways in the divergent parasitic nematode Ascaris. Ascaris has ten Argonautes with five worm-specific Argonautes (WAGOs) that associate with secondary 5'-triphosphate 22-24G-RNAs. These small RNAs target repetitive sequences or mature mRNAs and are similar to the C. elegans mutator, nuclear, and CSR-1 small RNA pathways. Even in the absence of a piRNA pathway, Ascaris CSR-1 may still function to "license" as well as fine-tune or repress gene expression. Ascaris ALG-4 and its associated 26G-RNAs target and likely repress specific mRNAs during testis meiosis. Ascaris WAGO small RNAs demonstrate target plasticity changing their targets between repeats and mRNAs during development. We provide a unique and comprehensive view of mRNA and small RNA expression throughout spermatogenesis. Overall, our study illustrates the conservation, divergence, dynamics, and flexibility of small RNA pathways in nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascaris/genética , Ascaris/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Inativação Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética
6.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(3): 1119-1125, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, intestinal parasites significantly affect the health and production of pigs. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the prevalence of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infection in pigs in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality of Ghana. METHOD: Faecal samples from two hundred (200) pigs on four different farms (labelled A, B, C, D) were processed using the Kinyoun modified Ziehl-Neelsen method for Cryptosporidium and the Formol-ether sedimentation method for Ascaris and microscopically examined to identify parasites to the genus level. RESULTS: The prevalence of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium in the pigs was 76% and 77%, respectively. The weaners had the highest Ascaris prevalence (96.15%) with the piglets recording the least (59.25%). On the other hand, the piglets had the highest prevalence (88.89%) for Cryptosporidium with the boars, sows and weaners recording 75.86%, 75.42% and 73.08% respectively. The prevalence of Ascaris was high in farm D (78.57%) while Cryptosporidium was highest in farm C (86.11%). Generally, there was a significant difference (p = 0.044) in the mean distribution of Cryptosporidium in the pigs. CONCLUSION: The high burden of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infections in the pigs suggest the need to adopt and implement effective control measures.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Parasitos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Ascaris , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
7.
Parasite Immunol ; 44(4-5): e12913, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188279

RESUMO

This study investigated whether prior exposure to helminths (Ascaris IgE, Ascaris eggs and Trichuris eggs) either in childhood or in adulthood, and residence in rural and resource-limited urban areas influence allergy outcomes (asthma, rhinitis, IgE atopy and food allergy) in a South African population. Participants historical and present allergies data were collected through questionnaires and clinical record files. Coproscopy and immunoassays (ImmunoCAPTM Phadiatop, total IgE and allergen-specific fx3 IgE immunoassays and Ascaris IgE radioallergosorbent [RAST] tests) were used for active helminthiasis and allergy screens respectively. Data were analysed using logistic regression analysis, and models were adjusted for age, gender and locality. High Ascaris IgE was significantly associated with asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.20, p = .047), IgE atopy (aOR = 18.18, p < .0001) and food allergy (aOR = 14.47, p < .0001). Asthma was significantly less likely among participants with Ascaris eggs (aOR = 0.43, p = .048) and Trichuris eggs (aOR = 0.36, p = .024). The findings of co-occurrent helminthiasis and allergic disorders in a population that has resided both in rural and peri-urban informal settlements both oppose and agree with two main notions of the hygiene hypothesis that (i) individuals residing in rural settings with poor sanitation and geohelminth infection are less prone to allergy, and (ii) helminth infections protect against allergy respectively. Further research is warranted.


Assuntos
Asma , Helmintíase , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Hipersensibilidade , Adulto , Animais , Ascaris , Asma/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina E , Testes Cutâneos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Trichuris
8.
Parasitol Res ; 121(3): 945-949, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118511

RESUMO

The use of fertilizers based on sewage sludge is common practice. Due to the possible presence of pathogens and eggs of intestinal parasites like Ascaris sp., Toxocara sp., and Trichuris sp. in these products, it is necessary to control them. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of parasite eggs in commercial organic fertilizers available on the market. Selected commercial products were tested using the Quinn flotation method and a method dedicated to the study of dewatered sewage sludge. Assessment of the viability of helminth eggs was carried out on the basis of staining with calcein and propidium iodide. In 57% of the tested samples, the presence of live eggs of the abovementioned parasites was detected, and in 21% of samples, the eggs with live larvae were detected. Eggs of Trichuris sp. (50%) and Ascaris sp. (36%) were the most common. The obtained results clearly indicate that the process of hygienization of the sewage sludge before the production of fertilizers was not effective enough and it is necessary to standardize the prophylaxis against the spread of parasitic nematodes in commercially available products.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Parasitos , Animais , Ascaris , Esgotos/parasitologia , Toxocara , Trichuris
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1960-1969, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascaris infections, with a worldwide prevalence above 10%, can cause respiratory pathology. However, long-term effects on lung function in humans are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of Ascaris exposure with lung function, asthma, and DNA methylation. METHODS: Serum Ascaris IgG antibodies were measured in 671 adults aged 18 to 47 years (46% women) from Aarhus, Bergen, and Tartu RHINESSA study centers. Seropositivity was defined as IgG above the 90th percentile. Linear and logistic regressions were used to analyze Ascaris seropositivity as associated with lung function and asthma, adjusted for age, height, and smoking and clustered by center. DNA methylation in blood was profiled by a commercial methylation assay. RESULTS: Ascaris seropositivity was associated with lower FEV1 (-247 mL; 95% CI, -460, -34) and higher odds for asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 5.84; 95% CI, 1.67, 20.37) among men but not women, also after further adjusting for house dust mite sensitivity, consistent across study centers. At a genome-wide level, Ascaris exposure was associated with 23 differentially methylated sites in men and 3 in women. We identified hypermethylation of the MYBPC1 gene, which can regulate airway muscle contraction. We also identified genes linked to asthma pathogenesis such as CRHR1 and GRK1, as well as a differentially methylated region in the PRSS22 gene linked to nematode infection. CONCLUSION: Ascaris exposure was associated with substantially lower lung function and increased asthma risk among men. Seropositive participants had sex-specific differences in DNA methylation compared to the unexposed, thus suggesting that exposure may lead to sex-specific epigenetic changes associated with lung pathology.


Assuntos
Ascaris , Asma , Adulto , Animais , Ascaris/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Pulmão , Masculino
10.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 183(6): 662-672, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have indicated that anti-Ascaris IgE enhances asthma and allergies under specific conditions although the association between them is still controversial. The association of anti-Ascaris IgE with increased asthma symptoms among children from a general population with a mild to moderate Ascaris infection prevalence was investigated. METHODS: A total of 126 children aged 5 years with wheezing during the previous year and 110 children who did not have wheezing were selected randomly from the rural service area of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Serum levels of total, anti-Ascaris, anti-Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and anti-cockroach IgEs were tested, and their risks for wheezing were analyzed. The wheezing children were then classified by hierarchical cluster analysis to investigate the contribution of anti-Ascaris IgE to wheezing. RESULTS: The anti-Ascaris IgE levels in wheezing and never-wheezing children were 1.07 and 0.65 UA/mL, and it contributed to 11% of wheezing in children. Anti-Ascaris IgE was significantly associated with wheezing (odds ratio [OR] per loge increment: 1.37 [95% CI: 1.01-1.87], p = 0.046). The ORs, which were adjusted for sex, parental asthma, pneumonia history, helminth infections, Haemophilus influenzae type B combination vaccination, antibiotic use during infancy, and total and specific IgE levels, increased even when only children with more specific symptoms of asthma were included in the analysis. Namely, the ORs for wheezing with sleep disturbance, four or more attacks, and wheezing with speech difficulties during the previous 1 year were OR = 1.44/loge increment [95% CI: 1.01-2.07], OR = 1.90/loge increment [95% CI: 1.11-3.25], and OR = 1.78/loge increment [95% CI: 1.01-3.14], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-Ascaris IgE levels in wheezing and never-wheezing children in the current study significantly decreased concurrently with Ascaris infection prevalence compared with their corresponding values in 2001. The contribution of anti-Ascaris IgE to wheezing also dropped from 26% in 2001 to 11% in the current study. Despite significant decreases in the levels and the seroprevalence and its contribution to wheezing, anti-Ascaris IgE remained significantly associated with increased risk of wheezing. Anti-Ascaris IgE significantly increased the risk of wheezing in a general population with a mild to moderate Ascaris infection prevalence, suggesting robustness as a risk factor and a possible dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Asma , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris , Asma/diagnóstico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 302: 109646, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999317

RESUMO

The discovery of hybrids between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum has complicated our understanding of the relationship between the two species. We examined the same Ascaris specimens (48 from humans and 48 from pigs) using two methods: microsatellite markers combined with Bayesian clustering and PCR-RFLP of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region. The results obtained by the two methods were inconsistent but showed that hybrid Ascaris identified through both approaches could infect pigs. The results of this study suggest that PCR-RFLP of ITS alone is not suitable for molecular identification of human-type and pig-type Ascaris hybrids. Use of multiple SSR markers combined with Bayesian analysis was the most reliable method in our study. Our results indicate that, in addition to host-specific Ascaris types, there may be some that do not show host specificity. Our results show for the first time that hybrid individuals can infect pigs as well as humans. This study has important theoretical and practical implications, including suggesting the need to re-evaluate long-term ascariasis control strategies.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Ascaris suum , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Ascaríase/veterinária , Ascaris/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascaris suum/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Suínos
12.
Acta Trop ; 228: 106229, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748731

RESUMO

Most parasitologists face a conundrum throughout their careers: 'which parasite eggs are more resistant to environmental stress, Ascaris spp. or Trichuris spp.?' In this analysis, our experimental and statistical analyses demonstrated that Trichuris sp. is more resistant than Ascaris sp. We highlight that desiccation exerts a major effect on the conservation of Ascaris eggs, and this may result in an underestimation of Ascaris eggs in paleoparasitological records. This observation can be extrapolated to more modern scenarios, for example, parasitological research in animal feces from semiarid environments, where whipworms are more common than roundworms. Similarly, this could be a plausible explanation for the higher frequency and abundance of whipworms than roundworms, when other hypotheses are unsupported.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Nematoides , Tricuríase , Animais , Arqueologia , Ascaris , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Trichuris
13.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-9, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-31817

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw [...].(AU)


As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Plantas/parasitologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluição Ambiental , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Ascaris , Trichuris , Saneamento/normas
14.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-8, 2022. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-33386

RESUMO

Present study was conducted among school children to recognize the prevalence of IPIs in rural communities of district Dir Lower, Pakistan. A sum of 324 samples of stool were collected (210 boys and 114 girls). Used direct smear method and formol ether sedimentation concentration technique for processing the samples. The result shows that 82% (n=266) were found infected comprised 64.8% male and 35.1% females. Children of the age group 10 to 12 years were found extremely infected 94.2% while 4-6 year age group were having minimum ratio of infection 72%. Current study shows mono parasitism in 50.6% of the students while 22.2% were infected with 2 species and 7.40% were infected with three species of parasites. Seven species of intestinal parasites were reported include Ascaris lumbricoid in male (n=122) 58.0% and in female (n=65) 57.0% followed by Hook worm (n=88) 41.9% and (n=44) 38.5%; Tania saginata (n=44) 20.9% and (n=24) 21.0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n=32) 15.2% and (n=16) 14.0%; Trichuris trichura (n=25) 11.9% and (n=22) 19.2%; Hymenolepis nana (n=24) 11.4% and (n=18) 15.7% and Entameoba histolytica (n=16) 7.61% and (n=14) 12.2% in male and females respectively. The study indicates that most occurring intestinal parasite in the current study were Ascaris lumbricoides 58.0% (n=122) followed by hookworms 41.9% (n=88). Male students were more infected than females in the present study.(AU)


O presente estudo foi conduzido entre crianças em idade escolar para reconhecer a prevalência de IPIs em comunidades rurais do distrito de Dir Lower, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 324 amostras de fezes (210 meninos e 114 meninas). Método de esfregaço direto usado e técnica de concentração de sedimentação de formol éter para processar as amostras. O resultado mostra que 82% (n = 266) dos infectados eram 64,8% do sexo masculino e 35,1% do feminino. Crianças da faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos foram encontradas extremamente infectadas 94,2%, enquanto a faixa etária de 4 a 6 anos apresentava proporção mínima de infecção de 72%. O estudo atual mostra monoparasitismo em 50,6% dos alunos, enquanto 22,2% estavam infectados com 2 espécies e 7,40% estavam infectados com três espécies de parasitas. Sete espécies de parasitas intestinais foram relatadas incluindo Ascaris lumbricoid em machos (n = 122) 58,0% e em fêmeas (n = 65) 57,0% seguido por anzol (n = 88) 41,9% e (n = 44) 38,5%; Tania saginata (n = 44) 20,9% e (n = 24) 21,0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n = 32) 15,2% e (n = 16) 14,0%; Trichuris trichura (n = 25) 11,9% e (n = 22) 19,2%; Hymenolepis nana (n = 24) 11,4% e (n = 18) 15,7% e Entameoba histolytica (n = 16) 7,61% e (n = 14) 12,2% em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. O estudo indica que os parasitas intestinais que mais ocorreram no presente estudo foram Ascaris lumbricoides 58,0% (n = 122), seguidos por ancilóstomos 41,9% (n = 88). Estudantes do sexo masculino foram mais infectados do que do sexo feminino no presente estudo.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Ascaris , Taenia saginata , Trichuris , Hymenolepis , Entamoeba
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 92, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466194

RESUMO

We here report the case of a 4-year-old male child presenting with congenital umbilical bud that, recently, had begun to bleed. Physical examination showed pinkish umbilical bud with blood stains but without any fistula, measuring about 1,5 cm in diameter. Abdominal ultrasound was performed, which suggested urachal sinus. Surgery revealed umbilical bud communicating, in the abdominal portion, with hyperemic, inflammatory Meckel´s diverticulum placed 90 cm away from the ileocaecal angle in which many ascaris were detected. Anatomo-pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed diverticulitis. Thus, the diagnosis of Meckel´s diverticulitis by Ascaris was retained. Resection and anastomosis with bud excision were performed. The postoperative course was simple even after a 6-month follow-up period.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Diverticulite/diagnóstico , Divertículo Ileal/diagnóstico , Animais , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaríase/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Diverticulite/parasitologia , Diverticulite/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Divertículo Ileal/parasitologia , Divertículo Ileal/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 480, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587991

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ascaris in urinary bladder is an extremely rare phenomenon. It may occur after fistula formation between urinary and gastrointestinal tract or by retrograde migration of adult worm, and is associated with complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old Amhara woman from rural northwest Ethiopia presented with a complaint of difficulty to fully evacuate her bladder of 1 year duration. Ultrasonography showed thickened bladder wall with echo debris. There were also thickened bowel and fluid-filled loops of intestine adjacent to urinary bladder. On cystoscopy examination, there was live ascaris swimming inside the bladder. Enterovesical fistula was entertained and explorative laparotomy performed. Findings confirmed presence of iliovesical fistula. The fistula was divided and the continuity of the intestine restored. The inflammatory mass was subjected to histopathology study and turned out to be benign inflammatory reaction. She was also given antihelminthics. Postoperatively, her course was uneventful, and she was discharged cured. CONCLUSION: Though it is extremely rare to have urinary symptoms from ascariasis, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for all possibilities.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Fístula Intestinal , Animais , Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaríase/diagnóstico por imagem , Ascaris , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 449-456, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a modified method for isolating geohelminth eggs and to assess the geohelminth contamination in Bangladesh. METHODS: The efficacy of the modified method was evaluated using naturally contaminated and experimentally seeded soil samples. In total, 240 samples were assessed from four different sites in three geographic contexts. A questionnaire survey with 50 professionals was conducted. RESULTS: The modified method showed considerable efficacy in isolating parasitic eggs from naturally contaminated soil (54.0%) and experimentally seeded soils (63.0% for Toxocara eggs and 52.0% for Ascaris eggs). The modified method was described as convenient by the majority of participants. Overall prevalence was 52.5%, with several species of helminth observed, including Toxocara sp., Ascaridia galli/Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaris sp., hookworms/strongyles, Capillaria sp., Trichuris sp., and taeniids). The contamination rate was found to be higher around livestock farms (76.7%), followed by latrines (63.3%), households (41.6%), and schools (28.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The modified method was shown to be feasible in terms of field applicability and egg recovery rate, and could be adopted in low-resource settings. A substantial prevalence of geohelminths was observed, with some of the species associated with zoonoses. These findings highlight the urgent need for widespread mapping of geohelminths to avoid spillovers to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Ascaris , Zoonoses , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Solo
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgE characterizes the humoral response of allergic sensitization but less is known about what modulates its function and why some patients present clinical symptoms for a given IgE level and others do not. An IgE response also occurs during helminth diseases, independently of allergic symptoms. This response could be a model of non-functional IgE. OBJECTIVE: To study the IgE response against environmental allergens induced during natural helminth infection. METHODS: In 28 non allergic subjects from the periphery of Ho Chi Minh city with (H+, n = 18) and without helminth infection (H-, n = 10), we measured IgE and IgG4 against several components of Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus (Dpt) and Ascaris (a marker of immunization against nematodes), and determined the IgE component sensitization profile using microarray ISAC biochips. The functional ability of IgE to induce degranulation of cultured mast cells was evaluated in the presence of Dpt. RESULTS: Non allergic H+ subjects exhibited higher levels of IgE against Dpt compared to H- subjects. Dpt IgE were not functional in vitro and did not recognize usual Dpt major allergens. IgE recognized other component allergens that belong to different protein families, and most were glycosylated. Depletion of IgE recognizing carbohydrate cross-reactive determinant (CCD) did not induce a reduction in Dpt IgE. The Dpt IgG4 were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Helminth infections induced IgE against allergens such as Dpt and molecular components that belong to different sources as well as against CCD (such as ß-1,2-xylose and/or ⍺-1,3-fucose substituted N-glycans). Dpt IgE were not able to induce degranulation of mast cells and were not explained by sensitization to usual major allergens or N-glycans.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Infecções por Nematoides/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ancylostomatoidea/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Ascaris/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Mastócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Nematoides/sangue , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009395, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring the success of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control programs relies on accurate diagnosis and quantitative assessment of infection prevalence and intensity. As preventative chemotherapeutic program coverage for STH expands, the necessity of gaining insights into the relative or comparative sensitivities, in terms of limits of detection (LOD) and egg-recovery-rates (ERR) for microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction qPCR-based diagnostic techniques becomes imperative to inform suitability for their intended use for large scale STH monitoring and treatment efficacy studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The diagnostic performance in terms of ERR and LOD of the Kato-Katz (KK) thick smear technique, sodium nitrate (NaNO3) faecal floatation (FF) and qPCR for the accurate detection and enumeration of STH eggs were calculated and expressed in eggs per gram (EPG), by experimentally seeding parasite-free human faeces with Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Necator americanus eggs representing low, medium and high intensity infections. The efficiency of NaNO3 flotation was also calculated over a range of specific gravities (SpGr) for the optimum recovery of STH eggs. FF of SpGr 1.30 recovered 62.7%, 11% and 8.7% more Trichuris spp., Necator americanus and Ascaris spp. eggs respectively, than the recommended SpGr of 1.20. All diagnostic methods demonstrated strong direct correlation to the intensity of seeded EPG. KK and FF (SpGr 1.30) resulted in significant lower ERRs compared to qPCR (p <0.05). qPCR demonstrated significantly (p <0.05) greater sensitivity with an ability to detect as little as 5 EPG for all three STH, compared to 50 EPG by KK and FF (SpGr 1.30). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study compares the diagnostic parameters in terms of LOD and ERRs of STHs for the KK, FF and qPCR. These results indicate that the diagnostic performance of qPCR assays should be considered by control programs in the phase that aims to seek confirmation of transmission break and cessation of preventive chemotherapy in low-transmission settings, in line with the control targets of the WHO neglected tropical diseases 2030 Roadmap.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia/métodos , Necator americanus/isolamento & purificação , Nitratos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800545

RESUMO

Nematodes of the genus Ascaris are important parasites of humans and swine, and the phylogenetically related genera (Parascaris, Toxocara, and Baylisascaris) infect mammals of veterinary interest. Over the last decade, considerable genomic resources have been established for Ascaris, including complete germline and somatic genomes, comprehensive mRNA and small RNA transcriptomes, as well as genome-wide histone and chromatin data. These datasets provide a major resource for studies on the basic biology of these parasites and the host-parasite relationship. Ascaris and its relatives undergo programmed DNA elimination, a highly regulated process where chromosomes are fragmented and portions of the genome are lost in embryonic cells destined to adopt a somatic fate, whereas the genome remains intact in germ cells. Unlike many model organisms, Ascaris transcription drives early development beginning prior to pronuclear fusion. Studies on Ascaris demonstrated a complex small RNA network even in the absence of a piRNA pathway. Comparative genomics of these ascarids has provided perspectives on nematode sex chromosome evolution, programmed DNA elimination, and host-parasite coevolution. The genomic resources enable comparison of proteins across diverse species, revealing many new potential drug targets that could be used to control these parasitic nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaris/fisiologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Animais , Ascaríase/veterinária , Ascaris/classificação , Ascaris/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Suínos , Transcriptoma
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