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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0282374, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568901

RESUMO

The waters around the Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) are important fishing grounds for authorized artisanal vessels fishing within the reserve as well as for national and foreign industrial fleets operating in the wider Ecuadorian Insular Exclusive Economic Zone (IEEZ). Although it was not originally designed for fisheries management, Automatic Identification System (AIS) data provides useful, open access, near real-time and high-resolution information that allows for increased monitoring, particularly around Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. This study uses AIS data provided by Global Fishing Watch to assess the spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of fishing effort by vessel flag within the GMR and the IEEZ from 2012 to 2021. Based on kernel density estimation analysis, we determinate the core-use areas (50%) and spatial extent (95%) of fishing activities by fleets (Ecuadorian and foreign), gear types and seasons (warm, from December to May; and cold, from June to November). Our results show that the Ecuadorian fleet recorded the most observed fishing hours in the study area, with 32,829 hours in the IEEZ and 20,816 hours within the GMR. The foreign flags with the most observed fishing hours in the IEEZ were Panama (3,245 hours) and Nicaragua (2,468.5 hours), while in the GMR were the 'Unknown flag' (4,991.4 hours) and Panama (133.7 hours). Vessels fished employing different fishing gears, but the waters of the GMR and IEEZ were mostly targeted by tuna purse-seiners and drifting longlines. The spatial distribution of the fishing effort exhibits marked seasonal variability, likely influenced by seasonal migrations of target species such as tunas (e.g., Thunnus albacares, T. obesus and Katsuwonus pelamis), marlins (e.g., Makaira nigricans) and sharks (e.g., Alopias pelagicus). The collection and use of this type of spatial and seasonal information is an essential step to understand the dynamics of fishing activities in national waters and improve fisheries management, particularly in less studied areas and fisheries.


Assuntos
Caça , Tubarões , Animais , Estações do Ano , Atum , Pesqueiros , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8256, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589552

RESUMO

Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, represents an important component of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We investigated the influence of environmental conditions on the spatiotemporal distribution of yellowfin tuna using fisheries' catch data spanning 2012-2019 within Mexican waters. We implemented hierarchical Bayesian regression models with spatial and temporal random effects and fixed effects of several environmental covariates to predict habitat suitability (HS) for the species. The best model included spatial and interannual anomalies of the absolute dynamic topography of the ocean surface (ADTSA and ADTIA, respectively), bottom depth, and a seasonal cyclical random effect. High catches occurred mainly towards anticyclonic features at bottom depths > 1000 m. The spatial extent of HS was higher in years with positive ADTIA, which implies more anticyclonic activity. The highest values of HS (> 0.7) generally occurred at positive ADTSA in oceanic waters of the central and northern GoM. However, high HS values (> 0.6) were observed in the southern GoM, in waters with cyclonic activity during summer. Our results highlight the importance of mesoscale features for the spatiotemporal distribution of yellowfin tunas and could help to develop dynamic fisheries management strategies in Mexico and the U.S. for this valuable resource.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Atum , Animais , Golfo do México , Teorema de Bayes , Oceanos e Mares
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5454, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443405

RESUMO

It is widely believed that a significant portion of the gut microbiota, which play crucial roles in overall health and disease, originates from the food we consume. Sashimi is a type of popular raw seafood cuisine. Its microbiome, however, remained to be thoroughly explored. The objective of this study is to explore the microbiome composition in sashimi at the time when it is served and ready to be eaten. Specifically, our tasks include investigating the diversity and characteristics of microbial profiles in sashimi with respect to the fish types. We utilized the Sanger-sequencing based DNA barcoding technology for fish species authentication and next-generation sequencing for sashimi microbiome profiling. We investigated the microbiome profiles of amberjack, cobia, salmon, tuna and tilapia sashimi, which were all identified using the MT-CO1 DNA sequences regardless of their menu offering names. Chao1 and Shannon indexes, as well as Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index were used to evaluate the alpha and beta diversities of sashimi microbiome. We successfully validated our previous observation that tilapia sashimi has a significantly higher proportions of Pseudomonas compared to other fish sashimi, using independent samples (P = 0.0010). Salmon sashimi exhibited a notably higher Chao1 index in its microbiome in contrast to other fish species (P = 0.0031), indicating a richer and more diverse microbial ecosystem. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index revealed distinct clusters of microbiome profiles with respect to fish types. Microbiome similarity was notably observed between amberjack and tuna, as well as cobia and salmon. The relationship of microbiome similarity can be depicted as a tree which resembles partly the phylogenetic tree of host species, emphasizing the close relationship between host evolution and microbial composition. Moreover, salmon exhibited a pronounced relative abundance of the Photobacterium genus, significantly surpassing tuna (P = 0.0079), observed consistently across various restaurant sources. In conclusion, microbiome composition of Pseudomonas is significantly higher in tilapia sashimi than in other fish sashimi. Salmon sashimi has the highest diversity of microbiome among all fish sashimi that we analyzed. The level of Photobacterium is significantly higher in salmon than in tuna across all the restaurants we surveyed. These findings provide critical insights into the intricate relationship between the host evolution and the microbial composition. These discoveries deepen our understanding of sashimi microbiota, facilitating our decision in selecting raw seafood.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Filogenia , Microbiota/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Salmão , Atum/genética , Alimentos Marinhos , Photobacterium , Pseudomonas
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301072, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547232

RESUMO

Several odontocete species depredate catch and bait from fishing gear, resulting in their bycatch and causing substantial economic costs. There are no known mitigation methods for odontocete depredation in pelagic longline fisheries that are effective, do not harm odontocetes and are commercially viable. Understanding odontocetes' depredation strategies can contribute to mitigating this human-wildlife conflict. Using observer data from the Hawaii-based tuna longline fishery, this study summarized teleost and elasmobranch species-specific mean posterior odontocete depredation rates using a simple Bayesian binomial likelihood estimator with a Bayes-Laplace prior. Depredation rates of species with sufficient sample sizes ranged from a high of 1.2% (1.1 to 1.3 95% highest posterior density interval or HDI) for shortbill spearfish to a low of 0.002% (0.001 to 0.003 95% HDI) for blue shark. Depredation of catch is a rare event in this fishery, occurring in about 6% of sets. When depredation did occur, most frequently odontocetes depredated a small proportion of the catch, however, there was large variability in depredation rates between teleost species. For example, bigeye tuna was two times more likely to be depredated than yellowfin tuna (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.8-2.3, P<0.0001). For sets with depredation, 10% and 2% of sets had depredation of over half of the captured bigeye tuna and combined teleosts, respectively. All elasmobranch species had relatively low depredation rates, where only 7 of almost 0.5M captured elasmobranchs were depredated. Odontocetes selectively depredate a subset of the teleost species captured within sets, possibly based on net energy value, chemical, visual, acoustic and textural characteristics and body size, but not median length, which was found to be unrelated to depredation rate (Pearson's r = 0.14, 95% CI: -0.26 to 0.50, p = 0.49). Study findings provide evidence to support the identification and innovation of effective and commercially viable methods to mitigate odontocete depredation and bycatch.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Atum , Animais , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Havaí , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
5.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 75(1): 15-23, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548374

RESUMO

This review summarises our two decades of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) monitoring in different marine organisms along the eastern Adriatic Sea. The aim was to gain an insight into the trends of PCB distribution in order to evaluate the effectiveness of past and current legislation and suggest further action. Here we mainly focus on PCB levels in wild and farmed Mediterranean mussels, wild and farmed bluefin tuna, loggerhead sea turtles, common bottlenose dolphins, and small pelagic fish. The use of artificial intelligence and advanced statistics enabled an insight into the influence of various variables on the uptake of PCBs in the investigated organisms as well as into their mutual dependence. Our findings suggest that PCBs in small pelagic fish and mussels reflect global pollution and that high levels in dolphins and wild tuna tissues raise particular concern, as they confirm their biomagnification up the food chain. Therefore, the ongoing PCB monitoring should focus on predatory species in particular to help us better understand PCB contamination in marine ecosystems in our efforts to protect the environment and human health.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Golfinhos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Atum , Ecossistema , Inteligência Artificial , Croácia , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 196: 106432, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457908

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation patterns of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe and Cu) and organic (priority and emerging) pollutants, in combination with stable isotope analysis (SIA), were assessed in muscle and liver of three tuna species from the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus; Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda, and skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis). SIA and contaminant (heavy metal and organic) profiles separately discriminated between species. There was no significant overlap between the trophic niches estimated from isotopic data, suggesting that there are diet differences which may determine differential bioaccumulation patterns. The levels of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in muscle of all the individuals analyzed were below the allowable limits established by the current legislation. Concentrations of most contaminants were higher in liver than in muscle, underlining the powerful detoxifying capacity of the liver in tunas. In addition to diet, other factors such as size and age (exposure time to environmental chemicals) explain differences in pollutant accumulation patterns in tissues between species, each with varying degrees of involvement depending on the pollutant class. Our results show that combining contaminant profile data with trophic features based on SIA may help understand pollutant bioaccumulation patterns in upper levels of marine food webs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Animais , Atum , Metais Pesados/análise , Isótopos/análise , Cadeia Alimentar
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110641, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432054

RESUMO

The commercialization of processed fish products is rising in restaurants and small to medium enterprises. However, there is a lack of data related to the microbiological safety of such products. In this study total aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae, as proxy of process hygiene criteria, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and concentration of histamine, as food safety criteria, were investigated in Salmo salar (salmon), Xiphias gladius (swordfish) and Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), before, during, and at the end of a dry-curing process, performed in a dedicated cabinet, at controlled temperature, relative humidity and ventilation, up to 240 h. The microbiological parameters were investigated in the tested fish products by culture methods and shotgun metagenomic, while the presence of histamine, and other biogenic amines, was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. In the raw material, and up to the end of the dry curing process, the concentration of Enterobacteriaceae was always lower than 10 CFU/g, while total aerobic colony counts ranged between 3.9 and 5.4 Log CFU/g in salmon; 5.5 and 5.9 Log CFU/g in swordfish; 4.4 and 4.8 Log CFU/g in tuna. The pH values were significantly different between fish species, in the raw materials and during processing except for T4, occurring 70 h after the start of the process for salmon and after 114 h for swordfish and tuna. Water activity was different at specific sampling points and at the end of processing. Overall, 79 % of the sequences identified in the tested fish samples were assigned to y bacteria. The most abundant phyla were Pseudomonadota, Bacillota and Mycoplasmatota. The microbial populations identified by shotgun metagenomic in the tested fish species clustered well separated one from the other. Moreover, the microbial richness was significantly higher in salmon and tuna in comparison to swordfish. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in the raw material by using the reference cultural method and very few reads (relative abundance <0.007) were detected in swordfish and tuna by shotgun metagenomic. Histamine producing bacteria, belonging to the genera Vibrio, Morganella, Photobacterium and Klebsiella, were identified primarily in swordfish. However, histamine and other biogenic amines were not detected in any sample. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper reporting time point determinations of microbiological quality and safety parameters in salmon, swordfish and tuna, before, during and at the end of a dry-curing process. The data collected in this paper can help to predict the risk profile of ready to eat dry-cured fish products during storage before consumption.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Histamina , Animais , Histamina/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Enterobacteriaceae , Peixes , Bactérias/genética , Atum/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130424, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428772

RESUMO

The fishing and aquaculture industries generate a huge amount of waste during processing and preservation operations, especially those of tuna. Recovering these by-products is a major economic and environmental challenge for manufacturers seeking to produce new active biomolecules of interest. A new hyaluronic acid was extracted from bluefin tuna's vitreous humour to assess its antioxidant and pharmacological activities. The characterization by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1D1H) and 2D (1H COSY, 1H/13C HSQC)) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/DRI/VD) revealed that the extracted polysaccharide was a hyaluronic acid with high uronic acid content (55.8 %) and a weight average molecular weight of 888 kDa. This polymer possesses significant anti-radical activity and ferrous chelating capacity. In addition, pharmacological evaluation of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential, using preclinical models, in comparison with reference drugs (Dexamethasone, diclofenac, and acetylsalicylate of lysine), revealed promising anti-inflammatory activity as well as interesting peripheral and central antinociceptive activity. Therefore, our new hyaluronic acid compound may therefore serve as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of pain sensation and inflammation of various pathological origins.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico , Atum , Animais , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Polissacarídeos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(15): 22715-22735, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411916

RESUMO

The presence of microplastics (MPs) in marine ecosystems is widespread and extensive. They have even reached the deepest parts of the ocean and polar regions. The number of articles on plastic pollution has increased in recent years, but few have investigated the MPs from oceanic islands which are biodiversity hotspots. We investigated the possible microplastic contamination their source and characteristics in surface waters off Kavaratti Island and in the gastrointestinal tract (GT) of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kavaratti Island of the Lakshadweep archipelago. A total of 424 MP particles were isolated from the surface water samples collected from off Kavaratti Island with an average abundance of 5 ± 1nos./L. A total of 117 MPs were recovered from the GT of skipjack tuna from 30 individual fishes. This points to a potential threat of MP contamination in seafood around the world since this species has a high value in local and international markets. Fiber and blue color were the most common microplastic morphotypes and colors encountered, respectively, both from surface water and GT of fish. Smaller MPs (0.01-1 mm) made up a greater portion of the recovered materials, and most of them were secondary MPs. Polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant polymers found in this study. The Pollution Load Index (1.3 ± 0.21) of the surface water and skipjack tuna (1 ± 0.7) indicates a minor ecological risk for the coral islands, while the Polymer Hazard Index highlights the ecological risk of polymers, even at low MP concentrations. This pioneer study sheds preliminary light on the abundance, properties, and environmental risks of MPs to this highly biodiverse ecosystem.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Plásticos , Atum , Ecossistema , Peixes , Água , Polímeros , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
J Morphol ; 285(2): e21666, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361265

RESUMO

Vertebral growth is an essential developmental process to support the expansion of the vertebrate body. In teleosts, the lateral side of the vertebral bodies develops to form different structures among species in the late stages of vertebral growth, although lateral structures are not apparent in the early stages. Lateral structures are one of the structural features that determine the diversity of teleost vertebrae. However, explanations for the formation of lateral structures are conflicting because few reports have investigated the growth of teleost vertebral bodies. To clarify the growth process, we analyzed the morphological changes in the vertebral body of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis at different developmental stages using micro-computed tomography (CT) scans. The micro-CT scans showed that the vertebral centrum formed a plate-like ridge on the lateral side along the cranial-caudal direction and extended laterally with increasing thickness. Simultaneously, the proximal region of the lateral ridges became porous as the vertebrae grew to form bone marrow cavities. Furthermore, we used histological observations to describe the relationship between these morphological changes and osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Osteoblasts accumulated on the distal edges of the lateral ridges, whereas osteoclasts were distributed in the bone marrow cavities. These observations suggest that bone resorption occurs proximally to form bone marrow cavities in addition to bone synthesis at the edges of the lateral ridges. The bone marrow cavities were occupied by blood vessels, extracellular matrix, and adipocytes, and the internal tissue composition changed to increase the area of adipose tissue. Because the ratio of bone volume decreases in large vertebrae, bone formation and resorption are regulated to separate the external cortical and internal trabecular bones to support the vertebrae. This study is the first to report the formation of lateral structures and can be applied to similar lateral structures in the vertebrae of other teleost species.


Assuntos
Atum , Corpo Vertebral , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos
11.
Waste Manag ; 177: 203-210, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340568

RESUMO

Fish canning industries generate large amounts of solid waste during their processing operations, creating a significant environmental challenge. Nonetheless, this waste can be efficiently and sustainably treated through anaerobic digestion. In this study, the potential of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated and co-digested solid tuna waste was investigated. The thermal pretreatment of raw fish viscera resulted in a 50 % increase in methane yield, with a production of 0.27 g COD-CH4/g COD added. However, this pretreatment did not lead to a significant increase in biogas production for cooked tuna viscera. When non-thermally pretreated raw viscera was tested, a large accumulation of volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids was observed, with levels reaching 21 and 6 g COD/L, respectively. On the other hand, anaerobic co-digestion of cooked tuna viscera with fat waste significantly enhanced methane production, achieving 0.87 g COD-CH4/g COD added. In contrast, co-digestion of cooked tuna viscera with dairy waste and sewage sludge resulted in notably lower yields of 0.36 and 0.46 g COD-CH4/g COD added, respectively. These results may be related to the C/N ratio, which was found to be within the optimal range for anaerobic digestion only in the tuna and fat waste co-digestion assay.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Atum , Animais , Resíduos Sólidos , Metano , Esgotos , Digestão
12.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(2)2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38392001

RESUMO

Tuna is an excellent food product, relatively low in calories, that is recommended for a balanced diet. The continuously increasing demand, especially for bluefin-tuna-based food preparations, and its relatively high market price make adulteration by intentionally mixing with other lower-priced tunas more prospective. The development of rapid methods to detect tuna adulteration is a great challenge in food analytical science. We have thus developed a simple, fast, and low-cost molecular rapid test for the visual detection of tuna adulteration. It is the first sensor developed for tuna authenticity testing. The three species studied were Thunnus thynnus (BFT), Thunnus albacares, and Katsuwonus pelamis. DNA was isolated from fresh and heat-treated cooked fish samples followed by PCR. The PCR products were hybridized (10 min) to specific probes and applied to the rapid sensing device. The signal was observed visually in 10-15 min using gold nanoparticle reporters. The method was evaluated employing binary mixtures of PCR products from fresh tissues and mixtures of DNA isolates from heat-treated tissues (canned products) at adulteration percentages of 1-100%. The results showed that the method was reproducible and specific for each tuna species. As low as 1% of tuna adulteration was detected with the naked eye.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Atum , Animais , Atum/genética , Ouro , Estudos Prospectivos , DNA
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 196: 106408, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402010

RESUMO

The Atlantic bonito (Sarda, family Scombridae) is a pelagic species and one of the most exploited small tuna species. Despite its economic importance, biological information is scarce with no associated management directives. In this study, using a population genomic approach resulted in a lack of panmixia of two genetic pools with different effective population sizes (east central-tropical Atlantic and northeast Atlantic-Mediterranean) and an intermixing zone in Atlantic Morocco. The absence of genetic heterogeneity between the locations in Atlantic - Mediterranean transitional zone adds new evidence that challenges the Strait of Gibraltar as a phylogeographic barrier for marine pelagic species. These results are proposed to the ICCAT Commission to establish management areas for this species, although they are not consistent with the recently adopted pelagic ecoregions. Finally, a panel of highly informative SNPs was developed for efficient and low-cost population assignment and the analysis of unresolved population structures.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Atum , Animais , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Genômica , Mar Mediterrâneo , Oceano Atlântico
14.
J Fish Biol ; 104(4): 1112-1121, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174622

RESUMO

The yellowfin tuna is a very abundant tropical tuna species in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean and an important fishery resource for the Brazilian tuna fleet. In this study we performed stable isotope analysis to better understand the spatial trophodynamics and dietary changes in yellowfin tuna around two insular marine protected areas in Brazil. A total of 65 yellowfin tuna specimens measuring between 47 and 138 cm LT (total length) were sampled around the archipelagos of Fernando de Noronha (FNA; n = 34) and Saint Peter and Saint Paul (SPSPA; n = 31) between July 2018 and September 2019. Bayesian mixing models and generalized additive models were used to investigate the contributions of four different prey items (zooplankton, cephalopods, fish larvae, and flying fish) to yellowfin tuna diet in each area and their potential changes in relation to predator growth. The four prey items were found to have different overall contributions between the two studied areas, with zooplankton being the most important prey in FNA, whereas flying fish was the most relevant prey to the species' diet in SPSPA. Significant changes in the species diet by size were also found, with fish smaller than 90 cm (TL) having a more generalist diet and larger animals relying more on consuming larger and more nutritious prey (i.e., flying fish). Our results suggest that these two marine protected areas play an important role in ocean dynamics, providing important and different foraging grounds for the development of this predator species.


Assuntos
Córtex Insular , Atum , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Oceano Atlântico , Peixes , Comportamento Alimentar , Oceano Pacífico
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 232, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a large tuna exploited by major fisheries in tropical and subtropical waters of all oceans except the Mediterranean Sea. Genomic studies of population structure, adaptive variation or of the genetic basis of phenotypic traits are needed to inform fisheries management but are currently limited by the lack of a reference genome for this species. Here we report a draft genome assembly and a linkage map for use in genomic studies of T. albacares. METHODS AND RESULTS: Illumina and PacBio SMRT sequencing were used in combination to generate a hybrid assembly that comprises 743,073,847 base pairs contained in 2,661 scaffolds. The assembly has a N50 of 351,587 and complete and partial BUSCO scores of 86.47% and 3.63%, respectively. Double-digest restriction associated DNA (ddRAD) was used to genotype the 2 parents and 164 of their F1 offspring resulting from a controlled breeding cross, retaining 19,469 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The SNP loci were used to construct a linkage map that features 24 linkage groups that represent the 24 chromosomes of yellowfin tuna. The male and female maps span 1,243.8 cM and 1,222.9 cM, respectively. The map was used to anchor the assembly in 24 super-scaffolds that contain 79% of the yellowfin tuna genome. Gene prediction identified 46,992 putative genes 20,203 of which could be annotated via gene ontology. CONCLUSIONS: The draft reference will be valuable to interpret studies of genome wide variation in T. albacares and other Scombroid species.


Assuntos
Genômica , Atum , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Atum/genética , Genótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 199: 115993, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217913

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in blood and tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna were analysed to gather information regarding their distribution, accumulation and inter-relationships, as well as to examine how sex affects them. In the whole population, the concentration range was from below the detection limit (bone) to 8.512 µg g-1 (liver) for Cd, and from below detection limit (bone and gills) to 0.063 µg g-1 (kidney) for Pb. The median concentration in the muscles (0.008 and 0.029 µg g-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively) was 10 times less than the maximum permitted for consumption. Sex was shown to be an important variable affecting concentrations of Cd in both liver and kidneys, so taking into account sex when interpreting results is highly recommended. The importance of Cd and Pb bioaccumulation in fishery by-products, increasingly important in commercial circuits, is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Atum , Animais , Chumbo , Oceano Atlântico
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 202(3): 1212-1223, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37393386

RESUMO

In Algeria, the data and research on the essential and toxic chemical elements in food are limited and insufficient; therefore, the present study focused on evaluating the essential and toxic elements content in different 11 brands with two types (tomato and oil) of canned tuna fish, consumed in Algeria in 2022, by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), while mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as well as estimate the probabilistic risk assessment. The elements in canned tuna fish commercialized for human consumption in Algeria were determined by ICP-OES methods, The results showed that the heavy metal concentration in the samples under study ranged from 49.11 to 289.80 mg.kg-1 (Ca), 0.0045 to 0.2598 mg.kg-1 (Cd), 0.128 to 1.21 mg.kg-1 (Cr), 8.55 to 35.94 mg.kg-1 (Fe), 121.27 to 379.17 mg.kg-1 (Mg), 0.0767 to 1.2928 mg.kg-1 (Mn), 2.10 to 3.95 mg.kg-1 (Mo), and 2.86 to 35.90 mg.kg-1 (Zn), whereas Cu, Pb, Cu, Ni, and As were under limit of detection (LOD), while the toxic elements of mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry which showed a content ranged from 0.0186 to 0.0996 mg.kg-1. The levels of mineral elements concentration were close to the minimum recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Obtained data for this investigation can be suitable for Algerian food purposes.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Animais , Humanos , Atum , Metais Pesados/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Medição de Risco
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(4): 1942-1952, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37886811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Composite nanofiber films loaded with ε-polylysine (PL) and gallic acid (GA) were prepared using a zein/gelatin (ZG) electrospinning method to develop effective active packaging films for tuna preservation. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, hydrophobicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties of the films, and their application for tuna during a period of storage of 4 °C were investigated. RESULTS: PL reduced the average diameter of ZG fibers, whereas GA increased it. The PL/GA/ZG film possessed a well distributed fiber morphology with an average diameter of 810 ± 150 nm. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed the physical loading of PL and GA in ZG film with the main chemical bonds and crystal structure unchanged. The addition of both PL and GA reduced hydrophobicity of the ZG film while the PL/GA/ZG film was still hydrophobic. GA enhanced its thermal stability and contributed to its antioxidant activity. PL and GA synergetically enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZG film against Shewanella putrefaciens. PL combined with GA is more suitable for modifying ZG film than GA alone. The PL/GA/ZG film effectively inhibited total viable counts, total volatile base nitrogen, fat oxidation, and texture deterioration of tuna fillets at 4 °C storage, and could extend the shelf life by 3 days. CONCLUSIONS: The PL/GA/ZG nanofiber film demonstrated promising potential for application in the preservation of aquatic products as a new antibacterial and antioxidant food packaging. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Gálico , Zeína , Animais , Ácido Gálico/química , Antioxidantes/química , Zeína/química , Polilisina/farmacologia , Atum , Gelatina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
19.
Mol Ecol ; 33(1): e17188, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37921120

RESUMO

The commercially important Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), a large migratory fish, has experienced notable recovery aided by accurate resource assessment and effective fisheries management efforts. Traditionally, this species has been perceived as consisting of eastern and western populations, spawning respectively in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with mixing occurring throughout the Atlantic. However, recent studies have challenged this assumption by revealing weak genetic differentiation and identifying a previously unknown spawning ground in the Slope Sea used by Atlantic bluefin tuna of uncertain origin. To further understand the current and past population structure and connectivity of Atlantic bluefin tuna, we have assembled a unique dataset including thousands of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 500 larvae, young of the year and spawning adult samples covering the three spawning grounds and including individuals of other Thunnus species. Our analyses support two weakly differentiated but demographically connected ancestral populations that interbreed in the Slope Sea. Moreover, we also identified signatures of introgression from albacore (Thunnus alalunga) into the Atlantic bluefin tuna genome, exhibiting varied frequencies across spawning areas, indicating strong gene flow from the Mediterranean Sea towards the Slope Sea. We hypothesize that the observed genetic differentiation may be attributed to increased gene flow caused by a recent intensification of westward migration by the eastern population, which could have implications for the genetic diversity and conservation of western populations. Future conservation efforts should consider these findings to address potential genetic homogenization in the species.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Atum , Animais , Atum/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Golfo do México , Oceano Atlântico
20.
J Fish Biol ; 104(1): 216-226, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800368

RESUMO

A feeding study was conducted to investigate how fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) supplementation affected the growth, feed utilization, body composition, and hematology of juvenile giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis Forsskal, 1775). Seven isonitrogenous (52% protein) and isocaloric diets (10% lipid) were formulated, wherein shrimp hydrolysate (SH) and tuna hydrolysate (TH) were used to replace fishmeal at inclusion levels of 0 (control), 30, 60, and 90 g/kg and labeled as control, SH30, SH60, SH90, TH30, TH60, and TH90, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile giant trevally for 8 weeks. The results showed higher final body weight and specific growth rate in fish fed SH30, SH60, TH30, and TH60 than fed control diet. No difference was observed in feed intake, but reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found in fish fed SH30, SH60, TH30, and TH60, demonstrating these diets improved feed utilization. TH90 caused deposition of lipid droplet in the hepatocyte, a sign of liver damage. Total monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and highly unsaturated fatty acids in fish were not affected by FPH supplementation. Fish fed TH30 showed lower ∑n - 3 PUFA than the fish fed remaining dietary treatments. The elevated serum protein was seen in fish fed control, SH30, SH60, and TH30, demonstrating that these diets were beneficial for the innate immune response in giant trevally. The results indicate that TH and SH could be incorporated into diets of giant trevally at 30-60 g/kg, replacing 7%-13% fishmeal with enhanced growth and health benefits.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fígado , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Atum/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal/análise
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