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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409384

RESUMO

(1→3)-ß-D-glucans (BG) (the glucose polymers) are recognized as pathogen motifs, and different forms of BGs are reported to have various effects. Here, different BGs, including Pachyman (BG with very few (1→6)-linkages), whole-glucan particles (BG with many (1→6)-glycosidic bonds), and Oat-BG (BG with (1→4)-linkages), were tested. In comparison with dextran sulfate solution (DSS) alone in mice, DSS with each of these BGs did not alter the weight loss, stool consistency, colon injury (histology and cytokines), endotoxemia, serum BG, and fecal microbiome but Pachyman-DSS-treated mice demonstrated the highest serum cytokine elicitation (TNF-α and IL-6). Likewise, a tail vein injection of Pachyman together with intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the highest levels of these cytokines at 3 h post-injection than LPS alone or LPS with other BGs. With bone marrow-derived macrophages, BG induced only TNF-α (most prominent with Pachyman), while LPS with BG additively increased several cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10); inflammatory genes (iNOS, IL-1ß, Syk, and NF-κB); and cell energy alterations (extracellular flux analysis). In conclusion, Pachyman induced the highest LPS proinflammatory synergistic effect on macrophages, followed by WGP, possibly through Syk-associated interactions between the Dectin-1 and TLR-4 signal transduction pathways. Selection of the proper form of BGs for specific clinical conditions might be beneficial.


Assuntos
Mucosite , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Avena , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Glucanos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
2.
Phytopathology ; 112(5): 1103-1117, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365054

RESUMO

Promoting seed decay is an ecological approach to reducing weed persistence in the soil seedbank. Previous work demonstrated that Fusarium avenaceum F.a.1 decays dormant Avena fatua (wild oat) caryopses and induces several defense enzyme activities in vitro. The objectives of this study were to obtain a global perspective of proteins expressed after F.a.1-caryopsis colonization by conducting proteomic evaluations on (i) leachates, soluble extrinsic (seed-surface) proteins released upon washing caryopses in buffer and (ii) proteins extracted from whole caryopses; interactions with aluminum (Al) were also evaluated in the latter study because soil acidification and associated metal toxicity are growing problems. Of the 119 leachate proteins classified as defense/stress, 80 were induced or repressed. Defense/stress proteins were far more abundant in A. fatua (35%) than in F.a.1 (12%). Avena defense/stress proteins were also the most highly regulated category, with 30% induced and 35% repressed by F.a.1. Antifungal proteins represented 36% of Avena defense proteins and were the most highly regulated, with 36% induced and 37% repressed by F.a.1. These results implicate selective regulation of Avena defense proteins by F.a.1. Fusarium proteins were also highly abundant in the leachates, with 10% related to pathogenicity, 45% of which were associated with host cell wall degradation. In whole caryopsis extracts, fungal colonization generally resulted in induction of a similar set of Avena proteins in the presence and absence of Al. Results advance the hypothesis that seed decay pathogens elicit intricate and dynamic biochemical responses in dormant seeds.


Assuntos
Avena , Fusarium , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Proteoma , Proteômica , Sementes/fisiologia , Solo
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058291, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidaemia is a critical factor in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Concerning dyslipidaemia regulation, we advocate for lifestyle interventions such as diet to complement drug treatment. Numerous studies have confirmed that oat ß-glucan, a critical component of oats, can help lower cholesterol. However, there is no conclusive evidence for the efficacy of oats and their products in the treatment of dyslipidaemia. As a result, we have developed this protocol to serve as a guide for future research on oat intervention for dyslipidaemias. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a search of eight databases or websites (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP and Wanfang) to identify studies on oats' ability to regulate blood lipid levels. Two authors will screen articles independently, extract data based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and assess the quality and bias of included studies. To assess and quantify heterogeneity, Q and I2 statistics will be used. If there is significant heterogeneity between studies, the source of the heterogeneity will be investigated using subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. We will analyse potential publication bias using the Begg funnel plot and Egger's weighted regression statistics. To assess the quality of evidence for the primary outcomes, the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation method will be used. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is based on the existing literature and data in the databases. It is not subject to ethical review. The findings, on the other hand, will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. These findings may aid in the management of dyslipidaemia on a daily basis. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021226751.


Assuntos
Avena , Dislipidemias , Viés , Dislipidemias/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
Food Funct ; 13(7): 3894-3904, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285840

RESUMO

Dietary fibres have been shown to aggregate and lose viscosity and water binding capacity in solution in the presence of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to verify this observation in a complex grain system containing ß-glucans. The viscosity of uncooked and cooked oat bran digested in vitro was measured in the presence of 1-30 mM phenolic acids or flavonoids, and digestograms were modelled to understand the effects of phenolic compounds on the drivers of viscosity. The final viscosity of the digesta, driven by ß-glucans, underwent a significant decrease of up to 31% upon the addition of phenolic compounds. To account for the inhibitory activity of phenolic compounds on digestive enzymes, modelling of the digestograms was adjusted with reference to that from previous work. The models suggest that phenolic compounds can simultaneously: (1) slow down the release of ß-glucans by slowing down digestion through enzyme inhibition, and (2) decrease the viscosity of solubilised ß-glucans, likely through colloidal aggregation as observed in solution before. These in vitro results suggest that the health benefits of oats linked to digestive viscosity of ß-glucans may be altered by co-formulation with or co-ingestion of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Avena , beta-Glucanas , Avena/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Viscosidade , beta-Glucanas/química
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 436, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incarcerated populations experience an elevated prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD). Federal correctional institutions in Canada have increasingly treated OUD among correctional populations via opioid agonist treatment (OAT) - an evidence based pharmacotherapy that works to reduce drug use and related health harms. However, there is limited evidence regarding incarcerated individuals' experiences with institutional-based OAT, as well potential OAT-related community release prospects. This information is important for optimal treatment retention and improved health. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a longitudinal follow-up study examining OAT-related experiences among federally incarcerated individuals before and after community release. This article focuses on the baseline (pre-release) data. METHODS: This mixed-methods study examined OAT-related experiences and release prospects among n = 46 individuals scheduled for community release, recruited from seven federal prisons located in Ontario, Canada. Participants underwent a comprehensive interviewer-administered on-site assessment, including quantitative and qualitative items. Assessment data was furthermore linked to administrative correctional data. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative and descriptive quantitative approaches. RESULTS: Participants had complex histories with opioid use including related negative health outcomes. Experiences with institutional OAT were divergent and provision was not standardized; those with OAT engagement pre-admission did not experience many challenges, whereas those initiating OAT during incarceration experienced barriers such as treatment waitlists and adverse process experiences. Most participants expressed a preference for buprenorphine-naloxone over methadone, but described difficulties accessing it. Participants were keen to transition into community-based treatment, yet envisaged prospective barriers and facilitators concerning successful reintegration and treatment continuity. CONCLUSIONS: Major barriers towards the current administration of OAT in federal correctional systems in Canada exist, including extensive waitlists, non-standardized practices, and challenges accessing preferred OAT formulations; this contributes to sub-optimal treatment. Eliminating waitlists, standardizing OAT provision, providing additional OAT options, and more comprehensive release planning may be essential for treatment retention and positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Prisioneiros , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Avena , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Ontário , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(12): e2118709119, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290128

RESUMO

Triterpenoids are biologically active metabolites synthesized from a common linear precursor catalyzed by 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) to form diverse triterpenoid skeletons. OSCs corresponding to many discovered triterpene alcohols in nature have not been functionally and mechanistically characterized due to the diversity of chemical structures and complexity of the cyclization mechanism. We carried out a genome-wide investigation of OSCs from Avena strigosa and discovered two triterpene synthases, namely, AsHS1 and AsHS2, using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. These synthases produce hopenol B and hop-17(21)-en-3ß-ol, which are components of surface wax in oat panicles and sheathes, respectively. We demonstrated that substitutions of two to three amino acid residues in AsHS1 with corresponding residues from AsHS2 allowed it to be completely converted into a hop-17(21)-en-3ß-ol synthase. AsHS2 mutants with a substitution at site 410 could synthesize hopenol B alone or mixed with a side product isomotiol. The combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculation demonstrated that the side chain size of the residue at site 410 regulated the relative orientations between the hopyl C22 cation and Phe257, leading to a difference in deprotonation positions through providing or not providing cation­π interaction between the aromatic ring of F257 and the carbocation intermediate. A similar mechanism could be applied to a hopenol B synthase from a dicotyledonous plant Aquilegia. This study provided mechanistic insight into triterpenoid synthesis and discovered key amino acid residues acting on hydride transfer and a deprotonation site to differentiate between hopane-type scaffolds in diverse plant species.


Assuntos
Transferases Intramoleculares , Triterpenos , Avena/genética , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Plantas
7.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36 Suppl 4: 3-11, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cutaneous pain has a substantial negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Dermo-cosmetics can support therapies for treatment of chronic skin diseases, providing symptomatic relief from chronic cutaneous pain and improved QoL. OBJECTIVES: To assess the global tolerance and efficacy of a dermo-cosmetic spray containing Rhealba® Oat Plantlet and Uncaria tomentosa extracts in reducing cutaneous pain when used as a monotherapy or in association with drug or dermo-cosmetic treatments in patients with an underlying skin pathology. METHODS: Patients aged ≥1 month with a cutaneous pain level ≥3 and an underlying skin pathology were provided with the spray to use up to six times daily for 6-8 weeks. Immediate effect on cutaneous pain and patient satisfaction were assessed after the first application. Global efficacy and tolerance, reduction in symptoms, improvement in QoL, pain reduction and patient overall satisfaction were assessed after 6-8 weeks. RESULTS: Immediately after the first application, significant reductions in cutaneous pain were observed across all age groups (P < 0.0001), with 94% of patients reporting a reduction in pain. After 6-8 weeks, global tolerance was rated 'very good' or 'good' for 97% of patients, and the spray was efficacious in 95% of patients. Patient satisfaction with the efficacy of the spray was 95%. QoL scores improved in 86% and 94% of patients aged ≥12 and <12 years, respectively. Findings were similar across underlying pathology and therapy types (monotherapy or in association with another therapy). CONCLUSIONS: The spray was well-tolerated and efficacious in providing symptom relief in patients with mild-to-moderate cutaneous pain, irrespective of the underlying pathology or therapy type.


Assuntos
Unha-de-Gato , Cosméticos , Avena , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(7): 2339-2353, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119859

RESUMO

Oat containing rich ß-glucan, polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, and other substances shows good biological activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to uncover the possible mechanism and therapeutic effect of Avenanthramide C in lessening inflammatory responses in pediatric pneumonia. Pediatric pneumonia was induced by liposaccharide (LPS) for vivo model and vitro model. Macrophage was performed to determine the mechanism and effects of Avenanthramide C in pediatric pneumonia. NLRP3 activity participated in the effects of Avenanthramide C in pediatric pneumonia. Avenanthramide C induced p-PI3K and p-Akt expressions and reduced ubiquitination of PI3K expression in pediatric pneumonia. On the other hand, Avenanthramide C integrated serine at 821 sites of the PI3K protein function. Avenanthramide C reduced ROS (reactive oxygen species)-induced mitochondrial damage by PI3K/AKT function in a model of pediatric pneumonia. Avenanthramide C protects pyroptosis in a model of pediatric pneumonia by PI3K/AKT/Nrf2/ROS signaling. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Avenanthramide C protects pyroptosis through dependent ROS-induced mitochondrial damage by PI3K ubiquitination and phosphorylation in a model of pediatric pneumonia, suggesting its potential use for the treatment of pediatric pneumonia and other inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Avena , Pneumonia , Avena/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piroptose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , ortoaminobenzoatos
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(7): 2366-2373, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156817

RESUMO

Pure oats are generally accepted to be safe for most celiac patients, and consumption of oats provides advantageous dietary fibers. However, oats can be contaminated by gluten proteins from wheat, barley, and/or rye. The analytical challenge lies in the reliability of the quantification method and how to maintain the contamination level under a gluten-free food threshold of 20 mg/kg. In this study, we investigated barley-spiked oat flour samples at four levels using four gluten ELISA kits. The largest recovery variance was with the R5 kit that gave 5-6 times overestimation; the G12 kit cross-reacted with oat proteins and gave 4-5 times overestimation at all spiked levels. The Total Gluten and Morinaga kits gave satisfactory recoveries. Total barley hordeins were isolated and characterized to be used as a common calibrator in all four kits aiming at harmonizing the results and to test the kits' performance. Immunoblotting of total hordein isolate revealed that Total Gluten and Morinaga antibodies provided an overall detection, while R5 and G12 antibodies recognized specific hordein groups leading to a larger difference when wheat and barley were used as the calibrant. Calibration with total hordein isolate corrected the overestimation problem and decreased the variability between the four gluten kits.


Assuntos
Avena , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hordeum , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Glutens/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209183

RESUMO

According to international health and food organizations and authorities, people should limit fat intake since fat is the most caloric component of food and it is often a source of unsafe saturated fatty acids (FA) and trans isomers. The greatest health benefits come from replacing shorts with dietary fiber molecules. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of reducing shortening content, which has an undesirable profile of FA, by addition of ß-glucan molecules in shortbread biscuits. The effect of oat and yeast ß-glucan supplementation on physical and sensory quality of products with reduced fat content (max 15%) were studied. It was shown that the substitution of shortening by ß-glucan in shortbread biscuits is possible to a limited extent. Reduction in product energy value (up to 36 kcal/100 g) and content of undesirable FA (maximum 2.1 g/100 g) and increased of ß-glucan content, regardless of the type, caused deterioration of biscuits quality and affected changes during storage. The substitution of shortening by ß-glucan in food is a good way to improve nutritional value by increasing the amount of dietary fiber molecules, reducing calories, and amount of SFA in diets.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Pão/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leveduras/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , beta-Glucanas/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 381: 132198, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123221

RESUMO

Oats are a rich source of a soluble fibre, beta-glucan, phenolic compounds, as well as functional lipid and protein components that could potentially aid in preventing and managing hypertension. Processing techniques commonly used to manufacture oat based foods have been shown to improve its physiological efficacy. Hypertension is a common condition that is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of mortality worldwide. Though exercise and pharmacological interventions are often used in the management of hypertension, diet is an incredibly important factor. One preclinical study and a handful of clinical studies have shown that oat components/products are effective in lowering blood pressure. However, research in this area is limited and more studies are needed to elucidate the anti-hypertensive potential of oats.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , beta-Glucanas , Avena/metabolismo , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
12.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 158, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium langsethiae is a T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins producing species firstly characterised in 2004. It is commonly isolated from oats in Northern Europe. T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins exhibit immunological and haemotological effects in animal health mainly through inhibition of protein, RNA and DNA synthesis. The development of a high-quality and comprehensively annotated assembly for this species is therefore essential in providing the molecular understanding and the mechanism of T-2 and HT-2 biosynthesis in F. langsethiae to help develop effective control strategies. RESULTS: The F. langsethiae assembly was produced using PacBio long reads, which were then assembled independently using Canu, SMARTdenovo and Flye. A total of 19,336 coding genes were identified using RNA-Seq informed ab-initio gene prediction. Finally, predicting genes were annotated using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) genome database and protein hits were annotated using InterProScan. Genes with blast hits were functionally annotated with Gene Ontology. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a high-quality genome assembly of a total length of 59 Mb and N50 of 3.51 Mb. Raw sequence reads and assembled genome is publicly available and can be downloaded from: GenBank under the accession JAFFKB000000000. All commands used to generate this assembly are accessible via GitHub: https://github.com/FadyMohareb/fusarium_langsethiae .


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Animais , Avena/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Micotoxinas/metabolismo
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(4): 1307-1318, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113191

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Comparative sequence analysis was used to design a SNP marker that aided in the identification of new sources of oat stem rust resistance. New races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae (Pga) threaten global oat production. An A. strigosa accession known to carry the broadly effective oat stem rust resistance gene, Pg6, was crossed with two susceptible A. strigosa accessions to generate 198 F2:3 families and 190 F5:6 RILs. The RIL population was used to determine that Pg6 was a single dominant gene located between 475 and 491 Mbp on diploid chromosome AA2 of the A. atlantica genome. This region was further refined by identifying SNPs associated with Pg6 resistance in a panel of previously sequenced A-genome accessions. Twenty-four markers were developed from SNPs that showed perfect association between the Pg6 phenotype and 11 sequenced Avena diploid accessions. These markers were validated in the RILs and F2:3 families, and the markers most closely linked with resistance were tested in a diverse panel of 253 accessions consisting of oat stem rust differentials, all available diploid Avena spp. accessions, and 41 A. vaviloviana accessions from the National Small Grains Collection. One SNP marker located at 483, 439, 497 bp on AA2, designated as AA2_483439497, was perfectly associated with the Pg6 phenotype in Avena strigosa diploids and was within several Kb of a resistance gene analog, RPP13. The marker results and seedling testing against Pga races DBD, KBD, TJS, and TQL enabled the postulation of Pg6 and potential new sources of resistance in the Avena panel. These results will be used to infer Pg6 presence in other germplasm collections and breeding programs and can assist with introgression, gene pyramiding, and cloning of Pg6.


Assuntos
Avena , Basidiomycota , Avena/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prostaglandinas A , Puccinia , Análise de Sequência
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(2)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062559

RESUMO

Current strategies for phenotyping above-ground biomass in field breeding nurseries demand significant investment in both time and labor. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to derive vegetation indices (VIs) with high throughput and could provide an efficient way to predict forage yield with high accuracy. The main objective of the study is to investigate the potential of UAV-based multispectral data and machine learning approaches in the estimation of oat biomass. UAV equipped with a multispectral sensor was flown over three experimental oat fields in Volga, South Shore, and Beresford, South Dakota, USA, throughout the pre- and post-heading growth phases of oats in 2019. A variety of vegetation indices (VIs) derived from UAV-based multispectral imagery were employed to build oat biomass estimation models using four machine-learning algorithms: partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine (SVM), Artificial neural network (ANN), and random forest (RF). The results showed that several VIs derived from the UAV collected images were significantly positively correlated with dry biomass for Volga and Beresford (r = 0.2-0.65), however, in South Shore, VIs were either not significantly or weakly correlated with biomass. For Beresford, approximately 70% of the variance was explained by PLS, RF, and SVM validation models using data collected during the post-heading phase. Likewise for Volga, validation models had lower coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.20-0.25) and higher error (RMSE = 700-800 kg/ha) than training models (R2 = 0.50-0.60; RMSE = 500-690 kg/ha). In South Shore, validation models were only able to explain approx. 15-20% of the variation in biomass, which is possibly due to the insignificant correlation values between VIs and biomass. Overall, this study indicates that airborne remote sensing with machine learning has potential for above-ground biomass estimation in oat breeding nurseries. The main limitation was inconsistent accuracy in model prediction across locations. Multiple-year spectral data, along with the inclusion of textural features like crop surface model (CSM) derived height and volumetric indicators, should be considered in future studies while estimating biophysical parameters like biomass.


Assuntos
Avena , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Biomassa , Aprendizado de Máquina , Melhoramento Vegetal
15.
Food Funct ; 13(2): 990-999, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015014

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of hydrocolloids with different electrostatic characteristics, namely negatively charged xanthan gum (XG), positively charged chitosan (CH), and non-ionic guar gum (GG), on the physicochemical properties, stability, and lipid digestibility of 10% (w/w) soybean oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was investigated. Addition of XG and CH to the NFC-stabilized emulsions significantly increased the oil droplet sizes and apparent viscosity at high shear rates as compared with the addition of GG. The XG added emulsion showed the lowest rate and extent of creaming, whereas the CH added emulsion gave the highest extent of creaming. The addition of XG and CH led to a more pronounced effect on in vitro lipid digestion, i.e. changes in droplet sizes, surface charges, microstructure, and free fatty acid (FFA) release, than the addition of GG. The XG added emulsion showed the lowest rate and extent of lipid digestion possibly due to the high viscosity of the aqueous phase, large oil droplet sizes, and interaction of XG and calcium, resulting in the reduction of lipase activity. The CH added emulsion exhibited the highest extent of lipid digestion possibly due to binding between CH and FFAs and move away from the droplet surfaces, thereby facilitating the lipase activity. In summary, it can be concluded that ionic hydrocolloids exerted more influence on NFC-stabilized Pickering emulsions than non-ionic ones. These results may facilitate the design of highly stable emulsion-based functional food products with added hydrocolloids to promote health and wellness.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Avena , Reatores Biológicos , Coloides , Emulsões
16.
Food Chem ; 377: 131982, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999462

RESUMO

Oat is a potent source of nutrients and bioactive compounds offering potential health benefits and role in combating micronutrient malnutrition problems. To exploit nutritional and quality traits of oats, a biochemical assessment of 112 oat genotypes was conducted. The high range of variability for total phenol (1.7-31.3 mg/g), ß-glucan (1.0-8.0 mg/g), calcium (1.91-4.34 mg/g), zinc (3.80-6.50 mg/100 g), iron (0.66-4.89 mg/100 g) and manganese (2.88-8.0 mg/100 g) was revealed among genotypes. A higher amount of iron and zinc was found in genotypes OS-6, HFO-638, HFO-915 & HFO-918, whereas, elevated levels of manganese and zinc were recorded in genotypes OS-403 & OL-1804. The results revealed groups of low phytic acid oat genotypes containing high crude protein (HFO-52, HFO-270, HFO-330), ß-glucan (HFO-62, HFO-588, HFO-926). A significant positive correlation was obtained between copper with iron, manganese, and calcium content. These findings could be useful for developing value-added oat food products and novel oat varieties.


Assuntos
Avena , Oligoelementos , Avena/genética , Grão Comestível/química , Genótipo , Micronutrientes/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(2): 446-457, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994561

RESUMO

Oats are among the most commonly consumed whole grains and are widely grown worldwide, and they contain numerous nutrients, including proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, ß-glucan, and unique phytochemical polyphenol avenanthramides (Avns). Recent studies have indicated that Avns play essential roles in mediating the health benefits of oats. This review systemically summarized the nomenclature and structures of Avns, effect of germination on promoting Avns production, and in vivo metabolites produced after Avns consumption. The classical functions and novel potential bioactivities of Avns were further elucidated. The classical functions of Avns in cancer prevention, antioxidative response, anti-inflammatory reaction, and maintaining muscle health were expounded, and the internal mechanisms of these functions were analyzed. The potential novel bioactivities of Avns in modulating gut microbiota, alleviating obesity, and preventing chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, were further revealed. This review may provide new prospects and directions for the development and utilization of oat Avns.


Assuntos
Avena , ortoaminobenzoatos , Antioxidantes , Compostos Fitoquímicos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 548, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017602

RESUMO

A critical step in the production of doubled haploids is a conversion of the haploid embryos into plants. Our study aimed to recognize the reasons for the low germination rate of Avena sativa haploid embryos obtained by distant crossing with maize. Oat cultivars of 'Krezus' and 'Akt' were investigated regarding embryo anatomy, the endogenous phytohormone profiles, and antioxidant capacity. The zygotic embryos of oat were used as a reference. It was found that twenty-one days old haploid embryos were smaller and had a less advanced structure than zygotic ones. Morphology and anatomy modifications of haploid embryos were accompanied by extremely low levels of endogenous auxins. Higher levels of cytokinins, as well as tenfold higher cytokinin to auxin ratio in haploid than in zygotic embryos, may suggest an earlier stage of development of these former. Individual gibberellins reached higher values in 'Akt' haploid embryos than in the respective zygotic ones, while the differences in both types of 'Krezus' embryos were not noticed. Additionally to the hormonal regulation of haploid embryogenesis, the poor germination of oat haploid embryos can be a result of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and therefore higher levels of low molecular weight antioxidants and stress hormones.


Assuntos
Avena
19.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262494, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020774

RESUMO

Avena fatua and A. ludoviciana (commonly known as wild oats) are the most problematic winter grass species in fallows and winter crops in the northeast region of Australia. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of glyphosate and alternative post-emergence herbicides on A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. This study reports the world's first glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The glyphosate dose required to kill 50% of the plants (LD50) and to reduce 50% of the biomass (GR50) for the GR biotype of A. fatua was 556 g a.e./ha and 351 g a.e./ha, respectively. These values for A. ludoviciana were 848 g a.e./ha and 289 g a.e./ha. Regardless of the growth stage (3-4 or 6-7 leaf stages), clethodim (120 g a.i./ha), haloxyfop (78 g a.i./ha), pinoxaden (20 g a.i./ha), and propaquizafop (30 g a.i./ha) were the best alternative herbicide options for the control of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The efficacy of butroxydim (45 g a.i./ha), clodinafop (120 g a.i./ha), imazamox + imazapyr (36 g a.i./ha), and paraquat (600 g a.i./ha) reduced at the advanced growth stage. Glufosinate (750 g a.i./ha), flamprop (225 g a.i./ha), and pyroxsulam + halauxifen (20 g a.i./ha) did not provide effective control of Avena species. This study identified alternative herbicide options to manage GR biotypes of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana.


Assuntos
Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Avena/classificação , Avena/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/farmacologia
20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051022

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an economically important plant disease. Some Fusarium species produce mycotoxins that cause food safety concerns for both humans and animals. One especially important mycotoxin-producing fungus causing FHB is Fusarium graminearum. However, Fusarium species form a disease complex where different Fusarium species co-occur in the infected cereals. Effective management strategies for FHB are needed. Development of the management tools requires information about the diversity and abundance of the whole Fusarium community. Molecular quantification assays for detecting individual Fusarium species and subgroups exist, but a method for the detection and quantification of the whole Fusarium group is still lacking. In this study, a new TaqMan-based qPCR method (FusE) targeting the Fusarium-specific elongation factor region (EF1α) was developed for the detection and quantification of Fusarium spp. The FusE method was proven as a sensitive method with a detection limit of 1 pg of Fusarium DNA. Fusarium abundance results from oat samples correlated significantly with deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin content. In addition, the whole Fusarium community in Finnish oat samples was characterized with a new metabarcoding method. A shift from F. culmorum to F. graminearum in FHB-infected oats has been detected in Europe, and the results of this study confirm that. These new molecular methods can be applied in the assessment of the Fusarium community and mycotoxin risk in cereals. Knowledge gained from the Fusarium community analyses can be applied in developing and selecting effective management strategies for FHB.


Assuntos
Avena/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Micotoxinas/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Finlândia , Fusarium/classificação , Limite de Detecção , Micobioma
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