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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250132, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374642

RESUMO

The study was designed to investigate the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on intestinal histomorphology, immunity against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and productive parameters of broilers. A total of 1800, day old broiler chicks of Cobb-500 strain were selected and randomly assorted into 6 treatment groups: T1 (basal diet without antibiotics as negative control); T2 (basal diet plus antibiotics as positive control group); T3 (basal diet plus 200g/ton MOS); T4 (basal diet plus 400g/ton MOS); T5 (basal diet plus 600g/ton MOS) and T6 (basal diet plus 800g/ton MOS). Each treatment was having 6 replicates and the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded on weekly basis. Results showed that, MOS supplemented birds have significantly higher feed intake, weight gain and FCR (P < 0.05). Similarly, supplementation of MOS showed positive effect on villus height and crypt depth both in jejunum and ilium. Goblet cell density was unaffected by MOS addition (P < 0.05). Furthermore, birds fed with diets containing MOS, exhibited better productive performance in comparison to positive and negative control groups. In conclusion, MOS can replace antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) as non-microbial performance-enhancing feed advocates.


O estudo foi desenhado para investigar o efeito da suplementação de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS) na histomorfologia intestinal, imunidade contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV) e parâmetros produtivos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.800 pintos de corte de um dia da linhagem Cobb-500 foram selecionados e distribuídos aleatoriamente em 6 grupos de tratamento: T1 (dieta basal sem antibióticos como controle negativo); T2 (dieta basal mais antibióticos como grupo controle positivo); T3 (dieta basal mais 200g/ton MOS); T4 (dieta basal mais 400g/ton MOS); T5 (dieta basal mais 600g/ton MOS) e T6 (dieta basal mais 800g/ton MOS). Cada tratamento tinha 6 repetições e o consumo de ração, ganho de peso corporal e conversão alimentar foram registrados semanalmente. Os resultados mostraram que as aves suplementadas com MOS apresentam consumo de ração, ganho de peso e CA significativamente maiores (P < 0,05). Da mesma forma, a suplementação de MOS mostrou efeito positivo na altura das vilosidades e na profundidade das criptas tanto no jejuno quanto no íleo. A densidade de células caliciformes não foi afetada pela adição de MOS (P < 0,05). Além disso, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo MOS apresentaram melhor desempenho produtivo em comparação aos grupos controle positivo e negativo. Em conclusão, o MOS pode substituir os promotores de crescimento de antibióticos (AGPs) como defensores de alimentos não microbianos que melhoram o desempenho.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Imunidade , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256160, 2024. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360203

RESUMO

Riverine forests are unique and highly significant ecosystems that are globally important for diverse and threatened avian species. Apart from being a cradle of life, it also serves as a gene pool that harbors a variety of flora and fauna species (repeated below). Despite the fact, this fragile ecosystem harbored avian assemblages; it is now disappearing daily as a result of human activity. Determining habitat productivity using bird species is critical for conservation and better management in the future. Multiple surveys were conducted over a 15-month period, from January to March 2019, using the distance sampling point count method. A total of 250 point count stations were fixed systematically at 300 m intervals. In total, 9929 bird individuals were recorded, representing 57 species and 34 families. Out of 57 bird species, two were vulnerable, one was data deficient, one was nearly threatened, and the remaining 53 species were of least concern. The Eurasian Collard Dove - Streptopelia decaocto (14.641 ± 2.532/ha), White-eared Bulbul - Pycnonotus leucotis (13.398 ± 4.342/ha) and Common Babbler - Turdoides caudata (10.244 ± 2.345/ha) were the three first plenteous species having higher densities. However, the densities of three species, i.e., Lesser Whitethroat - Sylvia curruca, Gray Heron - Ardea cinerea and Pallas Fish Eagle - Haliaeetus leucoryphus, were not analyzed due to the small sample size. The findings of diversity indices revealed that riverine forest has harbored the diverse avian species that are uniformly dispersed across the forest. Moreover, recording the ten foraging guilds indicated that riverine forest is rich in food resources. In addition, the floristic structure importance value index results indicated that riverine forest is diverse and rich in flora, i.e. trees, shrubs, weeds and grass, making it an attractive and productive habitat for bird species.


As florestas ribeirinhas são ecossistemas únicos e altamente significativos que são globalmente importantes para diversas espécies de aves ameaçadas de extinção. Além de serem o berço da vida, também servem como um conjunto genético que abriga uma variedade de espécies da flora e da fauna. Apesar disso, esse frágil ecossistema abrigava um conjunto de aves, mas agora está desaparecendo diariamente como resultado da atividade humana. Determinar a produtividade do hábitat usando espécies de pássaros é fundamental para a conservação e melhor gestão no futuro. Vários levantamentos foram realizados ao longo de um período de 15 meses, de janeiro de 2018 a março de 2019, por meio do método de contagem de pontos de amostragem de distância. Foram fixadas sistematicamente 250 estações de contagem de pontos em intervalos de 300 m. No total, foram registrados 9.929 indivíduos de aves, representando 57 espécies e 34 famílias. Das 57 espécies de aves, duas eram vulneráveis, uma tinha dados insuficientes, uma estava quase ameaçada e as 53 espécies restantes eram as menos preocupantes. O: Pomba de colar euroasiática - Streptopelia decaocto (14.641 ± 2.532/ha), o Bulbul de orelha branca - Pycnonotus leucotis (13.398 ± 4.342/ha) e Tagarela comum - Turdoides caudata (10.244 ± 2.345/ha) foram as três primeiras espécies abundantes com maiores densidades. No entanto, as densidades de três espécies, Papa-amoras-cinzento (Sylvia curruca), Garça-real-europeia (Ardea cinerea) e Águia-pescadora de Pallas (Haliaeetus leucoryphus), não foram analisadas por causa do pequeno tamanho da amostra. Os resultados dos índices de diversidade revelaram que a floresta ribeirinha abrigou diversas espécies de aves que estão uniformemente dispersas pela floresta. Além disso, o registro das dez guildas de forrageamento indicou que a floresta ribeirinha é rica em recursos alimentares. Além disso, os resultados do índice de valor de importância da estrutura florística indicaram que a floresta ribeirinha é variada e rica em flora, ou seja, árvores, arbustos, ervas daninhas e grama, tornando-a um hábitat atraente e produtivo para espécies de aves.


Assuntos
Aves , Florestas , Ecossistema , Patrimônio Genético
7.
Evolution ; 77(1): 26-35, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622803

RESUMO

Do related populations that are separated by barriers predictably evolve differences from one another over time, or is such divergence idiosyncratic and unpredictable? We test these alternatives by investigating patterns of trait evolution for 54 sister pairs of Andean forest birds that live in similar environments on either side of the arid Marañón Gap, a strong dispersal barrier for humid montane species. We measured divergence in both sexual (song and plumage) and ecological (beak size and beak shape) traits. Sexual traits evolve in a clock-like fashion, with trait divergence positively correlated with genetic distance (r = 0.6-0.7). In contrast, divergence in ecological traits is uncorrelated or only loosely correlated with genetic distance (r = 0.0-0.3). Thus, for geographically isolated Andean montane forest birds that live in similar environments, divergence is predictable in sexual traits, but not for ecological traits. This means that sexual trait divergence occurs independently of adaptive ecological divergence within the mega-diverse tropical Andean avifauna. Last, we show that variation in genetic divergence across a biogeographic barrier is associated with traits that are proxies for species' opportunities for dispersal (low elevation limit and elevational niche breadth), but not with traits that are proxies for species' dispersal abilities (hand-wing index and foraging strata).


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Especiação Genética , Animais , Aves/genética , Florestas , Fenótipo , Evolução Biológica
8.
Evolution ; 77(1): 276-288, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625454

RESUMO

Good genes theories of sexual selection predict that polygamy will be associated with more efficient removal of deleterious alleles (purifying selection), due to the alignment of sexual selection with natural selection. On the other hand, runaway selection theories expect no such alignment of natural and sexual selection, and may instead predict less efficient purifying selection in polygamous species due to higher reproductive variance. In an analysis of polymorphism data extracted from 150-bird genome assemblies, we show that polygamous species carry significantly fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, relative to synonymous polymorphisms, than monogamous bird species (p = .0005). We also show that this effect is independent of effective population size, consistent with the alignment of natural selection with sexual selection and "good genes" theories of sexual selection. Further analyses found no impact of polygamy on genetic diversity, while polygamy in females (polyandry) had a marginally significant impact (p = .045). We also recapitulate previous findings that smaller body mass and greater geographic range size are associated with more efficient purifying selection, more intense GC-biased gene conversion, and greater genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Aves , Casamento , Animais , Feminino , Seleção Genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Seleção Sexual
9.
Science ; 379(6628): 185-190, 2023 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634192

RESUMO

Hummingbirds possess distinct metabolic adaptations to fuel their energy-demanding hovering flight, but the underlying genomic changes are largely unknown. Here, we generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of the long-tailed hermit and screened for genes that have been specifically inactivated in the ancestral hummingbird lineage. We discovered that FBP2 (fructose-bisphosphatase 2), which encodes a gluconeogenic muscle enzyme, was lost during a time period when hovering flight evolved. We show that FBP2 knockdown in an avian muscle cell line up-regulates glycolysis and enhances mitochondrial respiration, coincident with an increased mitochondria number. Furthermore, genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and organization have up-regulated expression in hummingbird flight muscle. Together, these results suggest that FBP2 loss was likely a key step in the evolution of metabolic muscle adaptations required for true hovering flight.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Gluconeogênese , Animais , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Gluconeogênese/genética , Aves/genética , Músculos , Metabolismo Energético
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1214, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681706

RESUMO

Citizen science, including structured and semi-structured forms, has become a powerful tool to collect biodiversity data. However, semi-structured citizen science data have been criticized for higher variability in quality, including less information to adjust for imperfect detection and uneven duration that bias the estimates of species richness. Species richness estimators may quantify bias in estimates. Here, we test the effectiveness of Chao1 estimator in eBird (semi-structured) by comparing it to averaged species richness in Breeding Bird Survey Taiwan, BBS (structured) and quantifying bias. We then fit a power function to compare bias while controlling for differences in count duration. The Chao1 estimator increased the species richness estimates of eBird data from 56 to 69% of the average observed BBS and from 47 to 59% of the average estimated BBS. Effects of incomplete short duration samples and variability in detectability skills of observers can lead to biased estimates. Using the Chao1 estimator improved estimates of species richness from semi-structured and structured data, but the strong effect of singleton species on bias, especially in short duration counts, should be evaluated in advance to reduce the uncertainty of estimation processes.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Taiwan
11.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 211, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639376

RESUMO

The world's warm deserts are predicted to experience disproportionately large temperature increases due to climate change, yet the impacts on global desert biodiversity remain poorly understood. Because species in warm deserts live close to their physiological limits, additional warming may induce local extinctions. Here, we combine climate change projections with biophysical models and species distributions to predict physiological impacts of climate change on desert birds globally. Our results show heterogeneous impacts between and within warm deserts. Moreover, spatial patterns of physiological impacts do not simply mirror air temperature changes. Climate change refugia, defined as warm desert areas with high avian diversity and low predicted physiological impacts, are predicted to persist in varying extents in different desert realms. Only a small proportion (<20%) of refugia fall within existing protected areas. Our analysis highlights the need to increase protection of refugial areas within the world's warm deserts to protect species from climate change.


Assuntos
Aves , Mudança Climática , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Temperatura , Ecossistema , Clima Desértico
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20222237, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651046

RESUMO

Host susceptibility to parasites is mediated by intrinsic and external factors such as genetics, ecology, age and season. While waterfowl are considered central to the reservoir community for low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (LPAIV), the role of host phylogeny has received limited formal attention. Herein, we analysed 12 339 oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and 10 826 serum samples collected over 11 years from wild birds in Australia. As well as describing age and species-level differences in prevalence and seroprevalence, we reveal that host phylogeny is a key driver in host range. Seasonality effects appear less pronounced than in the Northern Hemisphere, while annual variations are potentially linked to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Our study provides a uniquely detailed insight into the evolutionary ecology of LPAIV in its avian reservoir community, defining distinctive processes on the continent of Australia and expanding our understanding of LPAIV globally.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Filogenia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Austrália , Animais Selvagens , Aves
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1297, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690665

RESUMO

Aerial robots can perch onto structures at heights to reduce energy use or to remain firmly in place when interacting with their surroundings. Like how birds have wings to fly and legs to perch, these bio-inspired aerial robots use independent perching modules. However, modular design not only increases the weight of the robot but also its size, reducing the areas that the robot can access. To mitigate these problems, we take inspiration from gliding and tree-dwelling mammals such as sugar gliders and sloths. We noted how gliding mammals morph their whole limb to transit between flight and perch, and how sloths optimized their physiology to encourage energy-efficient perching. These insights are applied to design a quadrotor robot that transitions between morphologies to fly and perch with a single-direction tendon drive. The robot's bi-stable arm is rigid in flight but will conform to its target in 0.97 s when perching, holding its grasp with minimal energy use. We achieved a [Formula: see text] overall mass reduction by integrating this capability into a single body. The robot perches by a controlled descent or a free-falling drop to avoid turbulent aerodynamic effects. Our proposed design solution can fulfill the need for small perching robots in cluttered environments.


Assuntos
Marsupiais , Robótica , Bichos-Preguiça , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Extremidades , Mamíferos
14.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 90, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690690

RESUMO

The ferret transmission model is routinely used to evaluate the pandemic potential of newly emerging influenza A viruses. However, concurrent measurement of viral load in the air is typically not a component of such studies. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the levels of virus in ferret nasal washes as well as viral RNA emitted into the air for 14 diverse influenza viruses, encompassing human-, swine-, and avian-origin strains. Here we show that transmissible viruses display robust replication and fast release into the air. In contrast, poorly- and non-transmissible viruses show significantly reduced or delayed replication along with lower detection of airborne viral RNA at early time points post inoculation. These findings indicate that efficient ferret-to-ferret transmission via the air is directly associated with fast emission of virus-laden particles; as such, quantification of viral RNA in the air represents a useful addition to established assessments of new influenza virus strains.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Furões , Aves , RNA Viral
15.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(198): 20220728, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695126

RESUMO

Despite the complex geometry of songbird's vocal system, it was typically modelled as a tube or with simple mathematical parameters to investigate sound filtering. Here, we developed an adjustable computational acoustic model of a sparrow's upper vocal tract (Passer domesticus), derived from micro-CT scans. We discovered that a 20% tracheal shortening or a 20° beak gape increase caused the vocal tract harmonic resonance to shift toward higher pitch (11.7% or 8.8%, respectively), predominantly in the mid-range frequencies (3-6 kHz). The oropharyngeal-oesophageal cavity (OEC), known for its role in sound filtering, was modelled as an adjustable three-dimensional cylinder. For a constant OEC volume, an elongated cylinder induced a higher frequency shift than a wide cylinder (70% versus 37%). We found that the OEC volume adjustments can modify the OEC first harmonic resonance at low frequencies (1.5-3 kHz) and the OEC third harmonic resonance at higher frequencies (6-8 kHz). This work demonstrates the need to consider the realistic geometry of the vocal system to accurately quantify its effect on sound filtering and show that sparrows can tune the entire range of produced sound frequencies to their vocal system resonances, by controlling the vocal tract shape, especially through complex OEC volume adjustments.


Assuntos
Aves , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Som , Acústica
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279997, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595543

RESUMO

Researchers conduct post-construction fatality monitoring (PCFM) to determine a wind energy facility's direct impacts on wildlife. Results of PCFM can be used to evaluate compliance with permitted take, potentially triggering adaptive management measures or offsetting mitigation; reducing uncertainty in fatality rates benefits wind companies, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders. As part of PCFM, investigators conduct carcass persistence trials to account for imperfect detection during carcass surveys. In most PCFM studies, pen-raised game birds and other non-raptor surrogates have been used to estimate persistence of all large birds, including raptors. However, there is a growing body of evidence showing carcass persistence varies by bird type; raptor fatality estimates based on game bird carcass persistence may therefore be biased high. We conducted raptor and game bird carcass persistence field trials for 1 year at 6 wind energy facilities. Raptor carcass persistence varied by habitat and season, whereas the best-supported game bird model only included habitat. Raptor persistence probabilities were higher than corresponding game bird persistence probabilities for 13 of the 16 habitat and season combinations. Analysis of a curated large bird persistence meta-dataset showed that raptor carcass persistence varied by season, habitat, and region. The probability of persisting through a 30-day search interval ranged from 0.44 to 0.99 for raptors and from 0.16 to 0.79 for game birds. Raptor persistence was significantly higher than game bird persistence for 95% of the sampled strata. We used these carcass persistence estimates to develop linear mixed-effects models that predict raptor persistence probabilities based on estimated game bird persistence probabilities. Our scaling model provides an important statistical method to address gaps in raptor persistence data at sites in a broad range of landscape contexts in the continental United States and should be used to inform fatality estimation when site-specific raptor persistence data are limited or absent.


Assuntos
Aves Predatórias , Animais , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Vento , Probabilidade , Cadáver
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 1, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are considered a growing health problem to both poultry and the public, particularly due to its multi-drug resistance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are a promising multi-benefit candidate. This study focused on boosting the antimicrobial effect of the chemically synthesized ZnO-NPs using Polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) and evaluating their potential to recover the sensitivity of Florfenicol and Streptomycin-resistant APEC to these drugs in a concentration range of 0.1-0.4 mg/mL. Four samples of ZnO-NPs were formulated and tested microbiologically. RESULTS: The physicochemical characterization showed well-crystallized spherical in situ synthesized ZnO-NPs using PEG-6000 (surfactant) and ethanol (co-surfactant) of ∼19-67 nm particle size after coating with PEG-6000 molecules. These ZnO-NPs demonstrated a strong concentration-dependent antibacterial effect against multidrug-resistant APEC strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, Combining PEG-6000 coated in situ synthesized ZnO-NPs and Florfenicol induced 60% high sensitivity (30 mm inhibitory-zone), 30% intermediate sensitivity, and 10% resistance against APEC strains. The combination with Streptomycin revealed 50% high sensitivity, 30% intermediate sensitivity, and 20% resistance with a 20 mm maximum zone of inhibition using agar well diffusion test. CONCLUSION: In situ preparation of ZnO-NPs using PEG-6000 and ethanol followed by coating with PEG-6000 enhanced its antibacterial activity in minimum inhibitory concentration and regained the efficacy of Florfenicol and Streptomycin against APEC, referring to a non-antibiotic antimicrobial alternative and an effective combination regimen against multidrug-resistant APEC E. coli in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Aves , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(1): 51, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598595

RESUMO

Chiggers are larval ectoparasites of the Trombiculidae that can transmit pathogens to their hosts. In this study, chiggers collected from birds in Brazil were morphologically identified as Blankaartia sinnamaryi, Eutrombicula batatas, Eutrombicula daemoni, Eutrombicula goeldii, Eutrombicula tinami, and Parasecia gilbertoi. For these specimens, a beginning attempt at molecular identification were also provided, as well as, were genetically screened to detect bacterial pathogens. The species B. sinnamaryi and E. tinami were positive for Rickettsia felis-like and 'Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi'-like, respectively. For the other agents (Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp. and Orientia tsutsugamushi), the tests were negative. This is the first report of 'Ca. R. colombianensi'-like and the second record of R. felis-like in chigger collected on birds from Brazil.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Rickettsia , Trombiculidae , Animais , Trombiculidae/anatomia & histologia , Trombiculidae/microbiologia , Brasil , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Rickettsia/genética , Aves
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2203511120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623186

RESUMO

Halting the global decline of migratory birds requires a better understanding of migration ecology. Stopover sites are a crucial yet understudied aspect of bird conservation, mostly due to challenges associated with understanding broad-scale patterns of transient habitat use. Here, we use a national network of weather radar stations to identify stopover hotspots and assess multiscale habitat associations of migratory landbirds across the eastern United States during autumn migration. We mapped seasonal bird densities over 5 y (2015 to 2019) from 60 radar stations covering 63.2 million hectares. At a coarse scale, we found that landbirds migrate across a broad front with small differences in migrant density between radar domains. However, relatively more birds concentrate along the Mississippi River and Appalachian Mountains. At a finer scale, we identified radar pixels that consistently harbored high densities of migrants for all 5 y, which we classify as stopover hotspots. Hotspot probability increased with percent cover of all forest types and decreased with percent cover of pasture and cultivated crops. Moreover, we found strong concentrating effects of deciduous forest patches within deforested regions. We also found that the prairie biome in the Midwest (now mostly cropland) is likely a migration barrier, with large concentrations of migrants at the prairie-forest boundary after crossing the agricultural Midwest. Overall, the broad-front migration pattern highlights the importance of locally based conservation efforts to protect stopover habitats. Such efforts should target forests, especially deciduous forests in highly altered landscapes. These findings demonstrate the value of multiscale habitat assessments for the conservation of migratory landbirds.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Ecossistema , Animais , Estados Unidos , Estações do Ano , Florestas , Aves , Mississippi
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2121467120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608292

RESUMO

Large brains support numerous cognitive adaptations and therefore may appear to be highly beneficial. Nonetheless, the high energetic costs of brain tissue may have prevented the evolution of large brains in many species. This problem may also have a developmental dimension: juveniles, with their immature and therefore poorly performing brains, would face a major energetic hurdle if they were to pay for the construction of their own brain, especially in larger-brained species. Here, we explore the possible role of parental provisioning for the development and evolution of adult brain size in birds. A comparative analysis of 1,176 bird species shows that various measures of parental provisioning (precocial vs. altricial state at hatching, relative egg mass, time spent provisioning the young) strongly predict relative brain size across species. The parental provisioning hypothesis also provides an explanation for the well-documented but so far unexplained pattern that altricial birds have larger brains than precocial ones. We therefore conclude that the evolution of parental provisioning allowed species to overcome the seemingly insurmountable energetic constraint on growing large brains, which in turn enabled bird species to increase survival and population stability. Because including adult eco- and socio-cognitive predictors only marginally improved the explanatory value of our models, these findings also suggest that the traditionally assessed cognitive abilities largely support successful parental provisioning. Our results therefore indicate that the cognitive adaptations underlying successful parental provisioning also provide the behavioral flexibility facilitating reproductive success and survival.


Assuntos
Aves , Encéfalo , Animais , Tamanho do Órgão , Reprodução
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