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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 32, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central European aerial insectivores are long-distance migrants that winter in sub-Saharan Africa. Most of them employ the fly-and-forage migrating strategy and differ in their food composition. The composition and structure of helminth component communities of these hosts are poorly understood, and information regarding seasonality and long-term changes is unavailable. METHODS: From 1963 to 2022, we analyzed the population trends of helminths in five aerial insectivore species. Namely, we examined Apus apus, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbicum, Riparia riparia, and Ficedula albicollis; all originated from the Czech Republic. RESULTS: We identified central European aerial insectivores as hosts that are parasitized mostly by helminths that cannot complete their life-cycles in the nesting quarters of their hosts. This phenomenon is unknown in other bird host species. In contrast, only a single dominant trematode species that completes its life-cycle locally colonized the central European aerial insectivores. All other dominant species of Trematoda, all Nematoda, and all Acanthocephala were dependent on intermediate hosts unavailable in the nesting quarters of the examined bird hosts. Surprisingly, these helminths transmitted from winter quarters or migratory routes were diverse, and many of them were abundant in terms of both prevalence and intensity of infection. The helminth component communities of aerial insectivores were dynamic systems. During the study period, three species became new and regularly encountered members of helminth fauna of examined hosts, and other species gradually increased or decreased their intensity of infection. In contrast to other groups of bird hosts, the dominant helminth species of aerial insectivores did not experience local extinctions or rapid population losses. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of helminths of five central European aerial insectivores revealed component communities that heavily rely on completing host-parasite cycles at migration routes or wintering grounds. The composition of the analyzed component communities changed dynamically during the 60-year-long study period, but there was no evidence of large-scale declines in abundance or prevalence.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Animais , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 512, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627350

RESUMO

Habitat loss is one of the main threats to species survival and, in the case of parasites, it is their hosts that provide their habitat. Therefore, extinction even at local scale of host taxa also implies the extinction of their parasites in a process known as co-extinction. This is the case of the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), which almost became extinct at the beginning of the twentieth century. After several attempts, this species was successfully reintroduced into the Alps at the end of the twentieth century. We collected 25 lice specimens from an electrocuted bearded vulture from Susa (Italian Alps) that were morphologically identified as Degeeriella punctifer. Six individuals were studied by scanning electron microscopy, with particular emphasis on their cephalic sensorial structures, while four further specimens were characterized at molecular level by amplifying partial regions of the 12SrRNA, COX1 and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1) genes. From a morphological perspective, the number, type and arrangement of the sensillae on the two distal antennal segments is quite similar to that of other species of the family Philopteridae (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera). The mandibles and tarsal claws allow lice to cling firmly to their host's feathers. Phylogenetic analyses help unravel the paraphyletic nature of the genus Degeeriella and demonstrate the clear differentiation between lice parasitizing Accipitriformes and Falconiformes, as well as the close relationship between D. punctifer, D. fulva, D. nisus and Capraiella sp. that, along with other genera, parasitize rollers (Aves: Coraciiformes).


Assuntos
Aves , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Filogenia , Animais , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Ftirápteros/genética , Aves/parasitologia
3.
J Helminthol ; 96: e80, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321436

RESUMO

The annual migration of birds involves a very large number of inter-continental and intra-continental movements in which thousands of bird species participate. These migrations have been associated with the spread of pathogens worldwide, including bacteria, viruses and parasites. This study describes the case of a black stork (Ciconia nigra) that was ringed at the nest in Latvia and died five months later in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Post-mortem examination revealed that the cause of death was electrocution. In addition, a massive infection by the trematode Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) causing severe granulomatous lesions throughout the small intestine was detected. This is the first report of C. ferox infection in a black stork in the Iberian Peninsula, a trematode that, due to the severe lesions it causes, can affect the health of C. ferox-infected wild birds, particularly in severely infected long-distance migrants. The dispersal of platyhelminths associated with migratory birds is discussed. After the ringing at the nest, the black stork was sighted in Central Europe one month before its capture, and the trematodes found by necropsy were mostly mature adults. Consequently, we estimate that this juvenile animal acquired the infection during its migration in a European area other than the Iberian Peninsula, evidencing a long-distance parasite spread through its migratory host. Our study highlights that bird ringing can be used to understand the epidemiological implications that bird migratory behaviour may have on the dispersal of parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Echinostomatidae , Trematódeos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)
4.
Parasitol Res ; 121(11): 3083-3089, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070023

RESUMO

Platyhelminths belonging to the family Clinostomidae (Digenea) have a worldwide distribution and are known to infect piscivorous birds through their intermediate hosts, usually fish species. In the present study, clinostome metacercariae were collected from fish hosts, including Channa punctata (Bloch 1793) (n = 25) and Trichogaster fasciata Bloch and Schneider 1801 (n = 25), from a freshwater system in India. The experimental infection of cattle egrets, Ardea (Bubulcus) ibis Linnaeus 1758, with some of the live metacercariae found in the present study was successful. Live adult parasites were obtained from the buccal cavity of the birds. Both metacercaria and adult specimens were subjected to molecular studies to obtain the sequences of 28S, ITS1, and ITS2 (nuclear rDNA) regions. The parasites were found to belong to three species, Clinostomum giganticum Agarwal 1959; C. piscidium Southwell and Prashad 1918; and Euclinostomum heterostomum (Rudolphi 1809). Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained from the adults and metacercariae established a link between the metacercariae in the fish hosts and adults in the avian host, which is essential to elucidate their partial life cycle and specify morphological characteristics in the metacercarial stage.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Bovinos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Metacercárias , Filogenia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária
5.
Malar J ; 21(1): 269, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemoproteus is a sister genus to malaria parasites (Plasmodium), which both belong to the order Haemosporida (Apicomplexa). Parasites of both genera are flourishing in birds, however, Haemoproteus species are noticeably less investigated. This is unfortunate because knowledge about close relatives of malaria pathogens is important for better understanding the evolutionary origin and basic biological features of the entire group of haemosporidian infections. Moreover, recent findings show that Haemoproteus species can cause severe damage of various bird organs due to megalomeronts and other exo-erythrocytic stages. These haemosporidians are remarkably diverse, but remain neglected partly due to difficulties in species identification. Hundreds of Haemoproteus genetic lineages have been reported in birds, and numerous new lineages are found each year, but most remain unidentified to the species level. Numerous new Haemoproteus pathogens were described during the past 20 years. However, keys for their identification are absent. Identification of Haemoproteus species remains a difficult task and is an obstacle for better understanding of the distribution and epidemiology of these parasites. This study aimed to develop comprehensive keys for the identification of described avian Haemoproteus species using morphological features of their blood stages (gametocytes). METHODS: Type and voucher preparations of avian Haemoproteus species were accessed in museums in Europe, Australia and the USA. Gametocytes of most described species were examined, and these data formed a background for this study. The data also were considered from published articles containing parasite species descriptions. The method of dichotomous keys was applied. The most difficult steps in the keys were accompanied with references to the corresponding parasite pictures. RESULTS: In all, 201 published articles were included in this review. Morphological diagnostic features of gametocytes of all described Haemoproteus species were analysed and compared. Illustrated keys for identification of these parasite species were developed. Available information about the molecular characterization of Haemoproteus parasites was provided. CONCLUSION: This review shows that 177 described species of avian Haemoproteus can be distinguished and identified in blood films using morphological characters of their gametocytes and host cells. These species were incorporated in the keys. Information about possible morphologically cryptic parasites was provided. Molecular markers are available for only 42% of the described Haemoproteus parasites, calling for researchers to fill this gap.


Assuntos
Haemosporida , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 187, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in host phenotype following parasite infection are often considered as host manipulation when they seem advantageous for the parasite. However, putative cases of host manipulation by parasites are rarely tested in field-realistic conditions. Infection-induced phenotypic change cannot be conclusively considered as host manipulation if no evidence shows that this trait is adaptive for the parasite in the wild. Plasmodium sp., the parasites causing malaria in vertebrates, are hypothesized to "manipulate" their host by making their odour more attractive to mosquitoes, their vector and final host. While this is fairly well supported by studies on mice and humans, studies focusing on avian malaria give contradictory results. METHODS: In the present study, genotyped birds at different stages (uninfected, acute and chronic) of Plasmodium relictum infection were exposed, in a large outdoor aviary, to their natural vector, the mosquito Culex pipiens. RESULTS: After genotyping the blood meals of more than 650 mosquitoes, we found that mosquitoes did not bite infected birds more than they bit them before infection, nor more than they bit uninfected hosts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of testing ecological behaviours under natural conditions and suggests that different processes might be at play in mammals and birds regarding potential manipulation of attractiveness by malaria parasites.


Assuntos
Aves , Mordeduras e Picadas , Culicidae , Malária Aviária , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Mosquitos Vetores
7.
Parasitology ; 149(11): 1479-1486, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768413

RESUMO

Haemoparasites represent a diverse group of vector-borne parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. In birds, haemoparasite infection rates may be associated with various ecological and life history traits, including habitat choice, colony size and migration distance. Here, we molecularly assessed the prevalence of 3 main haemoparasite genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) in 2 bird species with different habitat preferences and migratory behaviour: black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) and common terns (Sterna hirundo). We found that gulls showed a much higher prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium or Haemoproteus (ca. 60% of individuals infected) than terns (zero prevalence). The prevalence of Leucocytozoon was low in both species (<3%). The differences in haemoparasite prevalences may be primarily driven by varying vector encounter rate resulting from different habitat preferences, as black-headed gulls mainly use vector-rich vegetated freshwater habitats, whereas common terns often use vector-poor coastal and brackish habitats. Since common terns migrate further than black-headed gulls, our results did not provide support for an association between haemoparasite prevalence and migratory distance. In gulls, we found a negative association between colony size and infection rates, suggestive of an ideal despotic distribution, and phylogenetic analyses of detected haemoparasite lineages provided evidence for higher host specificity in Haemoproteus than Plasmodium. Our results suggest that the preference for coastal areas and less vegetated habitats in terns may reduce haemoparasite infection rates compared to other larids, regardless of their migratory distance, emphasizing the role of ecological niches in parasite exposure.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Haemosporida , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Haemosporida/genética , Humanos , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência
8.
Int J Parasitol ; 52(9): 617-627, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760376

RESUMO

Understanding the drivers of infection risk helps us to detect the most at-risk species in a community and identify species whose intrinsic characteristics could act as potential reservoirs of pathogens. This knowledge is crucial if we are to predict the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases. To date, most studies have only focused on infections caused by a single parasite, leaving out co-infections. Yet, co-infections are of paramount importance in understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions due to the wide range of effects they can have on host fitness and on the evolutionary trajectories of parasites. Here, we used a multinomial Bayesian phylogenetic modelling framework to explore the extent to which bird ecology and phylogeny impact the probability of being infected by one genus (hereafter single infection) or by multiple genera (hereafter co-infection) of haemosporidian parasites. We show that while nesting and migration behaviours influenced both the probability of being single- and co-infected, species position along the slow-fast life-history continuum and geographic range size were only pertinent in explaining variation in co-infection risk. We also found evidence for a phylogenetic conservatism regarding both single- and co-infections, indicating that phylogenetically related bird species tend to have similar infection patterns. This phylogenetic signal was four times stronger for co-infections than for single infections, suggesting that co-infections may act as a stronger selective pressure than single infections. Overall, our study underscores the combined influence of hosts' evolutionary history and attributes in determining infection risk in avian host communities. These results also suggest that co-infection risk might be under stronger deterministic control than single infection risk, potentially paving the way toward a better understanding of the emergence and evolution of infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Coinfecção , Doenças Transmissíveis , Haemosporida , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Haemosporida/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 31: 100652, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569906

RESUMO

Avian Haemosporidian parasites - Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Fallisia - have a wide distribution except for Antarctica. Leucocytozoon sp. has been poorly described in Brazil, and few studies have indicated infections in birds from the Atlantic Forest, Pantanal, Pampa and Amazon biomes. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of Leucocytozoon infection in red-legged seriemas (Cariama cristata) in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado biome) using molecular diagnosis. Leucocytozoon spp. lineage CARCRI01 was detected in three C. cristata, a non-migratory bird, confirming transmission in mid-elevation areas in central Brazil. Further studies are needed to certify whether infections in red-legged seriemas were not abortive and to elucidate Leucocytozoon infection at low altitudes in the Brazilian lands.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Haemosporida , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Filogenia
10.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(3): 1180-1185, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35556217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Branchiopodataenia bazaletica sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) is described from the black tern, Chlidonias niger L., after re-examination of material deposited in the helminthological collection of the Institute of Zoology, Ilia State University, Institute of Zoology in Tbilisi, Georgia. METHODS: The cestodes were collected from Bazaleti Lake in Georgia and originally identified as Wardium cirrosa, as labeled on the slides. Cestodes were examined using light microscopy. RESULTS: Detailed examination of the morphology of these specimens showed that they belong to the genus Branchiopodataenia and are described as a new species. The presence of 10 aploparaksoid hooks with an elongate handle, three testes, and chitinoid latch-like structure in the copulative part of the vagina support the assignment of the new species to Branchiopodataenia. The new species has rostellar hooks 48-52 in length, a long, armed cirrus, and long copulative part of the vagina. Branchiopodataenia bazaletica sp. n. differs from its congeners by the size of rostellar hooks and by the shape of the cirrus and vagina.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Charadriiformes , Parasitos , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Níger/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6892, 2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477963

RESUMO

Haemosporidian parasites are common in birds but are seldom reported in seabirds. The absence of vectors or genetic resistance to infection have been proposed to explain this pattern. However, screening of blood parasites in many seabirds has been done only by visual inspection of blood smears, which can miss low-intensity infections, and molecular detection of blood parasites must be supported by detection in blood smears to confirm the presence of haemosporidians and avoid false positive cases. Here, we tested for the presence of blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, combining inspection of blood smears and PCR-based detection methods in a highly philopatric colony of blue-footed boobies (Sula nebouxii) in the Tropical North Pacific. Our results indicate that adults in this colony are likely free of these blood parasites, probably due to unsuitable conditions for insect vectors in booby breeding sites, although potential genetic resistance of blue-footed boobies to infection deserves examination. Apparent absence of blood parasites in Isla Isabel boobies indirectly adds to the growing evidence of variation in parasite infections among avian host species that coexist locally.


Assuntos
Haemosporida , Malária Aviária , Parasitos , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Cruzamento , Haemosporida/genética , Malária Aviária/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 121(7): 1921-1935, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488923

RESUMO

Patagifer Dietz, 1909 is a small genus of echinostomatids, with 12 recognized species, mostly parasitising threskiornithid birds, distributed worldwide. In the current research, adult specimens of the type species, Patagifer bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819) Dietz, 1909 from the white faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) and white ibis (Eudocimus albus) were re-described, providing new metrical data for the number of head collar spines. Those specimens were recorded from eight localities in Mexico and compared morphologically with specimens previously identified as Patagifer lamothei. A total of 19 specimens identified as P. bilobus including two hologenophores were sequenced with three molecular markers: domains D1-D3 of the large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS2) plus 5.8S from the nuclear rDNA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) from mitochondrial DNA. The new sequences were aligned with other sequences of Patagifer spp., downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees inferred from each data set, placed all the specimens in a clade, confirming that the isolates belonged to the same species. The morphological examination of specimens previously identified as P. lamothei by Ortega-Olivares MP, Hernández-Mena DI, Pérez-Ponce de León G, García-Varela M (2011) Helminths of the white ibis, Eudocimus albus (Aves Therskiornithidae) in Mexico. (Zootaxa 3088, 15-26. 10.11646/zootaxa.3088.1.2) and in combination with molecular data confirms that those specimens should be reassigned to P. bilobus. In addition, this is the first study in P. bilobus using an integrative taxonomy approach.


Assuntos
Echinostomatidae , Trematódeos , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Echinostomatidae/genética , México , Filogenia
13.
Biol Lett ; 18(4): 20210575, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414225

RESUMO

The factors that influence whether a parasite is likely to cause death in a given host species are not well known. Generalist parasites with high local abundances, broad distributions and the ability to infect a wide phylogenetic diversity of hosts are often considered especially dangerous for host populations, though comparatively little research has been done on the potential for specialist parasites to cause host mortality. Here, using a novel database of avian mortality records, we tested whether phylogenetic host specialist or host generalist haemosporidian blood parasites were associated with avian host deaths based on infection records from over 81 000 examined hosts. In support of the hypothesis that host specialist parasites can be highly virulent in novel hosts, we found that the parasites that were associated with avian host mortality predominantly infected more closely related host species than expected under a null model. Hosts that died tended to be distantly related to the host species that a parasite lineage typically infects, illustrating that specialist parasites can cause death outside of their limited host range. Overall, this study highlights the overlooked potential for host specialist parasites to cause host mortality despite their constrained ecological niches.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Haemosporida , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia
14.
Int J Parasitol ; 52(8): 525-537, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439499

RESUMO

Philopteridae feather lice are a group of ectoparasitic insects which have intimate relationships with their avian hosts. Feather lice include an enormous number of described species; however, the relationships of major lineages have been clouded by homoplasious characters due to convergent evolution. In this study, a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the group is performed which includes 137 feather louse species. Several other analyses are also completed including dating analysis, cophylogenetic reconstructions, and ancestral character estimation to understand the evolution of complex morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic results recover high support for the placement of major feather louse lineages, but with lower support for long-branched enigmatic genera found at the base of the tree. The results of dating analyses suggest modern feather lice began to diversify approximately 49 million years ago following the adaptive radiation of their avian hosts. Cost-based cophylogenetic reconstructions recover a high frequency of host switching, while congruence-based methods indicate a significant level of congruence between host and parasite trees. Ancestral state reconstructions favour a generalist ancestor and water bird host at the root. The analyses completed provide insight into the evolution of a diverse group of ectoparasitic insects which infest a wide variety of avian hosts. The results represent the most comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis of the group to date and provide a framework for future classification of the family into natural groupings.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ftirápteros , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Neópteros , Ftirápteros/genética , Filogenia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 121(6): 1775-1787, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435509

RESUMO

Avian haemosporidian from the genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium are a diverse and widely distributed group of vector-borne blood parasites. These parasites can have negative effects on bird survival by influencing several aspects of their life cycle, causing different clinical signs and even death. Colombia has the widest range of bird richness throughout the globe; however, the associations between haemosporidian parasites and wild birds in different ecosystems remain poorly explored. Within this frame of reference, the objective of the present study was to identify and understand haemosporidian associated with resident and migratory wild birds and their lineages in northeast Orinoquia region, Colombia. Birds were captured in 8 localities and blood samples were collected, identifying the presence of haemosporidian parasites through morphological and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Blood samples from 233 wild birds (86 species) were analyzed for haemosporidian parasites. Sixteen individuals (6.9%) from 15 resident and migratory species were positive for Haemoproteus or Plasmodium. Fourteen haemosporidian lineages were identified, five of them reported for the first time. These new lineages are reported in four resident birds and one boreal migratory bird (Parkesia noveboracensis). This study is the first developed in the department of Arauca and contributes to the knowledge of haemosporidian lineages and their interaction with wild birds in the Colombian Orinoquia region and South America.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Haemosporida , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Haemosporida/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
16.
J Parasitol ; 108(2): 209-216, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435986

RESUMO

The genus Eustrongylides includes zoonotic nematodes that infect fish species and fish-eating birds of freshwater ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Eustrongylides in the paratenic host Perca fluviatilis (European perch) and in the definitive host, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (great cormorant), in Lake Annone, a shallow eutrophic lake located in the pre-mountainous area of the Alps in northwest Italy where wintering cormorants coexist with new breeding colonies. A total of 114 European perch and 48 cormorants were examined for the occurrence of Eustrongylides. All parasites collected were identified with microscopic examination and molecular analysis. Overall, 11 specimens of European perch (9.6%) and 13 individuals of cormorants (27%) harbored nematodes identified as fourth-stage larvae and adults of Eustrongylides excisus. The observed prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. appears to be intermediate between the higher values in cormorant breeding areas in northern Europe and the lower prevalence observed in their wintering sites in southernmost Europe. Considering the eutrophication status of freshwater ecosystems and the increasing population of the cormorants, Eustrongylides has an increasing potential range of dispersion in Europe, including Italy; thus an extensive surveillance should be carried out, especially given the zoonotic potential of this nematode.


Assuntos
Dioctophymatoidea , Helmintos , Nematoides , Percas , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Lagos , Percas/parasitologia
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 373-379, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290458

RESUMO

Parasites have developed many strategies to ensure their development, multiplication, and dissemination, including the use of reservoir hosts that are often nondomesticated species. Despite drastic reductions in their populations, wild birds remain widespread worldwide and could constitute some of these reservoirs. We focused on the identification of wild bird species harboring parasite stages in their muscles. Breast muscles of 327 birds of 27 different species were collected at three different sites in France. After artificial digestion, isolated nematode larvae were identified by PCR sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Toxocara cati was identified mainly in birds of prey. The presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was investigated by modified agglutination test on muscle fluids. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 65 out of 166 samples from various bird species. Avifauna, particularly birds of prey, could help on the surveillance of parasite circulation and play a role as sentinel species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves Predatórias , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Toxocara , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 807682, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250978

RESUMO

Natural antibodies (Abs), produced in response to bacterial gut microbiota, drive resistance to infection in vertebrates. In natural systems, gut microbiota diversity is expected to shape the spectrum of natural Abs and resistance to parasites. This hypothesis has not been empirically tested. In this 'Hypothesis and Theory' paper, we propose that enteric microbiota diversity shapes the immune response to the carbohydrate α-Gal and resistance to avian malaria. We further propose that anti-α-Gal Abs are transmitted from mother to eggs for early malaria protection in chicks. Microbiota modulation by anti-α-Gal Abs is also proposed as a mechanism favoring the early colonization of bacterial taxa with α1,3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT) activity in the bird gut. Our preliminary data shows that bacterial α1,3GT genes are widely distributed in the gut microbiome of wild and domestic birds. We also showed that experimental infection with the avian malaria parasite P. relictum induces anti-α-Gal Abs in bird sera. The bird-malaria-microbiota system allows combining field studies with infection and transmission experiments in laboratory animals to test the association between microbiota composition, anti-α-Gal Abs, and malaria infection in natural populations of wild birds. Understanding how the gut microbiome influences resistance to malaria can bring insights on how these mechanisms influence the prevalence of malaria parasites in juvenile birds and shape the host population dynamics.


Assuntos
Malária Aviária , Malária , Microbiota , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bactérias , Aves/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Malária Aviária/parasitologia
19.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(3): 347-365, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320484

RESUMO

The type-species of the genus Diorchis Clerc, 1903, D. acuminata (Clerc, 1902) Clerc, 1903, is re-described and illustrated on the basis of the type-material from Fulica atra L. from the Middle Ural, Russia, and new specimens from the same host species from Bulgaria. Since the type-series consists of specimens of two species, a syntype is designated as lectotype. The main differentiating characters of D. acuminata are the diorchoid rostellar hooks, 36-39 µm long, with a foliate epiphyseal thickening of the guard; cirrus-sac of variable length, usually reaching and often crossing the midline of proglottis, occasionally reaching antiporal osmoregulatory canals; evaginated cirrus with cylindrical basal part, bulbous middle part and pipette-like distal part; compact vitellarium situated dorsally to the ovary; copulatory part of vagina with muscular poral and middle portions and an antiporal sac-like reservoir; elongate eggs with polar filaments on their envelopes. The type-specimens of D. ransomi Johri, 1939 and D. longibursa Steelman, 1939 from Fulica americana Gmelin from USA are also re-examined and illustrated. Based on the present results, D. ransomi and D. longibursa are recognised as synonyms of D. acuminata. The previous records of the species are discussed. Diorchis acuminata is recognised as a specific parasite of Rallidae (mainly species of the genera Fulica and Gallinula) in the Holarctic.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Federação Russa , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
J Parasitol ; 108(2): 100-106, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240687

RESUMO

The brown booby (Sula leucogaster Boddaert, 1783) has a wide geographic distribution, being found throughout the intertropical range except for the west coast of South America. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) are ectoparasites commonly found in association with a wide variety of bird species, and extensive infestations can lead to severe itching and irritation that causes skin lesions, damage to the plumage, and abandonment of nests. Sula leucogaster lice have an atypical distribution, not fully following the distribution of their host. In the years 2018 and 2019, 4 marine animal rehabilitation centers located in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil received live birds and carcasses of Sula leucogaster. The animals were deloused and lice of 2 different species were collected. Identification was performed by optical microscopy, and the species found were Eidmanniella albescens Piaget, 1880 and Pectinopygus garbeiPessoa and Guimarães, 1935. This is the first record of both species in Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Doenças das Aves , Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária
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