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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257473, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374639

RESUMO

Feathers make up 7% of the total weight of adult chickens and keratin protein makes up 85% of the feathers. Today, the keratinase enzymes of some Bacillus strains are used to degrade and process raw keratin waste for animal and poultry feed. According to various studies, the probiotic properties of some spore-shaped Bacillus have also been proven. The study aimed to isolation of the keratinolytic Bacillus bacteria that they have probiotic properties for using in the livestock and poultry feed industry. We were able to isolate 8 strains of Bacillus licheniformis with kreatin degrading properties from the soil of Baharan chicken slaughterhouse (Qom city, Iran) applying heat shock, alcohol- and keratin-rich culture medium, and after microscopic and biochemical analysis, 16S rDNA gene was isolated. The measurement results of keratinase activity showed that the three strains of Bacillus licheniformis pvkr6, pvkr 15, and pvkr41 had the highest activity with 124.08, 101.1, and 100.18 U/ml. The results of probiotic properties evaluation also revealed that among all the isolates, only Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 and Bacillus licheniformis PTCC 1595 (positive control) were γ-hemolytic strains. The percentage of surface hydrophobicity of the strains was obtained from 3.27 to 30.57. It was also shown that, on average, all the strains had acceptable susceptibility to the tested antibiotics except penicillin G. Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 with highest keratinase activity (101.1U/ml) was considered an optional probiotics due to its abilities such as (biofilm formation, being safe cause of γ-hemolytic activity, high susceptibility to antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, cefixime, amoxicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin and having a moderate hydrophilic (hydrophobicity: 19.09%), high survivability in pH 2, 2.5 and 3, strong resistance to bile salts and moderate antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacterium like Proteus mirabilis and the ability to grow under anaerobic conditions). By using this strain, after hydrolysis of keratin protein in the feather structure, to replace part of the protein of livestock and poultry feed, not only is no need to separate bacteria from the feed, but also the strain play role of an useful and effective additive in animal growth.


As penas representam 7% do peso total das galinhas adultas e a proteína de queratina compõe 85% das penas. Hoje, as enzimas queratinase de algumas cepas de Bacillus são usadas para degradar e processar resíduos de queratina brutos para alimentação de animais e aves. De acordo com vários estudos, as propriedades probióticas de alguns Bacillus em forma de esporos também foram comprovadas. O estudo teve como objetivo o isolamento das bactérias queratinolíticas Bacillus que possuem propriedades probióticas para uso na indústria de ração animal e avícola. Conseguimos isolar 8 cepas de Bacillus licheniformis com propriedades degradantes de creatina do solo do abatedouro de frangos de Baharan (cidade de Qom, Irã) aplicando choque térmico, meio de cultura rico em álcool e queratina e, após análise microscópica e bioquímica, o gene 16S rDNA foi isolado. Os resultados da medição da atividade da queratinase mostraram que as três cepas de Bacillus licheniformis pvkr6, pvkr15 e pvkr41 tiveram a maior atividade com 124,08, 101,1 e 100,18 U/ml. Os resultados da avaliação das propriedades probióticas também revelaram que dentre todos os isolados apenas Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 e Bacillus licheniformis PTCC 1595 (controle positivo) eram cepas γ-hemolíticas. A porcentagem de hidrofobicidade superficial das cepas foi obtida de 3,27 a 30,57. Também foi demonstrado que, em média, todas as cepas apresentaram suscetibilidade aceitável aos antibióticos testados, exceto penicilina G. Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 com maior atividade de queratinase (101,1U/ml) foi considerado um probiótico opcional devido às suas habilidades como formação de biofilme, sendo causa segura de atividade γ-hemolítica, alta suscetibilidade a antibióticos como estreptomicina, gentamicina, cefixima, amoxicilina, tetraciclina, vancomicina, eritromicina e ter uma hidrofílica moderada (hidrofobicidade: 19,09%), alta capacidade de sobrevivência em pH 2, 2,5 e 3, forte resistência aos sais biliares e atividade antagonista moderada contra bactérias patogênicas como Proteus mirabilis e a capacidade de crescer em condições anaeróbicas. Ao utilizar esta cepa, após a hidrólise da proteína queratina na estrutura da pena, para substituir parte da proteína da ração de gado e aves, não só não há necessidade de separar as bactérias da ração, mas também a cepa desempenha um papel útil e eficaz aditivo no crescimento animal.


Assuntos
Animais , Solo , Resíduos , Probióticos , Bacillus licheniformis , Queratinas , Ração Animal
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765467

RESUMO

Now a days multidrug resistance phenomenon has become the main cause for concern and there has been an inadequate achievement in the development of novel antibiotics to treat the bacterial infections. Therefore, there is an unmet need to search for novel adjuvant. Vitamin C is one such promising adjuvant. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antibacterial effect of vitamin C at various temperatures (4°C, 37°C and 50°C) and pH (3, 8, and 11), against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at various concentrations (5-20 mg/ml) through agar well diffusion method. Growth inhibition of all bacterial strains by vitamin C was concentration-dependent. Vitamin C significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus licheniformis (25.3 ± 0.9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0 ± 0.6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19.3 ± 0.3 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis (27.67 ± 0.882 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.33±0.9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.0 ± 1.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (18.3 ± 0.3 mm). The stability of vitamin C was observed at various pH values and various temperatures. Vitamin C showed significant antibacterial activity at acidic pH against all bacterial strains. Vitamin C remained the stable at different temperatures. It was concluded that vitamin C is an effective and safe antibacterial agent that can be used in the future as an adjunct treatment option to combat infections in humans.(AU)


Agora, a resistência antimicrobiana de um dia em patógenos aos antibióticos tornou-se a principal causa de preocupação e houve uma realização inadequada no desenvolvimento de novos antibióticos para tratar infecções bacterianas. Portanto, há uma necessidade de pesquisar um novo adjuvante, e a vitamina C é um desses adjuvantes promissores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elucidar o efeito antibacteriano da vitamina C em diferentes temperaturas (4 °C, 37 °C e 50 °C) e pH (3, 8 e 11), contra Gram-positivos e Gram-cepas bacterianas negativas em várias concentrações (5-20 mg / ml) através do método de difusão em ágar bem. A inibição do crescimento de todas as cepas bacterianas pela vitamina C era dependente da concentração. A vitamina C inibiu significativamente o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas: Bacillus licheniformis (25,3 ± 0,9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22,0 ± 0,6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19,3 ± 0,3 mm) e bactérias Gram- negativas: Proteus mirabilis (27,7 ± 0,9 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21,3 ± 0,9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18,0 ± 1,5 mm) e Escherichia coli (18,3 ± 0,3 mm). A estabilidade da vitamina C foi observada em vários valores de pH e várias temperaturas. A vitamina C mostrou atividade antibacteriana significativa em pH ácido contra todas as cepas bacterianas. A estabilidade da vitamina C permaneceu nas mesmas diferentes temperaturas (4 °C, 37 °C e 50 °C). Concluímos que a vitamina C é um agente antibacteriano eficaz e seguro que pode ser usado no futuro como uma opção de tratamento auxiliar para combater infecções em humanos, pois pode apoiar o sistema imunológico diretamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Bacillus licheniformis , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Proteus mirabilis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 405, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertain effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics have been reported in experimental and clinical colitis. This study aims to examine the effects of a synbiotic combination comprising Bacillus licheniformis DSM 17236 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: Acute colitis was induced in rats by oral administration of DSS 3.5% for 7 days. Fifty rats were divided equally into five groups; one control group and the other groups were induced with colitis and treated with or without the tested synbiotic, mixed with diet, for 28 days and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) via intragastric tube once daily for 14 days. RESULTS: Symptomatically, the synbiotic administration raised the disease activity index (DAI) to comparable scores of the DSS group, specially from the 2nd to 7th days post DSS intoxication. It also induced a significant (p < 0.05) amplification of WBCs, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) expression and proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interferon gamma (INFγ), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) while depressed the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) when compared with the DSS and control groups. The DSS intoxicated and Synbiotic+DSS groups showed desquamations of the covering epithelium, noticeable diffuse leukocytic infiltrations, sever catarrhal enteritis, ischemic colitis with diffuse coagulative necrosis of the entire colonic mucosa. Contrarily, sulfasalazine proved to be effective in the reduction of the tested inflammatory markers and the pathological degenerative changes of the DSS ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSION: The examined synbiotic did not ameliorate but aggravated the DSS-induced colitis, so it should be subjected to intensive experimental and clinical testing before their use in animals and human.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Colite , Doenças dos Roedores , Simbióticos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sulfassalazina/efeitos adversos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/terapia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/veterinária
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14499-14509, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341695

RESUMO

l-Asparaginase has gained much attention for effectively treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and mitigating carcinogenic acrylamide in fried foods. Due to high-dose dependence for clinical treatment and low mitigation efficiency for thermal food processes caused by poor thermal stability, a method to achieve thermostable l-asparaginase has become a critical bottleneck. In this study, a rational design including free energy combined with structural and conservative analyses was applied to engineer the thermostability of l-asparaginase from Bacillus licheniformis (BlAsnase). Two enhanced thermostability mutants D172W and E207A were screened out by site-directed saturation mutagenesis. The double mutant D172W/E207A exhibited highly remarkable thermostability with a 65.8-fold longer half-life at 55 °C and 5 °C higher optimum reaction temperature and melting temperature (Tm) than those of wild-type BlAsnase. Further, secondary structure, sequence, molecular dynamics (MD), and 3D-structure analysis revealed that the excellent thermostability of the mutant D172W/E207A was on account of increased hydrophobicity and decreased flexibility, highly rigid structure, hydrophobic interactions, and favorable electrostatic potential. As the first report of rationally designing l-asparaginase with improved thermostability from B. licheniformis, this study offers a facile and efficient process to improve the thermostability of l-asparaginase for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Asparaginase , Bacillus licheniformis , Asparaginase/química , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Temperatura
5.
Metab Eng ; 74: 108-120, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257594

RESUMO

Lichenysin, producted by Bacillus licheniformis, is an important cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant, which has potential applications in oil exploitation, drug development, biological control of agriculture and bioremediation. While studies are lacking on metabolism regulation of lichenysin biosynthesis, which limits metabolic engineering and large-scale production of lichenysin. In this study, the yield of lichenysin was improved obviously by 13.6 folds to 2.18 ± 0.03 g/L in degU deletion strain (WX02△degU) compared with the wild-type strain (WX02) and completely inhibited in degU overexpressed strain (WX02/pHY-degU). We further proved that DegU, a transcription factor plays a significant role in multicellular behavior, is a key negative regulator of lichenysin synthesis lchA operon. But interestingly, lichenysin yield was still inhibited by overexpressing DegU in the promoter-substituted strain (WX02-PP43lch), in which promoter of lchA operon cannot be controlled by DegU. Thus, through 13C-metabolic flux analysis, we found that deletion of degU also enhanced glucose uptake, branched chain amino acid synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis, while decrease acetoin synthesis, which is beneficial for the supply of lichenysin precursors. Further experiments demonstrate that DegU regulates these pathways by binding to the promoter regions of related genes. Overall, we systematically investigated the multi-pathway regulation network mediated by DegU on lichenysin biosynthesis, which not only contributes to the further metabolic engineering for lichenysin high-production, but sheds light on studies of transcription factor regulation.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/química , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Anilidas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo
6.
Protein J ; 41(6): 671-680, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266499

RESUMO

Enzymes are a powerful tool employed in industrial applications due to their high specificity and efficiency. Amylase enzymes play an important role in detergent, textile, analytical chemistry, and paper industries. Here we present the design, synthesis, and characterization of azole functionalized nanoparticles for the immobilization of α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BlA). A modest binding efficiency (47%) was determined by the BCA assay. Enzymatic activity was measured using DNS method and illustrated the immobilization of amylase with the designed nanoparticles enhanced the thermal stability and long-term storage of amylases at a wide range of temperatures and pHs. With the required scale-up study, these implications amplify novel ways to implement this Fe3O4-PGMA-5A immobilized BlA enzyme in particular industrial applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Nanopartículas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Azóis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , alfa-Amilases/química , Temperatura , Estabilidade Enzimática
7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 207, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marine algae are responsible for half of the global primary production, converting carbon dioxide into organic compounds like carbohydrates. Particularly in eutrophic waters, they can grow into massive algal blooms. This polysaccharide rich biomass represents a cheap and abundant renewable carbon source. In nature, the diverse group of polysaccharides is decomposed by highly specialized microbial catabolic systems. We elucidated the complete degradation pathway of the green algae-specific polysaccharide ulvan in previous studies using a toolbox of enzymes discovered in the marine flavobacterium Formosa agariphila and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. RESULTS: In this study we show that ulvan from algal biomass can be used as feedstock for a biotechnological production strain using recombinantly expressed carbohydrate-active enzymes. We demonstrate that Bacillus licheniformis is able to grow on ulvan-derived xylose-containing oligosaccharides. Comparative growth experiments with different ulvan hydrolysates and physiological proteogenomic analyses indicated that analogues of the F. agariphila ulvan lyase and an unsaturated ß-glucuronylhydrolase are missing in B. licheniformis. We reveal that the heterologous expression of these two marine enzymes in B. licheniformis enables an efficient conversion of the algal polysaccharide ulvan as carbon and energy source. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the physiological capability of the industrially relevant bacterium B. licheniformis to grow on ulvan. We present a metabolic engineering strategy to enable ulvan-based biorefinery processes using this bacterial cell factory. With this study, we provide a stepping stone for the development of future bioprocesses with Bacillus using the abundant marine renewable carbon source ulvan.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono , Engenharia Metabólica , Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Xilose
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077061

RESUMO

Low catalytic activity is a key factor limiting the widespread application of type II L-asparaginase (ASNase) in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, smart libraries were constructed by semi-rational design to improve the catalytic activity of type II ASNase from Bacillus licheniformis. Mutants with greatly enhanced catalytic efficiency were screened by saturation mutations and combinatorial mutations. A quintuple mutant ILRAC was ultimately obtained with specific activity of 841.62 IU/mg and kcat/Km of 537.15 min-1·mM-1, which were 4.24-fold and 6.32-fold more than those of wild-type ASNase. The highest specific activity and kcat/Km were firstly reported in type II ASNase from Bacillus licheniformis. Additionally, enhanced pH stability and superior thermostability were both achieved in mutant ILRAC. Meanwhile, structural alignment and molecular dynamic simulation demonstrated that high structure stability and strong substrate binding were beneficial for the improved thermal stability and enzymatic activity of mutant ILRAC. This is the first time that enzymatic activity of type II ASNase from Bacillus licheniformis has been enhanced by the semi-rational approach, and results provide new insights into enzymatic modification of L-asparaginase for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Asparaginase , Bacillus licheniformis , Asparaginase/química , Asparaginase/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Catálise , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
9.
Microb Pathog ; 172: 105784, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122853

RESUMO

Wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici, is a global threat to tomato production that needs to be addressed seriously. The current research envisages the use of two self-compatible Bacillus strains, Bacillus tequilensis PKDN31 and Bacillus licheniformis PKDL10, in a combinatorial approach. The spent supernatant of liquid cultures from strains PKDN31 and PKDL10 showed in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. attaining an inhibition percentage of 95.33% and 96.54%, respectively. The bacterial isolates lytic activity against Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated by scanning electron microscopic analysis and lytic enzyme production of amylase, lipase, protease and ß-1,3 glucanase. Furthermore, PKDN31 and PKDL10 produced siderophores and had root colonizing ability that enhanced the biocontrol efficiency. Combined in vivo inoculation of Bacillus tequilensis PKDN31 and Bacillus licheniformis PKDL10 on tomato seeds revealed that the strains could induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici by increasing defence enzymes such as ß-1,3 glucanase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chitinase, and total phenol accumulations. Pot culture experiments also proved the biocontrol efficacy of the above dual culture supplementation as this treatment displayed a better growth as well as defense against Fusarium challenge compared to the controls. The obtained results suggest that rhizobacterial isolates could be employed as systemic resistance inducers and biocontrol agents in tomato plants to protect against Fusarium wilt disease.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus , Quitinases , Fusarium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sideróforos , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Fenóis , Catecol Oxidase , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Peroxidases , Lipase , Amilases
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 601, 2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057891

RESUMO

The growth of Phytophthora capsica, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea were all inhibited by the fermentation supernatant of Bacillus licheniformis TG116, a biocontrol strain isolated from Typhonium giganteum Engl. previously with broad-spectrum resistance to plant pathogens. The fermentation supernatant of the TG116 has a great stability on temperature and UV, and shows the biological activity of protease and cellulase. The antifungal protease produced by B. licheniformis TG116 was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography and Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The inhibition of protease by the three surfactants increased with increasing concentration inhibition. Among these surfactants, EDTA showed the strongest inhibition, with only 25% protein activity at a concentration of 1.1 mmol·L-1. Gene amplification verified the presence of a gene fragment of serine protease in the strain TG116. The antimicrobial substance isolated from the fermentation broth of TG116 is a serine protease component.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Phytophthora , Antifúngicos , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Serina Proteases/genética , Tensoativos/farmacologia
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 193: 107805, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921916

RESUMO

Citrobacter freundii is an important bacterial pathogen that causes serious diseases in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. However, scarce information is available on the use of Bacillus licheniformis to protect E. sinensis from C. freundii infection by improving the immunity, antioxidant ability and intestinal flora. In the present study, a 60-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the potential effects of dietary supplementation with antagonistic B. licheniformis on the non-specific immunity, antioxidant capability, intestinal flora and resistance of E. sinensis to C. freundii infection. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of B. licheniformis could boost non-specific immunity and antioxidant capability of E. sinensis in a significant dose-dependent manner respectively by increasing serum lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase activities and hepatopancreatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, acid phosphatase activities. In addition, crabs fed diets with B. licheniformis displayed increased composition and diversity of the intestinal flora, and exhibited significant defense against C. freundii infection with the relative percentage survivals ranging from 61.9% to 100.0% for seven days. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antagonistic B. licheniformis as a supplement in Chinese mitten crab feed to effectively resist C. freundii infection by improving the non-specific immunity, antioxidant status and intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Braquiúros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/farmacologia , China , Citrobacter freundii , Imunidade Inata , Superóxido Dismutase
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(10): 181, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951268

RESUMO

We studied a strain of Bacillus isolated from an artisanal tannery in Salta, Argentina. It was identified as Bacillus licheniformis B6 by 16 S phylogenetic analysis and MALDI TOF (GenBank accession code No. KP776730). The synthesis of lipopeptides by B6 and their antibacterial activity against clinical pathogenic strains was analyzed both in the cell-free supernatant (CFS) and in the crude fraction of lipopeptides (LF). Overall, the CFS did not significantly reduce the viability of the studied strains (Staphylococcus aureus 269 and ATCC 43,300, Escherichia coli 4591 and 25,922, Klebsiella sp. 1087 and 1101). However, LF at 9 mg/mL reduced the viability of those pathogenic strains by 2 and 3 log orders compared to those of the control. When the effects of LF and ampicillin were compared, they showed different sensitivity against pathogenic strains. For example, E. coli 4591 was the strain most resistant to ampicillin, requiring 250 mg/mL of antibiotic to achieve the same inhibitory effect as 9 mg/mL of B6 LF. SEM observations of the effect of LF on biofilm formation by E. coli 4591 and Klebsiella sp. 1087 clearly showed that biofilm structures were destabilized, these strains turning into weak biofilm formers. Signals in the CFS and LF corresponding to kurstakin and iturin were identified by MALDI TOF. Interestingly, surfactin was detected, rather than lichenysin, the expected lipopeptide in B. licheniformis species. Signals of bacitracin and fengycins were also found, the latter with a higher number of homologues and relative intensity in the LF than the other lipopeptides. These results show that the lipopeptides synthesized by B. licheniformis B6 have both potential antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against pathogenic bacteria of health importance.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Ampicilina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Biofilmes , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Filogenia
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(18): 6059-6075, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948851

RESUMO

One of the critical steps in lignocellulosic deconstruction is the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose by cellulases. Endoglucanases initially facilitate the breakdown of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass and are further aided by other cellulases to produce fermentable sugars. Furthermore, if the endoglucanase is processive, it can adsorb to the smooth surface of crystalline cellulose and release soluble sugars during repeated cycles of catalysis before dissociating. Most glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) endoglucanases have catalytic domains linked to a CBM (carbohydrate-binding module) (mostly CBM3) and present the second-largest cellulase family after GH5. GH9 endoglucanases are relatively less characterized. Bacillus licheniformis is a mesophilic soil bacterium containing many glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes. We identified an endoglucanase gene, gh9A, encoding the GH9 family enzyme H1AD14 in B. licheniformis and cloned and overexpressed H1AD14 in Escherichia coli. The purified H1AD14 exhibited very high enzymatic activity on endoglucanase substrates, such as ß-glucan, lichenan, Avicel, CMC-Na (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) and PASC (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose), across a wide pH range. The enzyme is tolerant to 2 M sodium chloride and retains 74% specific activity on CMC after 10 days, the highest amongst the reported GH9 endoglucanases. The full-length H1AD14 is a processive endoglucanase and efficiently saccharified sugarcane bagasse. The deletion of the CBM reduces the catalytic activity and processivity. The results add to the sparse knowledge of GH9 endoglucanases and offer the possibility of characterizing and engineering additional enzymes from B. licheniformis toward developing a cellulase cocktail for improved biomass deconstruction. KEY POINTS: • H1AD14 is a highly active and processive GH9 endoglucanase from B. licheniformis. • H1AD14 is thermostable and has a very long half-life. • H1AD14 showed higher saccharification efficiency than commercial endoglucanase.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Celulase , Saccharum , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Saccharum/metabolismo , Açúcares
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diabetes mellitus prevalence is rapidly increasing in most parts of the world and has become a vital health problem. Probiotic and herbal foods are valuable in the treatment of diabetes. METHODS AND PERFORMANCE: In this study, Bacillus licheniformis (BL) and Astragalus membranaceus extract (AE) were given with food to InR[E19]/TM2 Drosophila melanogaster, and the blood glucose, antioxidation activity and intestinal microbiota were investigated. The obtained results showed that BA (BL and AE combination) supplementation markedly decreased the blood glucose concentration compared with the standard diet control group, accompanied by significantly increased enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), decreased MDA levels and prolonged lifespan of InR[E19]/TM2 D. melanogaster. The treatments with BL, AE and BA also ameliorated intestinal microbiota equilibrium by increasing the population of Lactobacillus and significantly decreasing the abundance of Wolbachia. In addition, clearly different evolutionary clusters were found among the control, BL, AE and BA-supplemented diets, and the beneficial microbiota, Lactobacillaceae and Acetobacter, were found to be significantly increased in male flies that were fed BA. These results indicated that dietary supplementation with AE combined with BL not only decreased blood glucose but also extended the lifespan, with CAT increasing, MDA decreasing, and intestinal microbiota improving in InR[E19]/TM2 D. melanogaster. CONCLUSION: The obtained results showed that dietary supplementation with BL and AE, under the synergistic effect of BL and AE, not only prolonged the lifespan of InR[E19]/TM2 D. melanogaster, increased body weight, and improved the body's antiaging enzyme activity but also effectively improved the types and quantities of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal flora of InR[E19]/TM2 D. melanogaster to improve the characteristics of diabetes symptoms. This study provides scientific evidence for a safe and effective dietary therapeutic method for diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Astragalus propinquus , Bacillus licheniformis/fisiologia , Glicemia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Masculino
15.
Poult Sci ; 101(9): 102010, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841645

RESUMO

Since antibiotic resistance is a global health issues, the use of antibiotics in animal feed for growth promotion has been restricted in many countries. Bacillus licheniformis probiotic is a potential alternative to antibiotics for increasing poultry performance. Through metagenomic sequencing, this study investigated the effects of B. licheniformis-fermented products (BLFPs) and enramycin on the microbial community composition and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) distribution in the cecal digesta of broilers at the age of 35 d. In total, 144 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments as follows: basal diet (control [C] group), basal diet plus 10 mg/kg enramycin (E group), basal diet plus 1 g/kg BLFPs (L group), and basal diet plus 3 g/kg BLFPs (H group), with 6 replicate cages per treatment group and 6 birds per cage. The results indicated that the cecal alpha diversity (richness and evenness) of bacterial species was higher in the H group than in the C group. Principal coordinate analysis of microbiota and the ARG composition indicated clear differences among the cecal samples of the groups. In the cecal digesta, the abundance of active bacteria associated with probiotic properties, such as Lactobacillus crispatus and Akkermansia muciniphila, was higher in the H group than in the other groups. Enramycin treatment promoted the expression of peptide (bcrA), glycopeptide (vanRI), and lincosamide (lsaE) resistance genes but inhibited the expression of aminocoumarin (parY) and pleuromutilin (TaeA) resistance genes. BLFP (1 and 3 g/kg) treatment suppressed the expression of aminoglycoside (ANT(6)-Ib), streptogramin (vatB), and peptide (ugd) resistance genes but enhanced the expression of macrolide (efrA) and aminocoumarin (novA) resistance genes. The abundance of peptide resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. was lower in the H group than in the C group. The abundance of lincosamide resistance genes in Lactobacillus spp. was higher in the E group than in the other groups. These results demonstrated that differential changes in the structure of 3 g/kg BLFPs and enramycin-induced cecal microbial communities accompany changes in the abundance of bacterial hosts carrying specific ARGs in the cecal microbiota of broilers.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbiota , Aminocumarinas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lincosamidas , Masculino , Peptídeos
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 127: 1070-1078, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830944

RESUMO

This study evaluated the individual and combined effects of the dietary Spirulina platensis (SP) and probiotic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis (BL) on the growth performance, immune responses, and disease resistance in goldfish (Carassius auratus). A total of 216 fish (3.39 ± 0.24 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks with 18 fish per tank (4 treatments with 3 replications) and fed with diets containing 0% S. platensis and B. licheniformis (T0), 108 CFU/g B. licheniformis (T1), 2.5% S. platensis (T2), and 108 CFU/g B. licheniformis + 2.5% S. platensis (T3(. There were no significant differences in growth parameters. The alternative complement pathway (ACH50) and lysozyme activity were significantly increased in T2 and T3 treatments. No marked differences were observed in total immunoglobulin and protease activity among treatments (P > 0.05). The relative expression of IGF-1 was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). Ghrelin gene showed significantly higher mRNA levels in fish fed with SP and BL (P < 0.05). The relative expression of catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSR) significantly increased in fish fed with the SP and BL (P < 0.05). No marked difference in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) gene expression was seen between the treatments (P > 0.05). The mRNA levels of lysozyme, IL6, IL-1ß, TGF, and TNF2 transcription were higher in fish fed with SP and BL (P < 0.05). No notable difference was observed in TNF1 and IL10 gene expression between treatments (P > 0.05). Moreover, the result of the challenge test with A. hydrophila showed that goldfish fed with SP and BL had a lower mortality rate than the control. In conclusion, the supplementation of SP and BL can be used as feed additives to enhance disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection by stimulating the immune system in goldfish.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença , Expressão Gênica , Carpa Dourada , Muramidase/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Spirulina
17.
Gene ; 840: 146744, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863717

RESUMO

Bacillus licheniformis is a well-known probiotic that can be found in a variety of foods. The strain Bacillus licheniformis MCC 2514 was previously characterized by our group for its bio-physiological capabilities establishing it as a promising probiotic, but information on the genetic evidence for its attributes was lacking. In the current study, whole genome analysis identified the underlying molecular determinants responsible for its probiotic potential. The circular genome of MCC 2514 was 4,230,480 bp with 46.2% GC content, 24 rRNA, and 83 tRNA genes. The pangenome analysis between B. licheniformis MCC 2514 and 12 other B. licheniformis strains revealed a pangenome of 6008 genes and core genome of 3775 genes. Genome mining revealed NRPS and bacteriocins producing gene clusters indicating its biocontrol properties. Several genes encoding carbohydrate degrading enzymes, which aid in proper food degradation in the intestine, were also observed. Stress tolerance, vitamin, and essential amino acids biosynthesis related genes were found, which are important characteristics of a probiotic strain. Additionally, vital genes responsible for gut adhesion and biofilm formation were observed in its genome. The bacterium has been shown to improve the shelf life of idli batter by preventing whey separation, CO2, and odour production while maintaining the pH of 3.96-4.29, especially at cold temperatures. It has significantly reduced coliform contamination at both room and low temperatures, demonstrating its bio-preservative ability, which is also corroborated by the presence of the NRPS and bacteriocin gene clusters in its genome. The present study helped to understand both, the ability of B. licheniformis MCC 2514 to adapt the intestinal gut environment and its probiotic functionality for food preservation.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacteriocinas , Probióticos , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano
18.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 160: 110071, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717862

RESUMO

Large amounts of pectin-rich biomass are generated worldwide yearly, which can be hydrolysed by pectinases to obtain bio-based chemical building blocks such as D-galacturonic acid (GalA). The aim of this work was to investigate thermophilic pectinases and explore their synergistic application in the bioconversion of pectic substrates into GalA. Two exo-polygalacturonases (exo-PGs) from Thermotoga maritima (TMA01) and Bacillus licheniformis (BLI04) and two pectin methylesterases (PMEs) from Bacillus licheniformis (BLI09) and Streptomyces ambofaciens (SAM10) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified and fully characterised. These pectinases exhibited optimum activity at temperatures above 50 °C and good stability at high temperature (40-90 °C) for up to 24 h. Exo-PGs preferred non-methylated substrates, suggesting that previous pectin demethylation by PMEs was necessary to achieve an efficient pectin monomerisation into GalA. Synergistic activity between PMEs and exo-PGs was tested using pectin from apple, citrus and sugar beet. GalA was obtained from apple and citrus pectin in a concentration of up to 2.5 mM after 4 h reaction at 50 °C, through the combined action of BLI09 PME with either TMA01 or BLI04 exo-PGs. Overall, this work contributes to expand the knowledge of pectinases from thermophiles and provides further insights into their application in the initial valorisation of sustainable pectin-rich biomass feedstocks.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Poligalacturonase , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Ácidos Hexurônicos , Pectinas/química , Poligalacturonase/genética
19.
Microb Pathog ; 169: 105623, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691482

RESUMO

Diseases of fish caused by pathogenic bacteria are an important constraint on aquaculture production. Antibiotics have been widely used to control infectious diseases, but this has led to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and affected human health. In this context, probiotics are used as an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and control of diseases in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to obtain probiotic candidate strains of Bacillus spp. from the gut of Rhynchocypris Lagowskii. Strains were screened by enzyme-producing ability, antagonism assay and antibiotic susceptibility. The safety of the strains to host fish has also been established. The isolated Bacillus licheniformis (LSG1-1) and Bacillus subtilis (LSG2-1) were characterized and performed well in tolerance experiments. In addition, LSG1-1 and LSG2-1 were detected to have higher self-aggregation ability and surface hydrophobicity. In the in vitro adhesion model, LSG1-1 and LSG2-1 showed good adhesion ability and had obvious adhesion inhibitory effect on three pathogens of Aeromonas. Based on the characteristics observed so far, Bacillus licheniformis LSG1-1 and Bacillus subtilis LSG2-1 could form potential probiotic candidates in the digestive tract of R. lagowskii to help combat diseases in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus subtilis , Probióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aquicultura , Peixes , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases , Trato Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/farmacologia
20.
Biotechnol Adv ; 60: 108013, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752271

RESUMO

Microbial biosurfactants have attracted the attention of researchers and companies for the last decades, as they are considered promising candidates to replace chemical surfactants in numerous applications. Although in the last years, considerable advances were performed regarding strain engineering and the use of low-cost substrates in order to reduce their production costs, one of the main bottlenecks is their production at industrial scale. Conventional aerobic biosurfactant production processes result in excessive foaming, due to the use of high agitation and aeration rates necessary to increase dissolved oxygen concentration to allow microbial growth and biosurfactant production. Different approaches have been studied to overcome this problem, although with limited success. A not widely explored alternative is the development of foam-free processes through the anaerobic growth of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Surfactin, produced by Bacillus subtilis, is the most widely studied lipopeptide biosurfactant, and the most powerful biosurfactant known so far. Bacillus licheniformis strains produce lichenysin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant which structure is similar to surfactin. However, despite its extraordinary surface-active properties and potential applications, lichenysin has been scarcely studied. According to previous studies, B. licheniformis is better adapted to anaerobic growth than B. subtilis, and could be a good alternative for the anaerobic production of lipopeptide biosurfactants. In this review, the potential and limitations of surfactin and lichenysin production under anaerobic conditions will be analyzed, and the possibility of implementing foam-free processes for lichenysin production, in order to expand the market and applications of biosurfactants in different fields, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus , Anaerobiose , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oxigênio , Tensoativos
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