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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 243-254, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant changes occurd in Daqu bricks on the 15th day of incubation, and brick color (yellow, brown, or dark) is generally used as a standard for quality evaluation by experienced workers. This study aimed to explore the basis behind the phenomenon through multi-omics studies. The physicochemical properties of different high-temperature Daqu were compared. Furthermore, PacBio sequencing and the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic-Q-exactive-mass spectrometric approach were employed to analyze the differences in the microbiome and metabolome among different Daqu samples. RESULTS: Bacillus was the biomarker of yellow Daqu, Thermoactinomyces and Thermoascus were the key genera in brown Daqu, and Burkholderiales, Sphingomonas, and Ralstonia were biomarkers in dark Daqu. The physicochemical characteristics (especially the color values) of different high-temperature Daqu showed strong correlations with the bacterial alpha diversity and the relative abundance of dominant bacterial genera. Amino acid metabolism pathways including tryptophan metabolism, ß-alanine metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis were the key factors resulting in the characteristic differences where Bacillus, Burkholderia, Ralstonia, and Sphingomonas were pivotal bacterial genera. The relative abundance of Bacillus had a positive correlation with the content of 3-hydroxykynurenamine, l-glutamic acid, and pantothenic acid, while it showed a negative correlation with indoleacetic acid, l-tryptophan, N-acetylserotonin, l-histidine, l-aspartic acid, phosphatidylserine, 5-methoxyindoleacetate, and L-serine. Burkholderia, Ralstonia, and Sphingomonas had the opposite effects. CONCLUSION: Microbes play different roles in amino acid metabolism pathways, producing different metabolites, contributing to the differences in Daqu appearance and quality. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbiota , Humanos , Fermentação , Temperatura , Bactérias , Bacillus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136767, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241112

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms negatively affect aquatic ecosystems and human health. Algicidal bacteria can efficiently kill bloom-causing cyanobacteria. Bacillus altitudinis G3 isolated from Dianchi Lake shows high algicidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa. In this study, we investigated its algicidal characteristics including attack mode, photosynthesis responses, and source and the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that G3 efficiently and specifically killed M. aeruginosa mainly by releasing both thermolabile and thermostable algicidal substances, which exhibited the highest algicidal activity (99.8%, 72 h) in bacterial mid-logarithmic growth phase. The algicidal ratio under full-light conditions (99.5%, 60 h) was significantly higher than under dark conditions (<20%, P < 0.001). G3 filtrate caused photosystem dysfunction by decreasing photosynthetic efficiency, as indicated by significantly decreased Fv/Fm and PIABS (P < 0.001) values. It also inhibited photosynthetic electron transfer as indicated by significantly decreased rETR (P < 0.001), especially QA- downstream, as revealed by significantly decreased φEo and ψo, and increased Mo (P < 0.001). These results indicated that the algicidal activity of G3 filtrate is light-dependent, and the cyanobacterial photosystem is an important target. Cyanobacterial ROS and malondialdehyde contents greatly increased by 37.1% and 208% at 36 h, respectively. ROS levels decreased by 49.2% (9 h) when diuron (3-(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) partially blocked photosynthetic electron transport from QA to QB. Therefore, excessive ROS were produced from disrupted photosynthesis, especially the inhibited electron transport area in QA- downstream, and caused severe lipid peroxidation with significantly increased MDA content and oxidative stress in cyanobacteria. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly decreased both cyanobacterial ROS levels (34%) and algicidal ratio (52%, P < 0.05) at 39 h. Thus, excessive ROS production due to G3 filtrate administration significantly contributed to its algicidal effect. G3 could be an excellent algicide to control M. aeruginosa blooms in waters under suitable light conditions.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microcystis , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas
3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 138: 104553, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122732

RESUMO

The intensification and diversification of production systems have increased the incidence of diseases, which are usually treated with antibiotics. However, its use should be restricted due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Probiotics represent therefore an alternative environmentally friendly strategy for improving growth and disease resistance in aquaculture. Considering that host-derived probiotics may offer greater advantages than those from other environments in terms of safety and efficacy, two potential host-associated probiotic strains (Bacillus mojavensis B191 and Bacillus subtilis MRS11) were used in the present study, which were previously isolated from intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary administration of two Bacillus strains on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia. A total of 375 fish were randomly divided into five groups in triplicate. Nile tilapia were fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet supplemented with Bacillus mojavensis B191 (BM) or Bacillus subtilis MRS11 (BS) spores at different concentrations of 1 × 106 (BM6 and BS6, respectively) and 1 × 108 (BM8 and BS8, respectively) CFU/g of feed for 60 days. Moreover, the survival rate of tilapia upon challenge with Streptococcus iniae was determined following the feeding trial. After the feeding trial, the growth performances were significantly improved in all probiotic-fed groups, with the BS8 group being the highest. Light and electron microscopy observations revealed elevated goblet cells, intestinal villus length (except BM8), microvilli length, microvilli density, and perimeter ratio increase in the intestine of all probiotic-fed groups compared with the control group. Regarding the expression analysis, HSP70 gene was only up-regulated in the BM8 group and a general trend of up-regulation of some immune-related cytokines (TGF-ß, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1ß) was observed in all probiotic-fed groups. Likewise, the best protection against Streptococcus iniae was observed in the BS8 group, followed by BS6, BM6 and BM8 groups. Altogether, dietary probiotic supplementation with BS8 and BM6 may improve growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and disease resistance in Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença , Interleucina-10 , Intestinos , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159224, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206912

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading strains resuscitated by resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) enlarged pure degraders to screen effective bio-inoculants for soil bioaugmentation. In this study, whole-genome analysis and PCB-degrading performance of a resuscitated strain LS1 were investigated. Importantly, the persistence and the physiological response of soil-inoculated LS1 were checked. The results indicate that the Bacillus sp. strain LS1 possessed the potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds. LS1 exhibited better performance in degrading PCBs 18 and 52, but lower PCB 77 degradation capability. At PCBs concentration of 10 mg/L, the degradation efficiencies of PCBs 18, 52 and 77 within 96 h were 62.8 %, 59.6 % and 39.8 %, respectively. Combined the bph genes and metabolites detected, as well as the genes found in the genome, the abilities of LS1 for oxidative dehalogenation and mineralization of PCBs via HOPDA-benzoate-protocatechuate-ß-ketoadipate pathway were determined. Notably, LS1 can still maintain survival and culturable state after inoculation into PCB-contaminated soil for 70 days. This is the first report to demonstrate the fate of resuscitated strain when used as soil bio-inoculant, which revealed the necessity and feasibility of using resuscitated strains to enhance bioremediation of PCB-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo
5.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136889, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257390

RESUMO

The current study investigated the plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics of multi-metal-tolerant Bacillus cereus and their positive effect on the physiology, biomolecule substance, and phytoremediation ability of Chrysopogon zizanioides in metal-contaminated soil. The test soil sample was detrimentally contaminated by metals including Cd (31 mg kg-1), Zn (7696 mg kg-1), Pb (326 mg kg-1), Mn (2519 mg kg-1) and Cr (302 mg kg-1) that exceeded Indian standards. The multi-metal-tolerant B. cereus seemed to have superb PGP activities including fabrication of hydrogen cyanide, siderophore, Indole Acetic Acid, N2 fixation, as well as P solubilisation. Such multi-metal-tolerant B. cereus attributes can dramatically reduce or decontaminate metals in contaminated soils, and their PGP attributes significantly improve plant growth in contaminated soils. Hence, without (study I) and with (study II) the blending of B. cereus, this strain vastly enhances the growth and phytoremediation potency of C. zizanioides on metal contaminated soil. The results revealed that the physiological data, biomolecule components, and phytoremediation efficiency of C. zizanioides (Cr: 7.74, Cd: 12.15, Zn: 16.72, Pb: 11.47, and Mn: 14.52 mg g-1) seem to have been greatly effective in study II due to the metal solubilizing and PGP characteristics of B. cereus. This is a one-of-a-kind report on the effect of B. cereus's multi-metal tolerance and PGP characteristics on the development and phytoextraction effectiveness of C. zizanioides in metal-polluted soil.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Vetiveria , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise
6.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104143, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309444

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to compare the growth of food-pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, food spoilage Bacillus subtilis, an industrial milk product isolate, and spore-forming Paenibacillus in commercially available ultrahigh temperature processed (UHT) bovine milk and non-dairy, plant-based beverages (coconut, almond, cashew) stored at chilled and ambient temperatures (4 °C, 8 °C or 20 °C). Beverage samples were inoculated with a strain cocktail or individual strains of either Listeria or Salmonella, or Paenibacillus or Bacillus, respectively (approximately 1 × 103 CFU/mL). The findings indicate that the bacterial strains used in the study were capable of proliferating in plant-based beverages at higher rates than in bovine milk at 8 °C and 20 °C for Listeria and 20 °C for Salmonella and Paenibacillus, respectively. Bacillus subtilis grew equally fast in bovine milk and plant-based almond drink at 20 °C. No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in growth rates between different types of tested beverages was observed at 4 °C and at 8 °C for Listeria and Salmonella cocktails, respectively. These data suggest that plant-based beverages may present a significant risk for listeriosis and salmonellosis and post-opening recommendations should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria , Paenibacillus , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Esporos Bacterianos , Salmonella
7.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104125, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309454

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogenic bacteria in multi-species biofilms in food manufacturing facilities have been suspected to be the cause of cross-contamination leading to foodborne illness. We studied if cafeteria kitchen-associated bacterial isolates can have any protective effect on E. coli O157:H7 in biofilm against extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)-degrading enzymes and sodium hypochlorite. We investigated multi-species biofilm-forming ability and the efficacy of EPS-degrading enzymes using crystal violet assay. The susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) was evaluated using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Then, a combined treatment with enzymes followed by NaClO was also tested. Most cafeteria kitchen isolates of Acinetobacter and Bacillus were able to form biofilms. Several of them showed a protective effect on E. coli O157:H7 against NaClO after forming multi-species biofilms, particularly in Acinetobacter. This protective effect on E. coli O157:H7 was also noticed after the enzyme or the combined treatment with NaClO. Our results give us an insight into the protective role of food-associated environmental bacteria for E. coli O157:H7 in biofilms against common sanitizers and warrant further study to develop effective control methods. Our study also highlights the importance of preventing contamination or biofilm formation by environmental microorganisms, eventually reducing foodborne illness.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter , Bacillus , Escherichia coli O157 , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Biofilmes , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Matriz Extracelular
8.
Food Chem ; 403: 134440, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183470

RESUMO

Daqu, an indispensable starter, significantly affects the quality and yield of Chinese baijiu. To explore the bioturbation effect of space mutation and biofortification on strong-flavor Daqu, the microbial community, physicochemical properties and overall metabolic profile were investigated. Lactobacillus and Aspergillus were significantly reduced after bioturbation, while seven genera (e.g., Bacillus and Pichia) and five genera (e.g., Enterococcus and Thermomyces) were enriched by space mutation and biofortification, respectively, resulting in improved enzymatic activities. Among the 14 aroma-active volatiles and 51 differential metabolites identified, most had a higher content after bioturbation, including pyrazines, alcohols, small peptides and carbohydrates. Moreover, correlation analysis and integrated metabolic pathway showed that differences in flavor quality among these Daqu were mainly associated with bacterial communities, especially Bacillus, Kroppenstedtia, Thermoactinomyces and Scopulibacillus. These results are useful for elucidating the mechanism of flavor formation in Daqu and promoting the further application of bioturbation technology in the traditional fermentation industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbiota , Biofortificação , Microbiota/genética , Fermentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metabolômica , Bacillus/genética , Mutação
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 385: 109995, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368058

RESUMO

Temperature plays a critical role in the performance of microbial communities during traditional solid-state fermentation. However, it remains unknown how temperature shapes microbiota, metabolism, and their relationship in Daqu fermentation. Here, we investigated the response of Daqu microbiota and metabolites to temperature by actual Daqu fermentation and simulated fermentation. First, volatile organic compounds were similar in both fermentation systems. Seventy-nine shared volatile compounds accounted for 94.5 %-96.5 % in Daqu fermentation and 66 %-95.6 % in the end of simulated fermentation, indicating that the formation of compounds in Daqu fermentation could be repeated effectively by simulated fermentation. The simulated fermentation showed the temperature gradient of 17 °C-60 °C significantly affected the formation and accumulation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes, acids, and pyrazines positively correlated with temperature (p < 0.05). Eight compounds were identified as characteristic compounds in high temperature (50-60 °C), including tetramethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl-5-ethylpyrazine, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, benzaldehyde, acetic acid, and isovaleric acid. Next, we explored the force of temperature on microbial assembly and microbial interaction in simulated fermentation. Temperature significantly affected the composition of bacterial community (ANOISM, R = 0.779, P = 0.001) and fungi community (ANOISM, R = 0.664, P = 0.001). At the genus level, Weissella, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Saccharomycopsis Saccharomyces and Monascus dominated in 17-40 °C while Bacillus, Kroppenstedtia, Oceanobacillus, Lentibacillus, Rasamsonia, Thermoascus, Candida and Aspergillus were predominant genera in 50-60 °C. The succession of Bacillales, Lactobacillales, Eurotiales and Saccharomycetales adapted to changes in temperature. High temperature promoted microbial network complexity and a significant variation in microbial interactions. Furthermore, Procrustes analysis revealed a significant correlation between microbial community and volatile compounds (M2 = 0.6035, P < 0.001). Bacillus, Lentibacillus, Kroppenstedtia, and Oceanobacillus were significant contributors correlated to characteristic compounds. This study revealed the temperature-driven Daqu microbiota functioned as a critical contributor to promoting flavor formation and provided the theoretical basis for regulating fermentation in spontaneous fermentation systems.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Lactobacillales , Microbiota , Temperatura , Microbiota/fisiologia , Bactérias , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Bacillus/fisiologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159460, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257443

RESUMO

Back mixing was frequently used to replace conventional bulking agenting, however, however, the internal effect mechanism was unclear. This study compared four bulking agents: mushroom residue (MR), MR + primary BM (BM-P), BM-P, and secondary BM (BM-S). The effect mechanism of back mixing (BM) inoculation was assessed based on biodrying performance and microbial community succession. Four trials (Trial A, Trial B, Trial C, and Trial D) reached maximum temperatures of 61.9, 68.8, 73.7, and 69.9 °C on days 6, 3, 2, and 2, respectively. Application of BM increased pile warming rate and resulted in higher temperatures. Temperature changes and microbial competition lead to decline in microbial diversity and richness during the biodrying process. Microbial diversity increased of four biodried products. The number of microorganisms shared by Trial A, Trial B, Trial C, and Trial D were 90, 119, 224, and 300, respectively. The addition of BM improved microbial community stability, and facilitating the initiation of biodrying process. Microbial genera that played an important role in the biodrying process included Ureibacillus, Bacillus, Sphaerobacter, and Tepidimicrobium. Based on these results, it was concluded that BM was efficient method to enhanced the microbial activity and reduced the usage of bulking agent.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbiota , Esgotos/química , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura
11.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-12, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765453

RESUMO

Organo-mineral fertilizers supplemented with biological additives are an alternative to chemical fertilizers. In this study, thermoresistant microorganisms from composting mass were isolated by two-step procedures. First, samples taken at different time points and temperatures (33 days at 52 ºC, 60 days at 63 ºC, and over 365 days at 26 ºC) were pre-incubated at 80 oC for 30 minutes. Second, the microbial selection by in vitro culture-based methods and heat shock at 60 oC and 100 oC for 2h and 4h. Forty-one isolates were able to grow at 60 °C for 4h; twenty-seven at 100 °C for 2h, and two at 100 °C for 4h. The molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene using universal primers revealed that thirty-five isolates were from eight Bacillus species, one Brevibacillus borstelensis, three Streptomyces thermogriseus, and two fungi (Thermomyces lanuginosus and T. dupontii). Data from amylase, phytase, and cellulase activity assays and the enzymatic index (EI) showed that 38 of 41 thermo-resistant isolates produce at least one enzyme. For amylase activity, the highest EI value was observed in Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 21C2, EI= 4.11), followed by Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolate 6C2, EI= 3.66), Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 3.52), and Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolate 20C2, EI= 3.34). For phytase, the highest EI values were observed for Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 2.30) and Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 3C1, EI= 2.15). Concerning cellulose production, B. altitudinis (isolate 6C1) was the most efficient (EI= 6.40), followed by three Bacillus subtilis (isolates 9C1, 16C2, and 19C2) with EI values of 5.66, 5.84, and 5.88, respectively, and one B. pumilus (isolate 27C2, EI= 5.78). The selected microorganisms are potentially useful as a biological additive in organo-mineral fertilizers and other biotechnological processes.(AU)


Os fertilizantes organo-minerais suplementados com aditivos biológicos são uma alternativa aos adubos químicos. Neste estudo, microrganismos termoresistentes foram isolados de compostagem por procedimentos de duas etapas. Inicialmente, as amostras tomadas em diferentes períodos e temperaturas (33 dias a 52 ºC, 60 dias a 63 ºC e mais de 365 dias a 26 ºC) foram pré-incubadas a 80 oC por 30 minutos. Posteriormente, a seleção microbiana foi conduzida por métodos baseados em cultura in vitro e choque térmico a 60 oC e 100 oC por 2h e 4h. Quarenta e um isolados foram capazes de crescer a 60 °C por 4h; vinte e sete a 100 °C por 2h e dois a 100 °C por 4h. A identificação molecular por sequenciamento parcial do gene ribossomal 16S usando primers universais revelou que trinta e cinco isolados eram de oito espécies de Bacillus, um Brevibacillus borstelensis, três Streptomyces thermogriseus e dois fungos (Thermomyces lanuginosus e T. dupontii). Os dados dos ensaios de atividade de amilase, fitase e celulase e o índice enzimático (IE) mostraram que 38 dos 41 isolados termorresistentes produziram pelo menos uma enzima. Para a atividade da amilase, o maior valor de IE foi observado em Bacillus licheniformis (isolado 21C2, IE = 4,11), seguido por Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolado 6C2, IE = 3,66), Bacillus cereus (isolado 18C2, IE = 3,52) e Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolado 20C2, IE = 3,34). Para a fitase, os maiores valores de IE foram observados para B. cereus (isolado 18C2, IE = 2,30) e B. licheniformis (isolado 3C1, IE = 2,15). Em relação à produção de celulose, B. altitudinis (isolado 6C1) foi o mais eficiente (IE = 6,40), seguido por três Bacillus subtilis (isolados 9C1, 16C2 e 19C2) com valores de IE de 5,66, 5,84 e 5,88, respectivamente, e um B. pumilus (isolado 27C2, IE = 5,78). Pode-se inferir que os microrganismos selecionados são potencialmente úteis como aditivos biológicos em fertilizantes organo-minerais e outros processos biotecnológicos.(AU)


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/ultraestrutura , Bacillus , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Brevibacillus/enzimologia
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

RESUMO

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Assuntos
Cromo , Metais Pesados , Bacillus , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resíduos Industriais/análise
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Esgotos , Temperatura , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 72(11)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327328

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium, which originated from roots/rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays), was investigated for its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain JJ-3T was grouped together with Neobacillus species showing the highest similarities to Neobacillus bataviensis (98.8 %) and the three species Neobacillus dendrensis, Neobacillus soli and Neobacillus cucumis (all 98.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the sequences of the type strains of other Neobacillus species were lower than 98.5 %. The average nucleotide identity, average amino acid identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between the JJ-3T genome assembly and those of the other Neobacillus type strains were <83, <85 and <27 %, respectively. Chemotaxonomic features supported the grouping of the strain to the genus Neobacillus, e.g. the major fatty acids were C15 : 0 anteiso and C15 : 0 iso, the polar lipid profile contained the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the major quinone was menaquinone MK-7. Physiological and biochemical test results were slightly different from those of the most closely related species. For this reason, JJ-3T represents a novel species of the genus Neobacillus, for which we propose the name Neobacillus rhizosphaerae sp. nov., with JJ-3T (= CIP 111895T=LMG 32087T=DSM 111784T=CCM 9084T) as the type strain. We also propose to reclassify Bacillus dielmonensis as Neobacillus dielmonensis comb. nov. based mainly on the results of phylogenomic and conserved signature indel analyses.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae , Bacillus , Rizosfera , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Composição de Bases , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Ácidos Graxos/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fosfolipídeos/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
15.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(12): 380, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329344

RESUMO

Tomato is affected by various diseases which cause economical loss to the farming community. In the present study, twenty isolates of Bacillus sp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato and screened against soil-borne pathogens viz., Pythium aphanidermatum No.5, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici No. FOL-8, and Sclerotium rolfsii No. S-MK in tomato. The results revealed that three Bacillus sp. viz., BST8, BST18, and BST19 were promising in reducing the mycelial growth of the pathogens (up to 48% reduction) when compared to control under in vitro. The isolates possessed antimicrobial peptide genes which were detected through PCR. Novel compounds and secondary metabolites responsible for antifungal action were identified through GC-MS and FTIR analysis. Endospores have been isolated from the Bacillus sp. BST18 and standardized for the development of formulation. Pot culture experiment revealed sequential application of endospore-based bioformulation as seed treatment, (10 ml/kg), seedling dip (10 ml/lit), soil application on 30 days (100 ml/pot) along with foliar spray (0.2%) on 60 days recorded the lowest disease incidence of wilt (9.5%), and collar rot (11.5%) as against 65.5% and 75%, respectively, in the inoculated control. Field experiments revealed sequential application of endospore-based formulation of Bacillus sp. BST 18 as seed treatment, (10 ml/kg), seedling dip (10 ml/lit), soil application (400 ml/acre) at 30 days after transplantation (DAT) along with foliar spray (0.2%) on 60 DAT recorded the lowest wilt disease incidence of 15.97 &17.07 percent as against 49.77 & 51.10 percent in the control.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Fusarium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Plântula
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19770, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396722

RESUMO

Adsorption of old-aged petroleum hydrocarbons to the soil solid phase, which causes biosurfactant loss of performance, is among the limiting factors for the remediation of the saline-sodic soils contaminated with petroleum. Therefore, to find a functional biosurfactant in oil-contaminated saline-sodic soils, the efficiency of 39 bacteria isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils was evaluated. The strains were cultured in the Bushnell-Haas medium, and the produced biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers in this medium were extracted using chloroform/methanol and ethyl acetate extraction methods, respectively. Their partial purification was performed by column chromatography, and eventually, their performance in releasing TPH from the contaminated soil was evaluated. The soil test results revealed that the highest TPH releases due to the effects of the biosurfactants and bioemulsifier produced from SHA302, SH21, and SH72 isolates were 42.4% ± 0.2, 21.6% ± 0.15 and 24.3% ± 0.91, respectively. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the SHA302 strain showed 93.98% phylogenetic similarity with Bacillus pumilus strain ATCC 7061. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography results proved that the biosurfactants produced by isolates SHA302, SH21 and SH72 showed lipopeptide, glycolipoprotein and glycoprotein natures, respectively. The performance of the biosurfactant produced by SHA302 isolate indicated that it could be used as a good candidate for releasing TPH from saline-sodic soils with old contamination and facilitating the degradation of hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Bacillus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Filogenia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo
17.
Curr Protoc ; 2(11): e588, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350250

RESUMO

Genetic manipulation of Bacillus spp., such as B. thuringiensis and B. cereus, is laborious and time consuming due to challenges in transformation of the plasmid DNA construct. Larger shuttle plasmids, such as pMAD, that are commonly used in markerless gene replacement are particularly difficult to transform into Bacillus spp. Here, we present robust protocols that work efficiently for the transformation of both small and large plasmid constructs into B. thuringiensis. Our protocols involve preparation of efficient electrocompetent Bacillus cells by cultivating the cells in the presence of a cell wall-weakening agent, followed by washing the cells with optimized solutions. The protocols further highlight the importance of using unmethylated plasmid DNA for the efficient transformation of B. thuringiensis. © 2022 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of electrocompetent B. thuringiensis Basic Protocol 2: Transformation of B. thuringiensis.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacillus , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Bacillus/genética , DNA
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(12): 398, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352269

RESUMO

A bacterium strain isolated from freshwater sediment of San Pablo river of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba was identified as a Bacillus sp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry. A 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the isolate A3 belongs to the operational group Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while the phylogenetic analysis of the gyrA gene sequence grouped it within B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum cluster, referred now as Bacillus velezensis. In vitro antibacterial studies demonstrated the capacity of the isolate A3 to produce bioactive metabolites against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11,778, Bacillus cereus ATCC 6633, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25,923 by cross-streak, overlay, and microdilution methods. The strain also showed a high potential against the multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 700,699, ATCC 29,213, and ATCC 6538. At pH 8 and 96 h in the medium 2 of A3 culture conditions, the produced metabolites with antibacterial potential were enhanced. Some alterations in the morphology of the phytopathogens Aspergillus niger ATCC 9642, Alternaria alternata CECT 2662, and Fusarium solani CCEBI 3094 were induced by the cell-free supernatant of B. velezensis A3. A preliminary study of the nature of the bioactive compounds produced by the strain A3 showed the presence of both lipids and peptides in the culture. Those results highlight B. velezensis A3 as a promissory bacterium capable to produce bioactive metabolites with antibacterial and antifungal properties against pathogens.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Filogenia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Água Doce
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361776

RESUMO

This study describes two novel bacteriophages infecting members of the Bacillus pumilus group. Even though members of the group are not recognized as pathogenic, several strains belonging to the group have been reported to cause infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans. Bacillus pumilus group species are highly resistant to ultraviolet radiation and capable of forming biofilms, which complicates their eradication. Bacteriophages Novomoskovsk and Bolokhovo were isolated from soil samples. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the phages represent two new species of the genus Andromedavirus (class Caudoviricetes). The phages remained stable in a wide range of temperatures and pH values. A host range test showed that the phages specifically infect various strains of B. pumilus. The phages form clear plaques surrounded by halos. Both phages Novomoskovsk and Bolokhovo encode proteins with pectin lyase domains-Putative depolymerases. Obtained in a purified recombinant form, the proteins produced lysis zones on the lawn of a B. pumilus strain. This suggests that Novomoskovsk and Bolokhovo may be effective for the eradication of B. pumilus biofilms.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus , Bacillus , Bacteriófagos , Humanos , Bacillus pumilus/genética , Filogenia , Raios Ultravioleta , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacillus/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362266

RESUMO

Bacillus genetics need more versatile promoters for gene circuit engineering. UP elements are widely distributed in noncoding regions and interact with the α-subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP). They can be applied as a standard element for synthetic biology. Characterization of the binding motif between UP elements and RNAP may assist with rational and effective engineering. In this study, 11 Bacillus constitutive promoters were screened for strength in Bacillus licheniformis. The motif in UP elements from a strong native promoter, PLan, was characterized. The influence of specific sequences on RNAP binding and expression strength was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. It was found that sequences up to 50 base pairs upstream of the consensus motif significantly contributed to α-CTD (the alpha subunit carboxy-terminal domain) association. Meanwhile, two repeats of a proximal subsite were able to more strongly activate the expression (by 8.2-fold) through strengthening interactions between UP elements and RNAP. Based the above molecular basis, a synthetic UP element, UP5-2P, was constructed and applied to nine wild-type promoters. Fluorescence polarization results demonstrated that it had an apparent effect on promoter-α-CTD interactions, and elevated expression strength was observed for all the engineered promoters. The highest improved core promoter, Pacpp, was more strongly activated by 7.4-fold. This work thus develops a novel strategy for Bacillus promoter engineering.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Bases , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
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