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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(13): 12, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661609

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a preclinical compound, ITRI-E-(S)4046, a dual synergistic inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase 4 (MYLK4) and Rho-related protein kinase (ROCK), for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: ITRI-E-(S)4046 is an amino-pyrazole derivative with physical and chemical properties suitable for ophthalmic formulation. In vitro kinase inhibition was evaluated using the Kinase-Glo Luminescent Kinase Assays. A comprehensive kinase selectivity analysis of ITRI-E-(S)4046 was performed using the KINOMEscan assay from DiscoverRx. The IOP reduction and tolerability of ITRI-E-(S)4046 were assessed in ocular normotensive rabbits, ocular normotensive non-human primates, and ocular hypertensive rabbits. In vivo studies were conducted to assess drug concentrations in ocular tissue. The adverse ocular effects of rabbit eyes were evaluated following the OECD405 guidelines. Results: ITRI-E-(S)4046 showed highly selective kinase inhibitory activity against ROCK1/2, MYLK4, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19 (MAP3K19), with high specificity against protein kinase A, G, and C families. In ocular normotensive rabbits and non-human primates, the mean IOP reductions of 0.1% ITRI-E-(S)4046 eye drops were 29.8% and 28.5%, respectively. In hypertonic saline-induced and magnetic beads-induced ocular hypertensive rabbits, the mean IOP reductions of ITRI-E-(S)4046 0.1% eye drops were 46.9% and 22.0%, respectively. ITRI-E-(S)4046 was well tolerated with only temporary and minor signs of hyperemia. Conclusions: ITRI-E-(S)4046 is a novel type of highly specific ROCK1/2 and MYLK4 inhibitor that can reduce IOP in normotensive and hypertensive animal models. It has the potential to become an effective and well-tolerated treatment for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , beta-Alanina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macaca , Masculino , Hipertensão Ocular/fisiopatologia , Coelhos , Tonometria Ocular , beta-Alanina/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684722

RESUMO

Avobenzone, one of the most commonly used UV filters in topical sunscreens, is susceptible to photodegradation with a consequential reduction of its UV absorbing properties. This loss of function may lead to skin irritation, photodermatosis, and photoallergic reactions caused by photodegradation byproducts. In this work, we aim to address this issue with a substance named methoxy-monobenzoylmethane (MeO-MBM), which is neither a UVB nor a UVA filter, but which converts to avobenzone, a known and approved UVA filter, under mainly UVB light irradiation. The antioxidant and intracellular radical formation properties of MeO-MBM were compared to the ones of avobenzone. The UV irradiation of MeO-MBM led to an increase in UV absorption primarily in the UVA range after conversion, both in vitro and in vivo. HPTLC and UHPLC studies illustrate the conversion of MeO-MBM to avobenzone in vitro after irradiation at 250 kJ/m2, reaching a conversion rate of 48.8%. A stable molecular antioxidant activity was observed, since 100-µM MeO-MBM was measured to be 11.2% in the DPPH assay, with a decrease to 9.7% after irradiation. In comparison, the molecular antioxidant activity of 100-µM avobenzone was determined to be 0.8%. In keratinocytes, MeO-MBM reduces the intracellular ROS by 90% and avobenzone by 75% with tBHP as the inducer and by 53% and 57%, respectively, when induced by pyocyanin, indicating the redox scavenging capacity of both these molecules. These results indicate that MeO-MBM functions initially as an antioxidant material and as a photoantioxidant during its conversion process to avobenzone. This research provides insight into the development of active ingredients for topical applications with dynamic functionalities. Using this approach, we demonstrate the possibility to extend the UV protection offered to skin cells while combating cellular stress in parallel.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Metano/análogos & derivados , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/farmacologia , Fotólise , Propiofenonas/química , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/química , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491156

RESUMO

Introduction. The increase of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and associated treatment failure in populations at risk is driving us to look for new treatments.Hypothesis. The CIN-102 compound, derived from cinnamon essential oil, could be a new antifungal class with an activity, in particular, on strains resistant to current antifungals but also on biofilms, a factor of virulence and resistance of fungi.Aim. The aim of this study is to show the activity of CIN-102 on various strains resistant to current antifungals, on the biofilm and to determine the possibility of resistance induced with this compound.Methodology. We studied the MIC of CIN-102 and of current antifungals (voriconazole and amphotericin B) using CLSI techniques against eight different strains of three genera of filamentous fungi involved in IFIs and having resistance phenotypes to current antifungals. We also determined their effects on biofilm formation, and the induced resistance by voriconazole (VRC) and CIN-102.Results. MIC values determined for CIN-102 were between 62.5 and 250 µg ml-1. We demonstrated the antifungal effect of CIN-102 on biofilm, and more particularly on its formation, with 100 % inhibition achieved for most of the strains. CIN-102 at a sub-inhibitory concentration in the medium did not induce resistance in our strains, even after 30 generations.Conclusions. In this study we show that CIN-102 is effective against resistant filamentous fungi and against biofilm formation. In addition, our strains did not acquire a resistance phenotype against CIN-102 over time, unlike with VRC. CIN-102 is therefore an interesting candidate for the treatment of IFIs, including in cases of therapeutic failure linked to resistance, although further studies on its efficacy, safety and mechanism of action are needed.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses , Terpenos/farmacologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5492, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535643

RESUMO

Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the receptor for nitric oxide (NO) in human. It is an important validated drug target for cardiovascular diseases. sGC can be pharmacologically activated by stimulators and activators. However, the detailed structural mechanisms, through which sGC is recognized and positively modulated by these drugs at high spacial resolution, are poorly understood. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of human sGC in complex with NO and sGC stimulators, YC-1 and riociguat, and also in complex with the activator cinaciguat. These structures uncover the molecular details of how stimulators interact with residues from both ß H-NOX and CC domains, to stabilize sGC in the extended active conformation. In contrast, cinaciguat occupies the haem pocket in the ß H-NOX domain and sGC shows both inactive and active conformations. These structures suggest a converged mechanism of sGC activation by pharmacological compounds.


Assuntos
Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Animais , Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativadores de Enzimas/química , Humanos , Indazóis/química , Indazóis/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Multimerização Proteica , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/química , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/ultraestrutura
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361032

RESUMO

17,18-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) are bioactive epoxides produced from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. However, these epoxides are quickly metabolized into less active diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We have previously demonstrated that an sEH inhibitor, t-TUCB, decreased serum triglycerides (TG) and increased lipid metabolic protein expression in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. This study investigates the preventive effects of t-TUCB (T) alone or combined with 19,20-EDP (T + EDP) or 17,18-EEQ (T + EEQ) on BAT activation in the development of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders via osmotic minipump delivery in mice. Both T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed significant improvement in fasting glucose, serum triglycerides, and higher core body temperature, whereas heat production was only significantly increased in the T + EEQ group. Moreover, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed less lipid accumulation in the BAT. Although UCP1 expression was not changed, PGC1α expression was increased in all three treated groups. In contrast, the expression of CPT1A and CPT1B, which are responsible for the rate-limiting step for fatty acid oxidation, was only increased in the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups. Interestingly, as a fatty acid transporter, CD36 expression was only increased in the T + EEQ group. Furthermore, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed decreased inflammatory NFκB signaling in the BAT. Our results suggest that 17,18-EEQ or 19,20-EDP combined with t-TUCB may prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, in part through increased thermogenesis, upregulating lipid metabolic protein expression, and decreasing inflammation in the BAT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Araquidônicos/uso terapêutico , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/citologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Ácidos Araquidônicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/administração & dosagem , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 270: 118328, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364591

RESUMO

Here, biomimetic dual esterification strategy was proposed on natural polysaccharides cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and galactomannan (GM) in combination with tartaric acid (TA) and benzoic anhydride (BA) respectively. Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) formed the oriented quasinematic structure of the nanocomposites membranes. The CNCs crystallites were modified by TA and intercalated by amorphous polysaccharides, building a complex supramolecular network. Thus, it presents excellent light scattering property with the optical haze of ~90%, which was rarely reported previously. TA and BA simultaneously contributed to satisfying UV adsorption capability for the membranes, showing almost whole-spectra UVA/UVB blocking. Super high mechanical strength (>150 MPa) and toughness (~8 kJ/m3) were revealed by the membranes with high addition amount of BA, together with the efficient antibacterial capability on both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The diverse optical, mechanical and biological functions displayed by the polysaccharides membranes, propose new horizons on application for packaging, optoelectronic and biomonitoring sensors.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Benzoatos/química , Celulose/química , Galactose/análogos & derivados , Mananas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tartaratos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Esterificação , Galactose/química , Galactose/farmacologia , Mananas/farmacologia , Nanocompostos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Tartaratos/farmacologia , Resistência à Tração , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 573: 55-61, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388455

RESUMO

Mammary epithelial cells are the only cells in the mammary glands that are capable of lactation and they are ideal for studying cellular and molecular biology mechanisms during growth, development and lactation of the mammary glands. The limiting factors in most of the currently available mammary epithelial cells are low cell viability, transgenerational efficiency and lactation function that renders them unsuitable for subsequent studies on mammary gland's cellular and lactation mechanisms and utilizing them as bioreactors. Hence, new methods are required to obtain mammary epithelial cells with high transgenerational efficiency and lactation function. In this study, transdifferentiation of goat ear fibroblasts (GEFs) into goat mammary epithelial cells (CiMECs) was induced in only eight days by five small molecule compounds, including 500 µg/mL VPA, 10 µM Tranylcypromine, 10 µM Forskolin, 1 µM TTNPB, 10 µM RepSox. Morphological observation, marker genes comparison, specific antigen expression and comparison of gene expression levels by transcriptome sequencing between the two types of cells that led to the primary deduction that CiMECs have similar biological properties to goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and comparatively more lactation capacity. Therefore, we establish a novel reprogramming route to convert fibroblasts into CiMECs under fully chemically conditions. This study is expected to provide an in vitro platform for understanding cellular mechanisms such as mammary epithelial cells' fate determination and developmental differentiation, and also to find a new way to obtain a large number of functional mammary epithelial cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Retinoides/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tranilcipromina/farmacologia , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Animais , Benzoatos/química , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colforsina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Orelha , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabras , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/química , Piridinas/química , Retinoides/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Tranilcipromina/química , Ácido Valproico/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360675

RESUMO

In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, the genus Ferula L. is one of the most representative, and ferutinin, the most common sesquiterpene, is extracted from the leaves, rhizome, and roots of this plant. As reported in the scientific literature, ferutinin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as valuable estrogenic properties. Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases are devastating conditions for which a definite cure has not yet been established. The mechanisms involved in these diseases are still poorly understood, and oxidative stress is considered to be both a key modulator and a common denominator. In the proposed experimental system, co-cultured human neurons (SH-SY5Y) and human oligodendrocytes (MO3.13) were treated with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide at a concentration of 1 µg/mL for 24 h or pretreated with ferutinin (33 nM) for 24 h and subsequently exposed to lipopolysaccharide 1 µg/mL for 24 h. Further studies would, however, be needed to establish whether this natural compound can be used as a support strategy in pathologies characterized by progressive inflammation and oxidative stress phenomena.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cicloeptanos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
9.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2425-2443, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198323

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has turned into the largest public health and economic crisis in recent history impacting virtually all sectors of society. There is a need for effective therapeutics to battle the ongoing pandemic. Repurposing existing drugs with known pharmacological safety profiles is a fast and cost-effective approach to identify novel treatments. The COVID-19 etiologic agent is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Coronaviruses rely on the enzymatic activity of the replication-transcription complex (RTC) to multiply inside host cells. The RTC core catalytic component is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) holoenzyme. The RdRp is one of the key druggable targets for CoVs due to its essential role in viral replication, high degree of sequence and structural conservation and the lack of homologues in human cells. Here, we have expressed, purified and biochemically characterised active SARS-CoV-2 RdRp complexes. We developed a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based strand displacement assay for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity suitable for a high-throughput format. As part of a larger research project to identify inhibitors for all the enzymatic activities encoded by SARS-CoV-2, we used this assay to screen a custom chemical library of over 5000 approved and investigational compounds for novel SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors. We identified three novel compounds (GSK-650394, C646 and BH3I-1) and confirmed suramin and suramin-like compounds as in vitro SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity inhibitors. We also characterised the antiviral efficacy of these drugs in cell-based assays that we developed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Holoenzimas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Suramina/farmacologia , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299559

RESUMO

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that plays an important role in anti-inflammation through the hormone melatonin. The anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin and its derivatives have been reported in both in vitro and in vivo models. Our previous study reported the potent antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of bromobenzoylamide substituted melatonin. In silico analysis successfully predicted that melatonin bromobenzoylamid derivatives were protected from metabolism by CYP2A1, which is a key enzyme of the melatonin metabolism process. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory activities of melatonin and its bromobenzoylamide derivatives BBM and EBM were investigated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. The experiments showed that BBM and EBM significantly reduced production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner, but only slightly affected TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. This suggests that modifying melatonin at either the N1-position or the N-acetyl side chain affected production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 in in vitro model. In the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model, BBM, significantly decreased ear edema thickness at 2-4 h. It leads to conclude that bromobenzoylamide derivatives of melatonin may be one of the potential candidates for a new type of anti-inflammatory agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Melatonina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Óleo de Cróton , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Halogenação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Células RAW 264.7
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199099

RESUMO

Eltrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) agonist approved for the treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Recent evidence shows that some patients may sustain platelet counts following eltrombopag discontinuation. The systemic immunomodulatory response that resolves ITP in some patients could result from an increase in platelet mass, caused either by the direct action of eltrombopag on megakaryocytes through MPL stimulation, or potential MPL-independent actions on other cell types. To uncover the possible mechanisms of action of eltrombopag, in silico analyses were performed, including a systems biology-based approach, a therapeutic performance mapping system, and structural analyses. Through manual curation of the available bibliography, 56 key proteins were identified and integrated into the ITP interactome analysis. Mathematical models (94.92% mean accuracy) were obtained to elucidate potential MPL-dependent pathways in non-megakaryocytic cell subtypes. In addition to the effects on megakaryocytes and platelet numbers, the results were consistent with MPL-mediated effects on other cells, which could involve interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and forkhead box protein P3 pathways. Structural analyses indicated that effects on three apoptosis-related proteins (BCL2L1, BCL2, BAX) from the Bcl-2 family may be off-target effects of eltrombopag. In conclusion, this study proposes new hypotheses regarding the immunomodulatory functions of eltrombopag in patients with ITP.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Trombopoetina/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Hidrazinas/química , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Trombopoetina/química , Receptores de Trombopoetina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063817

RESUMO

Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is abundant in the brain, is upregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and is possible mediator of ischemic injury via the breakdown of neuroprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Prophylactic, pre-ischemic sEH blockade with 4-[[trans-4-[[(tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-ylamino)carbonyl]amino]cyclohexyl]oxy]-benzoic acid (tAUCB) reduces stroke-induced infarct in normal and diabetic mice, with larger neuroprotection in DM2. The present study tested whether benefit occurs in normal and DM2 mice if tAUCB is administered after stroke onset. We performed 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion in young adult male C57BL mice divided into four groups: normal or DM2, with t-AUCB 2 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before reperfusion. Endpoints were (1) cerebral blood flow (CBF) by laser Doppler, and (2) brain infarct at 24 h. In nondiabetic mice, t-AUCB reduced infarct size by 30% compared to vehicle-treated mice in the cortex (31.4 ± 4 vs. 43.8 ± 3 (SEM)%, respectively) and 26% in the whole hemisphere (26.3 ± 3 vs. 35.2 ± 2%, both p < 0.05). In contrast, in DM2 mice, tAUCB failed to ameliorate either cortical or hemispheric injury. No differences were seen in CBF. We conclude that tAUCB administered after ischemic stroke onset exerts brain protection in nondiabetic but not DM2 mice, that the neuroprotection appears independent of changes in gross CBF, and that DM2-induced hyperglycemia abolishes t-AUCB-mediated neuroprotection after stroke onset.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Animais , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/farmacologia
13.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100814, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081964

RESUMO

Nuclear receptors (NRs) activate transcription of target genes in response to binding of ligands to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Typically, in vitro assays use either gene expression or the recruitment of coactivators to the isolated LBD of the NR of interest to measure NR activation. However, this approach ignores that NRs function as homo- as well as heterodimers and that the LBD harbors the main dimerization interface. Cofactor recruitment is thereby interconnected with oligomerization status as well as ligand occupation of the partnering LBD through allosteric cross talk. Here we present a modular set of homogeneous time-resolved FRET-based assays through which we investigated the activation of PPARγ in response to ligands and the formation of heterodimers with its obligatory partner RXRα. We introduced mutations into the RXRα LBD that prevent coactivator binding but do not interfere with LBD dimerization or ligand binding. This enabled us to specifically detect PPARγ coactivator recruitment to PPARγ:RXRα heterodimers. We found that the RXRα agonist SR11237 destabilized the RXRα homodimer but promoted formation of the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer, while being inactive on PPARγ itself. Of interest, incorporation of PPARγ into the heterodimer resulted in a substantial gain in affinity for coactivator CBP-1, even in the absence of ligands. Consequently, SR11237 indirectly promoted coactivator binding to PPARγ by shifting the oligomerization preference of RXRα toward PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer formation. These results emphasize that investigation of ligand-dependent NR activation should take NR dimerization into account. We envision these assays as the necessary assay tool kit for investigating NRs that partner with RXRα.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/metabolismo , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Mutação/genética , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , PPAR gama/agonistas , PPAR gama/química , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/química , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/genética , Retinoides/farmacologia , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/genética
14.
Elife ; 102021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059198

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenic disorders have been treated with the Thrombopoietin-receptor agonist Eltrombopag. Patients with the same apparent form of thrombocytopenia may respond differently to the treatment. We describe a miniaturized bone marrow tissue model that provides a screening bioreactor for personalized, pre-treatment response prediction to Eltrombopag for individual patients. Using silk fibroin, a 3D bone marrow niche was developed that reproduces platelet biogenesis. Hematopoietic progenitors were isolated from a small amount of peripheral blood of patients with mutations in ANKRD26 and MYH9 genes, who had previously received Eltrombopag. The ex vivo response was strongly correlated with the in vivo platelet response. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from one patient with mutated MYH9 differentiated into functional megakaryocytes that responded to Eltrombopag. Combining patient-derived cells and iPSCs with the 3D bone marrow model technology allows having a reproducible system for studying drug mechanisms and for individualized, pre-treatment selection of effective therapy in Inherited Thrombocytopenias.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Megacariócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Trombopoetina/agonistas , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Reatores Biológicos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroínas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Mutação , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Receptores de Trombopoetina/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009488, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106933

RESUMO

Mycetoma is a devastating neglected tropical infection of the subcutaneous tissue and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Treatment of mycetoma consists of a combination of a long term antifungal treatment with itraconazole and surgery. However, treatment is associated with low success rates. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel treatments for mycetoma. CIN-102 is a synthetic partial copy of cinnamon oils with activity against many pathogenic bacteria and fungi. In this study we determined the in vitro activity of CIN-102 against 21 M. mycetomatis isolates and its in vivo efficacy in a M. mycetomatis infected Galleria mellonella larval model. In vitro, CIN-102 was active against M. mycetomatis with MICs ranging from 32 µg/mL to 512 µg/mL. 128 µg/mL was needed to inhibit the growth in 50% of tested isolates. In vivo, concentrations below the MIC of 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg CIN-102 prolonged larval survival, but higher concentrations of CIN-102 did not.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Madurella/efeitos dos fármacos , Micetoma/microbiologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Benzoatos/síntese química , Cinamatos/síntese química , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madurella/genética , Madurella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mariposas/microbiologia , Micetoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terpenos/síntese química
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11842, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088917

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells plays a key role in proliferative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration by contributing to subretinal fibrosis. To investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) signaling in this process, we have now examined the effects of the RAR-α agonist Am580 on EMT induced by transforming growth factor-ß2 (TGF-ß2) in primary mouse RPE cells cultured in a three-dimensional type I collagen gel as well as on subretinal fibrosis in a mouse model. We found that Am580 inhibited TGF-ß2-induced collagen gel contraction mediated by RPE cells. It also attenuated the TGF-ß2-induced expression of the mesenchymal markers α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and collagen type I; production of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 and interleukin-6; expression of the focal adhesion protein paxillin; and phosphorylation of SMAD2 in the cultured RPE cells. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis showed that Am580 suppressed both the TGF-ß2-induced translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of cultured RPE cells as well as subretinal fibrosis triggered by laser-induced photocoagulation in a mouse model. Our observations thus suggest that RAR-α signaling inhibits EMT in RPE cells and might attenuate the development of fibrosis associated with proliferative retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/agonistas , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo
17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211005555, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874785

RESUMO

Eltrombopag is an orally administered, non-peptide, thrombopoietin receptor agonist which initiates thrombopoietin signaling and stimulates the production of normally functioning platelet. We aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available published data to verify whether eltrombopag treatment in patients with chronic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia can prolong survival. We searched for published, randomized, controlled trials in PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases using the following search strategy ("Eltrombopag" OR "Benzoates" OR "Hydrazines") AND ("Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura" OR "immune thrombocytopenia" OR "Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpuras" OR "Immune Thrombocytopenia" OR "Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia" OR "Werlhof"). The pooled relative risk (RR) showed that eltrombopag group has significantly higher overall platelet response than placebo group (MD = 3.42, 95% CI [2.51, 4.65], P > .0001); pooled results were homogenous (P = .27, I2 = 22%). The pooled relative risk showed that eltrombopag group has lower incidence of any bleeding than placebo group (MD = 0.65, 95% CI [0.48, 0.87], P = .003); pooled results were heterogenous (P = .001, I2 = 75%) and the detected heterogeneity was best resolved after excluding Bussel et al (P = .10). Homogeneous results were still favored eltrombopag group (MD = 0.75, 95% CI [0.60, 0.93], P = .008).


Assuntos
Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia
18.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 279, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curculigoside is a natural phenolic glycoside compound produced by Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. This study aimed to explore the effects of curculigoside in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: ADSCs were treated with curculigoside at different concentrations (0 µmol/L, 1 µmol/L, 2.5 µmol/L, 5 µmol/L, 10 µmol/L, and 20 µmol/L), and cell viability was assessed by CCK-8 assay. Then, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined, and alizarin red S (ARS) staining was performed to measure the extracellular mineralization of curculigoside. Information about protein-chemical interactions is provided by the search tool for interactions of chemicals (STITCH) database. Then, LY294002 was administered to explore the mechanism by which curculigoside promotes the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Western blot assays were performed to assess changes in the expression of osteogenic-related markers and the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT. Finally, we established an ovariectomized (OVX)-induced osteoporosis mouse model and administered curculigoside to explore the effects of curculigoside in preventing bone loss in vivo. RESULTS: The CCK-8 assay indicated that curculigoside did not induce cytotoxicity at a concentration of 5 µmol/L after 48 h. The ALP and ARS results revealed that the induced group had higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the control group. Moreover, the curculigoside group exhibited increased biomineralization, ALP activity, and ARS staining compared to the induced and control groups, and these effects were partially inhibited by LY294002. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that the target genes of curculigoside were mainly involved in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. PCR and western blot analysis showed that the expression of RUNX2, ALP, and Osterix was upregulated in curculigoside-treated ADSCs, but this effect was partially reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the curculigoside-treated group exhibited significantly increased phosphorylation of AKT to P-AKT compared with the osteogenic induction group. After treatment with curculigoside, the mice had a higher bone volume than the OVX mice, suggesting partial protection from cancellous bone loss. In addition, when LY294002 was added, the protective effects of curculigoside could be neutralized. CONCLUSIONS: Curculigoside could induce the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs and prevent bone loss in an OVX model through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estimulação Química
19.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810313

RESUMO

Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a congenital macrocytic anemia associated with ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency. Ribosomal dysfunction delays globin synthesis, resulting in excess toxic free heme in erythroid progenitors, early differentiation arrest, and pure red cell aplasia. In this study, DBA induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were generated from blood mononuclear cells of DBA patients with inactivating mutations in RPS19 and subjected to hematopoietic differentiation to model disease phenotypes. In vitro differentiated hematopoietic cells were used to investigate whether eltrombopag, an FDA-approved mimetic of thrombopoietin with robust intracellular iron chelating properties, could rescue erythropoiesis in DBA by restricting the labile iron pool (LIP) derived from excessive free heme. DBA iPSCs exhibited RPS19 haploinsufficiency, reduction in the 40S/60S ribosomal subunit ratio and early erythroid differentiation arrest in the absence of eltrombopag, compared to control isogenic iPSCs established by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated correction of the RPS19 point mutation. Notably, differentiation of DBA iPSCs in the presence of eltrombopag markedly improved erythroid maturation. Consistent with a molecular mechanism based on intracellular iron chelation, we observed that deferasirox, a clinically licensed iron chelator able to permeate into cells, also enhanced erythropoiesis in our DBA iPSC model. In contrast, erythroid maturation did not improve substantially in DBA iPSC differentiation cultures supplemented with deferoxamine, a clinically available iron chelator that poorly accesses LIP within cellular compartments. These findings identify eltrombopag as a promising new therapeutic to improve anemia in DBA.


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/patologia , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Diferenciação Celular , Células Eritroides/patologia , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Eritroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoese , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação/genética , Pirazóis/farmacologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803038

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is recognized as the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Overnutrition and obesity are associated with hepatic steatosis. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has not been extensively studied in hepatic steatosis, although its endogenous ligands have been implicated in liver disease progression. Therefore, the functions of GPR55 were investigated in Hep3B human hepatoma cells and mice fed high-fat diets. O-1602, the most potent agonist of GPR55, induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, which was reversed by treatment with CID16020046, an antagonist of GPR55. O-1602 also induced intracellular calcium rise in Hep3B cells in a GPR55-independent manner. O-1602-induced lipid accumulation was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt/SREBP-1c signaling cascade. Furthermore, we found increased levels of lysophosphatidylinositol species of 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, and 20:2 in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. One-week treatment with CID16020046 suppressed high-fat diet-induced lipid accumulation and O-1602-induced increase of serum triglyceride levels in vivo. Therefore, the present data suggest the pro-steatotic function of GPR55 signaling in hepatocytes and provide a potential therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/análogos & derivados , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Animais , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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