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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2307216121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621126

RESUMO

Uncontrolled fires place considerable burdens on forest ecosystems, compromising our ability to meet conservation and restoration goals. A poor understanding of the impacts of fire on ecosystems and their biodiversity exacerbates this challenge, particularly in tropical regions where few studies have applied consistent analytical techniques to examine a broad range of ecological impacts over multiyear time frames. We compiled 16 y of data on ecosystem properties (17 variables) and biodiversity (21 variables) from a tropical peatland in Indonesia to assess fire impacts and infer the potential for recovery. Burned forest experienced altered structural and microclimatic conditions, resulting in a proliferation of nonforest vegetation and erosion of forest ecosystem properties and biodiversity. Compared to unburned forest, habitat structure, tree density, and canopy cover deteriorated by 58 to 98%, while declines in species diversity and abundance were most pronounced for trees, damselflies, and butterflies, particularly for forest specialist species. Tracking ecosystem property and biodiversity datasets over time revealed most to be sensitive to recurrent high-intensity fires within the wider landscape. These megafires immediately compromised water quality and tree reproductive phenology, crashing commercially valuable fish populations within 3 mo and driving a gradual decline in threatened vertebrates over 9 mo. Burned forest remained structurally compromised long after a burn event, but vegetation showed some signs of recovery over a 12-y period. Our findings demonstrate that, if left uncontrolled, fire may be a pervasive threat to the ecological functioning of tropical forests, underscoring the importance of fire prevention and long-term restoration efforts, as exemplified in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Incêndios , Animais , Ecossistema , Solo , Florestas , Árvores , Biodiversidade
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2307214121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621123

RESUMO

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has the potential to revolutionize conservation planning by providing spatially and taxonomically comprehensive data on biodiversity and ecosystem conditions, but its utility to inform the design of protected areas remains untested. Here, we quantify whether and how identifying conservation priority areas within coral reef ecosystems differs when biodiversity information is collected via eDNA analyses or traditional visual census records. We focus on 147 coral reefs in Indonesia's hyper-diverse Wallacea region and show large discrepancies in the allocation and spatial design of conservation priority areas when coral reef species were surveyed with underwater visual techniques (fishes, corals, and algae) or eDNA metabarcoding (eukaryotes and metazoans). Specifically, incidental protection occurred for 55% of eDNA species when targets were set for species detected by visual surveys and 71% vice versa. This finding is supported by generally low overlap in detection between visual census and eDNA methods at species level, with more overlap at higher taxonomic ranks. Incomplete taxonomic reference databases for the highly diverse Wallacea reefs, and the complementary detection of species by the two methods, underscore the current need to combine different biodiversity data sources to maximize species representation in conservation planning.


Assuntos
Antozoários , DNA Ambiental , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , DNA Ambiental/genética , Biodiversidade , Antozoários/genética , Peixes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2307220121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621138

RESUMO

The expansion of the oil palm industry in Indonesia has improved livelihoods in rural communities, but comes at the cost of biodiversity and ecosystem degradation. Here, we investigated ways to balance ecological and economic outcomes of oil palm cultivation. We compared a wide range of production systems, including smallholder plantations, industrialized company estates, estates with improved agronomic management, and estates with native tree enrichment. Across all management types, we assessed multiple indicators of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, management, and landscape structure to identify factors that facilitate economic-ecological win-wins, using palm yields as measure of economic performance. Although, we found that yields in industrialized estates were, on average, twice as high as those in smallholder plantations, ecological indicators displayed substantial variability across systems, regardless of yield variations, highlighting potential for economic-ecological win-wins. Reducing management intensity (e.g., mechanical weeding instead of herbicide application) did not lower yields but improved ecological outcomes at moderate costs, making it a potential measure for balancing economic and ecological demands. Additionally, maintaining forest cover in the landscape generally enhanced local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning within plantations. Enriching plantations with native trees is also a promising strategy to increase ecological value without reducing productivity. Overall, we recommend closing yield gaps in smallholder cultivation through careful intensification, whereas conventional plantations could reduce management intensity without sacrificing yield. Our study highlights various pathways to reconcile the economics and ecology of palm oil production and identifies management practices for a more sustainable future of oil palm cultivation.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Óleos Industriais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Árvores , Óleo de Palmeira , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2318596121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621142

RESUMO

While there is increasing recognition that social processes in cities like gentrification have ecological consequences, we lack nuanced understanding of the ways gentrification affects urban biodiversity. We analyzed a large camera trap dataset of mammals (>500 g) to evaluate how gentrification impacts species richness and community composition across 23 US cities. After controlling for the negative effect of impervious cover, gentrified parts of cities had the highest mammal species richness. Change in community composition was associated with gentrification in a few cities, which were mostly located along the West Coast. At the species level, roughly half (11 of 21 mammals) had higher occupancy in gentrified parts of a city, especially when impervious cover was low. Our results indicate that the impacts of gentrification extend to nonhuman animals, which provides further evidence that some aspects of nature in cities, such as wildlife, are chronically inaccessible to marginalized human populations.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Segregação Residencial , Animais , Humanos , Cidades , Mamíferos , Animais Selvagens , Ecossistema
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17272, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623753

RESUMO

Native biodiversity loss and invasions by nonindigenous species (NIS) have massively altered ecosystems worldwide, but trajectories of taxonomic and functional reorganization remain poorly understood due to the scarcity of long-term data. Where ecological time series are available, their temporal coverage is often shorter than the history of anthropogenic changes, posing the risk of drawing misleading conclusions on systems' current states and future development. Focusing on the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, a region affected by massive biological invasions and the largest climate change-driven collapse of native marine biodiversity ever documented, we followed the taxonomic and functional evolution of an emerging "novel ecosystem", using a unique dataset on shelled mollusks sampled in 2005-2022 on the Israeli shelf. To quantify the alteration of observed assemblages relative to historical times, we also analyzed decades- to centuries-old ecological baselines reconstructed from radiometrically dated death assemblages, time-averaged accumulations of shells on the seafloor that constitute natural archives of past community states. Against expectations, we found no major loss of native biodiversity in the past two decades, suggesting that its collapse had occurred even earlier than 2005. Instead, assemblage taxonomic and functional richness increased, reflecting the diversification of NIS whose trait structure was, and has remained, different from the native one. The comparison with the death assemblage, however, revealed that modern assemblages are taxonomically and functionally much impoverished compared to historical communities. This implies that NIS did not compensate for the functional loss of native taxa, and that even the most complete observational dataset available for the region represents a shifted baseline that does not reflect the actual magnitude of anthropogenic changes. While highlighting the great value of observational time series, our results call for the integration of multiple information sources on past ecosystem states to better understand patterns of biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo , Fatores de Tempo , Mudança Climática
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610256

RESUMO

The ongoing biodiversity crisis, driven by factors such as land-use change and global warming, emphasizes the need for effective ecological monitoring methods. Acoustic monitoring of biodiversity has emerged as an important monitoring tool. Detecting human voices in soundscape monitoring projects is useful both for analyzing human disturbance and for privacy filtering. Despite significant strides in deep learning in recent years, the deployment of large neural networks on compact devices poses challenges due to memory and latency constraints. Our approach focuses on leveraging knowledge distillation techniques to design efficient, lightweight student models for speech detection in bioacoustics. In particular, we employed the MobileNetV3-Small-Pi model to create compact yet effective student architectures to compare against the larger EcoVAD teacher model, a well-regarded voice detection architecture in eco-acoustic monitoring. The comparative analysis included examining various configurations of the MobileNetV3-Small-Pi-derived student models to identify optimal performance. Additionally, a thorough evaluation of different distillation techniques was conducted to ascertain the most effective method for model selection. Our findings revealed that the distilled models exhibited comparable performance to the EcoVAD teacher model, indicating a promising approach to overcoming computational barriers for real-time ecological monitoring.


Assuntos
Fala , Voz , Humanos , Acústica , Biodiversidade , Conhecimento
7.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120778, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581899

RESUMO

Mining is increasing worldwide and is typically associated with highly negative environmental impacts, such as habitat loss and fragmentation. To counteract these effects and improve restoration practices, decisions, such as setting mine rehabilitation goals, could incorporate the assessment and restoration of landscape connectivity into their regional and local-scale planning. The overarching goal of this work was to assess landscape connectivity for flora and fauna and explore mine-rehabilitation scenarios that can be used as a tool for prioritising biodiversity outcomes. Our study area comprised the Fitzroy Basin (Queensland, Australia), where the disturbance footprints from mining cover a cumulative area of 121,239 ha. We considered two scenarios: rehabilitation to agriculture and restoration to native ecosystems. To compare these scenarios, we created differential maps, which highlighted that restoring to native ecosystems represented connectivity gains over agricultural rehabilitation goals. These maps revealed three ways to prioritise rehabilitation outcomes, giving priority to mines that: 1) presented medium to high connectivity values, 2) covered a large area of influence (contributing to connectivity on a larger scale, regardless of current flow values), and 3) showed a gain of important paths/corridors. We explored four case studies and found that three benefited from restoration outcomes, while the fourth did not benefit by either scenario. Our methods can be used for decision-making in restoration ecology and conservation, including mine rehabilitation priorities and goals, as well as for evaluating connectivity gains or losses.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Objetivos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2320687121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557179

RESUMO

The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hotspot already affected by climate-driven biodiversity collapses. Its highly endemic fauna is at further risk if global warming triggers an invasion of tropical Atlantic species. Here, we combine modern species occurrences with a unique paleorecord from the Last Interglacial (135 to 116 ka), a conservative analog of future climate, to model the future distribution of an exemplary subset of tropical West African mollusks, currently separated from the Mediterranean by cold upwelling off north-west Africa. We show that, already under an intermediate climate scenario (RCP 4.5) by 2050, climatic connectivity along north-west Africa may allow tropical species to colonize a by then largely environmentally suitable Mediterranean. The worst-case scenario RCP 8.5 leads to a fully tropicalized Mediterranean by 2100. The tropical Atlantic invasion will add to the ongoing Indo-Pacific invasion through the Suez Canal, irreversibly transforming the entire Mediterranean into a novel ecosystem unprecedented in human history.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Aquecimento Global , África Ocidental
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7051, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627422

RESUMO

Using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment, this study investigated an association between natural diversity on mental wellbeing. A sample of 1,998 participants completed 41,448 assessments between April 2018 and September 2023. Environments which included a larger range of natural features, such as trees, plants and birdlife (high natural diversity) were associated with greater mental wellbeing than environments including a smaller range of natural features (low natural diversity). There was evidence of a mediating effect of natural diversity on the association between natural environments and mental wellbeing. These results highlight the importance of policies and practices that support richness of biodiversity for public mental health.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Smartphone , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Árvores , Biodiversidade
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8735, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627432

RESUMO

In urban areas, diverse and complex habitats for biodiversity are often lacking. This lack of diversity not only compromises essential ecological processes, such as pollination and nutrient cycling, but also diminishes the resilience of urban ecosystems to pests and diseases. To enhance urban biodiversity, a possible solution is to integrate shrubs alongside trees, thereby increasing the overall amount of vegetation, structural complexity and the associated resource diversity. Here, using a common garden experiment involving a variety of trees and shrubs planted alone and in combination, we evaluate how canopy-associated invertebrate assemblages are influenced by vegetation type. In particular, we test whether the presence of shrubs, alone or with trees, results in increased abundance and taxonomic richness of invertebrates, compared to trees on their own. We found that the overall abundance of invertebrates, and that of specific functional groups (e.g., herbivores, pollinators, detritivores), was higher on shrubs, compared to trees, and when trees and shrubs were planted in combination (relative to trees on their own). Our results suggest that planting shrub and tree species with wide and dense crowns can increase the associated abundance and taxonomic and functional group richness of invertebrate communities. Overall, our findings indicate that urban planning would benefit from incorporating shrubs alongside urban trees to maximise invertebrate abundance, diversity and function in urban landscapes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Árvores , Plantas , Invertebrados
11.
Science ; 384(6691): 9, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574127

RESUMO

In a world where biodiversity is on the line on many fronts-from armed conflict to pandemics to climate change-defending institutions that have effectively managed it is paramount. In the global effort to protect biodiversity, Mexico has been at the forefront. In particular, for more than 30 years, Mexico's National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) has promoted research, compiled information on the biodiversity of Mexico and elsewhere, and connected academia, government, and society to guide decision-making. Unfortunately, the demise of CONABIO, which began in 2018 under the current administration, may be fully realized soon. Last month, the Mexican government announced its intent to reduce CONABIO from a multi-ministry federal government agency to a branch within the environment ministry. This will strip CONABIO of its independent voice, credibility, and influence on national and international policy. As this decision is open for public comment, it is important for the scientific community to speak out strongly against this change.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Política Pública , México , Órgãos Governamentais
12.
Science ; 384(6691): 87-93, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574149

RESUMO

Agricultural simplification continues to expand at the expense of more diverse forms of agriculture. This simplification, for example, in the form of intensively managed monocultures, poses a risk to keeping the world within safe and just Earth system boundaries. Here, we estimated how agricultural diversification simultaneously affects social and environmental outcomes. Drawing from 24 studies in 11 countries across 2655 farms, we show how five diversification strategies focusing on livestock, crops, soils, noncrop plantings, and water conservation benefit social (e.g., human well-being, yields, and food security) and environmental (e.g., biodiversity, ecosystem services, and reduced environmental externalities) outcomes. We found that applying multiple diversification strategies creates more positive outcomes than individual management strategies alone. To realize these benefits, well-designed policies are needed to incentivize the adoption of multiple diversification strategies in unison.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Fazendas , Solo
13.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13253, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575147

RESUMO

Partner specificity is a well-documented phenomenon in biotic interactions, yet the factors that determine specificity in plant-fungal associations remain largely unknown. By utilizing composite soil samples, we identified the predictors that drive partner specificity in both plants and fungi, with a particular focus on ectomycorrhizal associations. Fungal guilds exhibited significant differences in overall partner preference and avoidance, richness, and specificity to specific tree genera. The highest level of specificity was observed in root endophytic and ectomycorrhizal associations, while the lowest was found in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The majority of ectomycorrhizal fungal species showed a preference for one of their partner trees, primarily at the plant genus level. Specialist ectomycorrhizal fungi were dominant in belowground communities in terms of species richness and relative abundance. Moreover, all tree genera (and occasionally species) demonstrated a preference for certain fungal groups. Partner specificity was not related to the rarity of fungi or plants or environmental conditions, except for soil pH. Depending on the partner tree genus, specific fungi became more prevalent and relatively more abundant with increasing stand age, tree dominance, and soil pH conditions optimal for the partner tree genus. The richness of partner tree species and increased evenness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in multi-host communities enhanced the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, it was primarily the partner-generalist fungi that contributed to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Árvores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fungos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 59, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619730

RESUMO

As one of the important biodiversity conservation areas in China, the ecosystem in the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River is fragile, and is particularly sensitive to global changes. To reveal the diversity pattern of phytoplankton, the metabarcode sequencing was employed in the Medog section of the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River during autumn 2019 in present study. The phytoplankton assemblies can be significantly divided into the main stem and the tributaries; there are significant differences in the phytoplankton biomass, alpha and beta diversity between the main stem and the tributaries. While both the main stem and the tributaries are affected by dispersal limitation, the phytoplankton assemblages in the entire lower reaches are primarily influenced by heterogeneous selection. Community dissimilarity and assembly process were significantly correlated with turbidity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen nutrition. The tributaries were the main source of the increase in phytoplankton diversity in the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River. Such diversity pattern of phytoplankton in the lower reach may be caused by the special habitat in Medog, that is, the excessive flow velocity, and the significant spatial heterogeneity in physical and chemical factors between stem and tributaries. Based on the results and conclusions obtained in present study, continuous long-term monitoring is essential to assess and quantify the impact of global changes on phytoplankton.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Fitoplâncton
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e275828, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597516

RESUMO

Urban environments present less environmental heterogeneity in relation to the natural ones, affecting the biodiversity of bats and the ecological processes in which they participate. In this way, we will identify how urbanization influences the structure of bat communities in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. We compared species composition, guilds and bat richness in a gradient that crossed urban, semi-urban and natural areas in the municipality of Goiânia, contained in the Cerrado biome. We captured a total of 775 bats of 16 species distributed in three families. Urban areas had a higher species abundance, while semi-urban areas had a higher species richness. The three types of environments have different compositions, the urban one being more homogeneous, the fauna in these areas is composed of generalist species, which benefit from this process. The diversity present in semi-urban areas is a consequence of the intersection between urban and natural fauna, which is why urban expansion needs to occur in a planned manner to minimize the impacts of this process and ensure the maintenance of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Humanos , Animais , Urbanização , Brasil , Pradaria , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
16.
Ecol Lett ; 27(4): e14423, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584578

RESUMO

Forest litter decomposition is an essential component of global carbon and nutrient turnover. Invertebrates play important roles in litter decomposition, but the regional pattern of their effects is poorly understood. We examined 476 case studies across 93 sites and performed a meta-analysis to estimate regional effects of invertebrates on forest litter decomposition. We then assessed how invertebrate diversity, climate and soil pH drive regional variations in invertebrate-mediated decomposition. We found that (1) invertebrate contributions to litter decomposition are 1.4 times higher in tropical and subtropical forests than in forests elsewhere, with an overall contribution of 31% to global forest litter decomposition; and (2) termite diversity, together with warm, humid and acidic environments in the tropics and subtropics are positively associated with forest litter decomposition by invertebrates. Our results demonstrate the significant difference in invertebrate effects on mediating forest litter decomposition among regions. We demonstrate, also, the significance of termites in driving litter mass loss in the tropics and subtropics. These results are particularly pertinent in the tropics and subtropics where climate change and human disturbance threaten invertebrate biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados , Folhas de Planta , Solo/química
17.
Ecol Lett ; 27(4): e14411, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577993

RESUMO

Intensified agriculture, a driver of biodiversity loss, can diminish ecosystem functions and their stability. Biodiversity can increase functional redundancy and is expected to stabilize ecosystem functions. Few studies, however, have explored how agricultural intensity affects functional redundancy and its link with ecosystem function stability. Here, within a continental-wide study, we assess how functional redundancy of seed predation is affected by agricultural intensity and landscape simplification. By combining carabid abundances with molecular gut content data, functional redundancy of seed predation was quantified for 65 weed genera across 60 fields in four European countries. Across weed genera, functional redundancy was reduced with high field management intensity and simplified crop rotations. Moreover, functional redundancy increased the spatial stability of weed seed predation at the field scale. We found that ecosystem functions are vulnerable to disturbances in intensively managed agroecosystems, providing empirical evidence of the importance of biodiversity for stable ecosystem functions across space.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Biodiversidade , Sementes , Agricultura
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298905, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578734

RESUMO

Nematodes are keystone actors of soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems, but the complexity of morphological identification has limited broad-scale monitoring of nematode biodiversity. DNA metabarcoding is increasingly used to assess nematode diversity but requires universal primers with high taxonomic coverage and high taxonomic resolution. Several primers have been proposed for the metabarcoding of nematode diversity, many of which target the 18S rRNA gene. In silico analyses have a great potential to assess key parameters of primers, including taxonomic coverage, resolution and specificity. Based on a recently-available reference database, we tested in silico the performance of fourteen commonly used and one newly optimized primer for nematode metabarcoding. Most primers showed very good coverage, amplifying most of the sequences in the reference database, while four markers showed limited coverage. All primers showed good taxonomic resolution. Resolution was particularly good if the aim was the identification of higher-level taxa, such as genera or families. Overall, species-level resolution was higher for primers amplifying long fragments. None of the primers was highly specific for nematodes as, despite some variation, they all amplified a large number of other eukaryotes. Differences in performance across primers highlight the complexity of the choice of markers appropriate for the metabarcoding of nematodes, which depends on a trade-off between taxonomic resolution and the length of amplified fragments. Our in silico analyses provide new insights for the identification of the most appropriate primers, depending on the study goals and the origin of DNA samples. This represents an essential step to design and optimize metabarcoding studies assessing nematode diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nematoides , Humanos , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Nematoides/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Biodiversidade
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2963, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580639

RESUMO

Understanding the effectiveness of conservation interventions during times of political instability is important given how much of the world's biodiversity is concentrated in politically fragile nations. Here, we investigate the effect of a political crisis on the relative performance of community managed forests versus protected areas in terms of reducing deforestation in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot. We use remotely sensed data and statistical matching within an event study design to isolate the effect of the crisis and post-crisis period on performance. Annual rates of deforestation accelerated at the end of the crisis and were higher in community forests than in protected areas. After controlling for differences in location and other confounding variables, we find no difference in performance during the crisis, but community-managed forests performed worse in post-crisis years. These findings suggest that, as a political crisis subsides and deforestation pressures intensify, community-based conservation may be less resilient than state protection.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Madagáscar , Biodiversidade
20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17248, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581126

RESUMO

Both human populations and marine biodiversity are concentrated along coastlines, with growing conservation interest in how these ecosystems can survive intense anthropogenic impacts. Tropical urban centres provide valuable research opportunities because these megacities are often adjacent to mega-diverse coral reef systems. The Pearl River Delta is a prime exemplar, as it encompasses one of the most densely populated and impacted regions in the world and is located just northwest of the Coral Triangle. However, the spatial and taxonomic complexity of this biodiversity, most of which is small, cryptic in habitat and poorly known, make comparative analyses challenging. We deployed standardized settlement structures at seven sites differing in the intensity of human impacts and used COI metabarcoding to characterize benthic biodiversity, with a focus on metazoans. We found a total of 7184 OTUs, with an average of 665 OTUs per sampling unit; these numbers exceed those observed in many previous studies using comparable methods, despite the location of our study in an urbanized environment. Beta diversity was also high, with 52% of the OTUs found at just one site. As expected, we found that the sites close to point sources of pollution had substantially lower diversity (44% less) relative to sites bathed in less polluted oceanic waters. However, the polluted sites contributed substantially to the total animal diversity of the region, with 25% of all OTUs occurring only within polluted sites. Further analysis of Arthropoda, Annelida and Mollusca showed that phylogenetic clustering within a site was common, suggesting that environmental filtering reduced biodiversity to a subset of lineages present within the region, a pattern that was most pronounced in polluted sites and for the Arthropoda. The water quality gradients surrounding the PRD highlight the unique role of in situ studies for understanding the impacts of complex urbanization pressures on biodiversity.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais
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