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1.
Gene ; 807: 145961, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530088

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus produces two types of IV pili: mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin type IV pili (MSHA) and chitin-regulated pili (ChiRP). Both of them are required for biofilm formation and the pathogen persistence in hosts. However, there are few reports on the regulation of their expression. In the present study, we showed that the master quorum sensing (QS) regulators AphA and OpaR oppositely regulated the transcription of mshA1 encoding the pilin of MSHA pilus in V. parahaemolyticus. At low cell density (LCD), AphA indirectly repressed mshA1 transcription. In contrast, at high cell density (HCD), OpaR bound to the regulatory DNA region of mshA1 to activate its transcription. Oppositely regulation of mshA1 by AphA and OpaR led to a gradual increase in the expression level of mshA1 from LCD to HCD. Thus, regulation of type IV pili production was one of the mechanisms that V. parahaemolyticus adopted to control biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Vibrio/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Células , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vibrio/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/metabolismo
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126699, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330075

RESUMO

The present study employed an anoxic packed bed biofilm reactor (AnPBR) inoculated with in-situ biosurfactant-producing bacteria for the biodegradation of petroleum wastewater. Highly acclimated biomass decreased the start-up phase period and with increasing the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration from 1.5 to 4 g/L was accompanied by TPH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of above 99% and 96%, respectively. Decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 24 to 6 h caused an increase in the specific hydrocarbon utilization rate value from 0.45 to 1.66 gTPH/gbiomass.d. Moreover, dehydrogenase activity, surfactin, and rhamnolipid reached 31.8 µgTF/gbiomass.d, 95.1, and 27.1 mg/L, respectively. The biodegradation kinetic coefficients such as K, Ks, Kd, Y and µmax were 0.784 (d-1), 0.005 (g/L), 0.138 (d-1), 0.569 (gVSS/gCOD), and 0.446 (d-1), respectively. Dropping of bioreactor performance, especially TPH removal efficiency from 99% to 37.6% in the absence of nitrate after 10 days, indicates anoxic metabolism has been the dominant biodegradation pathway. The effluent chromatogram of gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) showed aliphatic, cyclic aliphatic, and aromatic hydrocarbons efficiently degraded. According to the high degradation rate of AnPBR in different operational parameters, it can be recommended for the treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Hidrocarbonetos
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126733, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339991

RESUMO

The oxidation of arsenic (As) is a key step in its removal from water, and biological oxidation may provide a cost-effective and sustainable method. The biofilm-formation ability of Ancylobacter sp. TS-1, a novel chemolithoautotrophic As oxidizer, was studied for four materials: polypropylene, graphite, sand, and zeolite. After seven days under batch mixotrophic conditions, with high concentrations of As(III) (225 mg·L-1), biofilm formation was detected on all materials except for polypropylene. The results demonstrate As(III)-oxidation of TS-1 biofilms and suggest that the number of active cells was similar for graphite, sand, and zeolite. However, the biofilm biomass follows the specific surface area of each material: 7.0, 2.4, and 0.4 mg VSS·cm-3 for zeolite, sand, and graphite, respectively. Therefore, the observed biofilm-biomass differences were probably associated with different amounts of EPS and inert biomass. Lastly, As(III)-oxidation kinetics were assessed for the biofilms formed on graphite and zeolite under chemolithoautotrophic conditions. The normalized oxidation rate for biofilms formed on these materials was 3.6 and 1.0 mg·L-1·h-1·cm-3, resulting among the highest reported values for As(III)-oxidizing biofilms operated at high-As(III) concentrations. Our findings suggest that biofilm reactors based on Ancylobacter sp. TS-1 are highly promising for their utilization in As(III)-oxidation pre-treatment of high-As(III) polluted waters.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Biofilmes , Oxirredução , Silicatos , Titânio
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126682, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388918

RESUMO

Biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environment. While so far, most of the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection studies focus on planktonic bacteria, and only limited attention has been given to UV irradiation on biofilms. To enrich this knowledge, the present paper reviews the up-to-date studies about applying UV to control biofilms in water and wastewater infrastructure. The development of UV light sources from the conventional mercury lamp to the light emitting diode (LED), and the resistance mechanisms of biofilms to UV are summarized, respectively. Then the feasibility to control biofilms with UV is discussed in terms of three technical routes: causing biofilm slough, inhibiting biofilm formation, and inactivating bacteria in the established biofilm. A comprehensive evaluation of the biofilm-targeted UV technologies currently used or potentially useful in water industry is provided as well, after comparative analyses on single/combined wavelengths, continuous/pulsed irradiation, and instant/chronic disinfection effects. UV LEDs are emerging as competitive light sources because of advantages such as possible selection of wavelengths, adjustable emitting mode and the designable configuration. They still, however, face challenges arising from the low wall plug efficiency and power output. At last, the implementation of the UV-based advanced oxidation processes in controlling biofilms on artificial surfaces is overviewed and their synergistic mechanisms are proposed, which further enlightens the prospective of UV in dealing with the biofilm issue in water infrastructure.


Assuntos
Raios Ultravioleta , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Desinfecção , Estudos Prospectivos , Águas Residuárias , Água
5.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113869, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619588

RESUMO

Untreated domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are emerging as a potent cause of non-point source (NPS) pollutants which are a major threat to aquatic ecosystems. Periphyton biofilm-based technologies due to their high growth rate, energy efficiency and low input costs offer promising solutions for controlling nutrient pollution in agricultural systems. In this study we employed periphyton floway to treat NPS pollution from the agricultural watershed. The process performance of outdoor single pass algae floway (AFW) was evaluated. Steady state average biomass concentration of 11.73 g m-2 d-1 and removal rate of nitrogen: 0.60 g m-2 d-1, phosphorus: 0.27 g m-2d-1, arsenic: 9.26 mg m-2 d-1, chromium: 255.3 mg m-2 d-1 and lead: 238.6 mg m-2 d-1 was achieved. In addition, the microalgae and their associated bacterial diversity and dynamics were analyzed. The results revealed a high diversity and rapid variations in the microbiome structure with diatom and cyanobacteria dominance combined with high N fixing and P solubilizing bacteria during most of the operational period. Elemental analysis of periphyton biomass was done for its safe use as slow-release fertilizer. Biofuel feedstock potential and nanoparticle generation potential of the biomass were analyzed. This work highlights the potential use of periphyton biofilms in remediation and recycling of NPS pollutants with simultaneous resource recovery.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Perifíton , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biofilmes , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fósforo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132182, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547564

RESUMO

Biotechnologies have emerged as a promising solution for indoor air purification with the potential to overcome the inherent limitations of indoor air treatment. These limitations include the low concentrations and variability of pollutants and mass-transfer problems caused by pollutant hydrophobicity. A new latex-based biocoating was herein optimized for the abatement of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) toluene, trichloroethylene, n-hexane, and α-pinene using acclimated activated sludge dominated by members of the phylum Patescibacteria. The influence of the water content, the presence of water absorbing compounds, the latex pretreatment, the biomass concentration, and the pollutant load was tested on VOC removal efficiency (RE) by varying the formulation of the mixtures. Overall, hexane and trichloroethylene removal was low (<30%), while high REs (>90%) were consistently recorded for toluene and pinene. The assays demonstrated the benefits of operating at high water content in the biocoating, either by including mineral medium or water absorbing compounds in the latex-biomass mixtures. The performance of the latex-based biocoating was likely limited by VOC mass-transfer rather than by biomass concentration in the biocoating. The latex-based biocoating supported a superior toluene and pinene removal than biomass in suspension when VOC loading rate was increased by a factor of 4.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biofilmes , Látex , Estireno , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132280, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571446

RESUMO

Scientific empowerment in this century created a positive and negative impact on the ecosystem's biotic and abiotic components. The current scenario of emerging recalcitrant pollutants in the environment is encountered using various remediation approaches are enforced and applied. The need for mineralization of the toxic pollutants to non - toxic forms accomplished the application of microbes (bacteria, fungi and algae) and plants individually or in a combined manner. The current research on the removal of pollutants from synthetic textile wastewater containing 1200 ppm concentration of mixed azo dyes -Reactive red (RR), Reactive Brown (RB) & Reactive Black (RBl) and 300 ppm Cr (VI) metal using haloalkaliphilic bacterial strains LBKVG1, LBKVG2, LBKVG3 & LBKVG4 in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR), showed decolorization of 82 ± 0.5% of mixed azo dyes and degradation 56 ± 0.5% of Cr (VI) metal at 37 °C and pH 8.5 in the fifth day of the study. The isolated bacterial strains in the consortium were molecularly and morphologically characterized by 16SrRNA sequencing and SEM analysis. FT-IR and GC-MS analysis scrutinized the metabolites obtained. The findings suggest the degradation of hazardous pollutants even at higher concentrations and attempt to decolourize the mixed azo dyes simultaneously using the eco-friendly bacterial consortium.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Cromo , Corantes , Ecossistema , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Têxteis
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118366, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653590

RESUMO

Bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) residues in soil threaten the rotation of BSM-sensitive crops. Microbial biofilms formed on crop roots could improve the ability of microbes to survive and protect crop roots. However, the research on biofilms with the purpose of mitigating or even eliminating BSM damage to sensitive crops is very limited. In this study, one BSM-degrading bacterium, Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113, colonized maize roots by forming a biofilm. Root exudates were associated with increased BSM degradation efficiency with strain S113 in rhizosphere soil relative to bulk soil, so the interactions among BSM degradation, root exudates, and biofilms may provide a new approach for the BSM-contaminated soil bioremediation. Root exudates and their constituent organic acids, including fumaric acid, tartaric acid, and l-malic acid, enhanced biofilm formation with 13.0-22.2% increases, owing to the regulation of genes encoding proteins responsible for cell motility/chemotaxis (fla/che cluster) and materials metabolism, thus promoting S113 population increases. Additionally, root exudates were also able to induce exopolysaccharide production to promote mature biofilm formation. Complete BSM degradation and healthy maize growth were found in BSM-contaminated rhizosphere soil treated with wild strain S113, compared to that treated with loss-of-function mutants ΔcheA-S113 (89.3%, without biofilm formation ability) and ΔsulE-S113 (22.1%, without degradation ability) or sterile water (10.7%, control). Furthermore, the biofilm mediated by organic acids, such as l-malic acid, exhibited a more favorable effect on BSM degradation and maize growth. These results showed that root exudates and their components (such as organic acids) can induce the biosynthesis of the biofilm to promote BSM degradation, emphasizing the contribution of root biofilm in reducing BSM damage to maize.


Assuntos
Methylocystaceae , Zea mays , Biofilmes , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131795, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371360

RESUMO

Biofilm formation ability of bacteria makes them potential in the field of tannery effluent treatment. However, the hazardous nature of effluent and environmental conditions may disturb the biofilm formation ability of bacteria which ultimately affects their effluent treatment efficiency. Accordingly, we isolated and characterized biofilm-forming bacteria Bacillus vallismortis (MT027009), Bacillus haynesii (MT027008), and Alcaligenes aquatilis (MT027005) from tannery sludge and examined them for biofilm formation under variable environmental conditions. Biofilm formation in tryptic soy broth (TSB) at different incubation times (24-120 h) revealed that the biofilm formation activity of the strain B. haynesii was not affected by incubation time, whereas the increase in biofilm formation was observed in the case of B. vallismortis (28 %) and A. aquatilis (52 %) after 48 h. The medium pH (pH 5.0-9.0) had a limited effect on biofilm formation except in the case of A. aquatilis at pH 5.0 (94 %) and pH 9.0 (80 %). Furthermore, compared to the controls (only TSB), the strains B. vallismortis, B. haynesii, and A. aquatilis showed enhanced biofilm formation in undiluted tannery effluent (28, 33, and 21 %) and 25 mg L-1 Cr(VI) (23 %, 48 % 32 %). The biofilm structure was influenced by Cr(VI) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results of Cr(VI) bioreduction studies suggest that bacterial biofilm (60-99 %) has a greater potential to remove Cr(VI) than planktonic cells (43-94 %). The results of the study provide important data on biofilm formation by indigenous bacteria in effluent environment conditions, making them potential isolates for tannery effluent treatment.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alcaligenes , Bacillus , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Cromo/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131914, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418664

RESUMO

Reactive dyes are extensively used in a plethora of industries, which in turn release toxic wastes into the environment. The textile dye waste remediation is crucial as it may contain several toxic elements. The utilization of bacterial consortium for bioremediation has acquired consideration, over the utilization of single strains. In this study, a microbial consortium containing three bacterial sp. (Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacillus borstelensis and Bacillus firmus) was tested for its degrading ability of the textile RR 170 dye. The bacterial consortium degraded the dye effectively at lower concentrations and the efficiency decreased as the dye concentration increased. SEM analysis revealed that, with dye treatment, the consortium appeared as tightly packed clumps with rough cell surface and were able to produce EPS and biofilms. EPS production was higher at 40 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 200 mg/l of the dye treatment conditions. Interestingly, the maximum biofilm formation was observed only at 40 µg/ml of the dye treatment, which indicates that RR 170 dye concentration affects the biofilm formation independent of EPS levels. The UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, FTIR and 2D-FTIR analyses confirmed the decolorization and biodegradation of RR 170 dye by the bacterial consortium. Toxicological studies performed with the dye and their degraded products in Allium cepa root cells revealed that, whereas the RR 170 dye induced genotoxic stress, the degraded dye products showed no significant genotoxic effects in root cells. Together, the investigated bacterial consortium decolorized and degraded the RR 170 dye resulting in metabolites that are non-toxic to the living cells.


Assuntos
Brevibacillus , Corantes , Compostos Azo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Indústria Têxtil , Águas Residuárias
11.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 185-196, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776051

RESUMO

Ureteral stents are an indispensable part of any (endo-) urologic practice. Despite the widely demonstrated advantages of stents, they also carry a considerable risk of side effects and complications, such as urinary symptoms, pain, hematuria, decreased quality of life, stent-related infection, and encrustation. Multiple pathways in preventing or mitigating these side effects and complications and improving stent efficacy have been and are being investigated, including stent architecture and design, biomaterials, and coatings. This article provides an update on currently researched and available stents as well as future perspectives.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Desenho de Equipamento , Stents , Implantes Absorvíveis , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Drenagem/instrumentação , Humanos , Silicones , Stents/efeitos adversos , Ureter , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126098, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626764

RESUMO

Distinct microbial assemblages evolve in anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors to drive sequential conversions of organics to methane. The spatio-temporal development of three such assemblages (granules, biofilms, planktonic) derived from the same inoculum was studied in replicated bioreactors treating long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)-rich wastewater at 20 °C at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12-72 h. We found granular, biofilm and planktonic assemblages differentiated by diversity, structure, and assembly mechanisms; demonstrating a spatial compartmentalisation of the microbiomes from the initial community reservoir. Our analysis linked abundant Methanosaeta and Syntrophaceae-affiliated taxa (Syntrophus and uncultured) to their putative, active roles in syntrophic LCFA bioconversion. LCFA loading rates (stearate, palmitate), and HRT, were significant drivers shaping microbial community dynamics and assembly. This study of the archaea and syntrophic bacteria actively valorising LCFAs at short HRTs and 20 °C will help uncover the microbiology underpinning anaerobic bioconversions of fats, oil and grease.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plâncton , Anaerobiose , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos , Metano , Esgotos
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126108, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637911

RESUMO

Types of microbial aggregates have essential effects on bacterial communities' characteristics, thus affecting the pollutants removal. An up-flow biofilm reactor was used to study the different performances of S2-/NO2- removal and functional genes in suspended sludge and biofilms. The metabolic pathways of sulfurous and nitrogenous pollutants in the desulfurization-denitrification process were proposed. The results showed that S0 formation dominated the reactor with a high S2- concentration. Autotrophic Sulfurovum responsible for S2-/S0 oxidation was the only dominant bacteria in suspended sludge. Heterotrophic Desulfocapsa responsible for SO42- reduction coexisted with Sulfurovum and dominated in biofilms. S2- oxidation to S0 was catalyzed via fccA/B and sqr genes in suspended sludge. S32-/S0 oxidation to SO42- was catalyzed via dsrA/B gene in biofilms. SO42- and NO2- were removed via the dissimilatory sulfate reduction and denitrification pathway, respectively. This work provides a fundamental and practical basis for optimizing suspended sludge/biofilm systems for S2-/NO2- removal.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Esgotos , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Enxofre
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 125913, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649060

RESUMO

Biofilm wastewater treatment had been applied in practice. Conventionally the biofilm was modeled as a uniform structure to simplify the analysis. This study for the first time established a three-dimensional biofilm model with distributions separating living cells, Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and pores, based on which the local fluid flow velocity and pollutant diffusion and reaction fluxes inside the biofilm were numerically evaluated. Both the uniform structured and previously proposed heterogeneous models had been confirmed to overestimate the performances of a biofilm for wastewater treatment. The survival strategies of living cells in biofilm were discussed. Besides exposing to fresh pollutants for maximizing pollutant uptake, the tendency to form small aggregates of cells for shortening diffusion length so furnishing the pollutant with reduced diffusional resistance to living cells was also for the first time noted. This communication advanced the knowledge to comprehend the detailed processes in biofilm.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Difusão , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas
15.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118342, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653589

RESUMO

Restoring an environment contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is highly challenging. Biodegradation by biofilm-forming bacteria through quorum sensing (QS) is a promising treatment process to remove these pollutants and promotes eco-restoration. QS plays an important role in biofilm formation, solubilization, and biotransformation of pollutants. QS is a density-based communication between microbial cells via signalling molecules, which coordinates specific characters and helps bacteria to acclimatize against stress conditions. Genetic diversification of a biofilm offers excellent opportunities for horizontal gene transfer, improves resistance against stress, and provides a suitable environment for the metabolism of POPs. To develop this technology in industrial scale, it is important to understand the fundamentals and ubiquitous nature of QS bacteria and appreciate the role of QS in the degradation of POPs. Currently, there are knowledge gaps regarding the environmental niche, abundance, and population of QS bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. This review aims to present up-to-date and state-of-the-art information on the roles of QS and QS-mediated strategies in industrial waste treatment including biological treatments (such as activated sludge), highlighting their potentials using examples from the pulp and paper mill industry, hydrocarbon remediation and phytoremediation. The information will help to provide a throughout understanding of the potential of QS to degrade POPs and advance the use of this technology. Current knowledge of QS strategies is limited to laboratory studies, full-scale applications remain challenging and more research is need to explore QS gene expression and test in full-scale reactors for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Percepção de Quorum , Biofilmes , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Esgotos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126139, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662738

RESUMO

The occurrence of micropollutants (MPs) in water and wastewater imposes potential risks on ecological security and human health. Membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), as an emerging technology, has attracted much attention for MPs removal from water and wastewater. The review aims to consolidate the recent advances in membrane biofilm reactor for MPs removal from the standpoint of fundamentals, removal performance and microbial communities. First, the configuration and working principles of MBfRs are reviewed prior to the discussion of the current status of the system. Thereafter, a comprehensive review of the MBfR performance for MPs elimination based on literature database is presented. Key information on the microbial communities that are of great significance for the removal performance is then synthesized. Perspectives on the future research needs are also provided in this review to ensure the development of MBfRs for more cost-effective elimination of MPs from water and wastewater.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118485, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774675

RESUMO

Recalcitrant plastics in the environment are gradually fragmented into weathered debris distinguished from their original state by the integrative action of influencing factors, such as UV light, heating and physical abrasion. As new artificial carbon-source substrates in aquatic ecosystems, plastic products can be colonized by biofilms and even utilized by microorganisms. To investigate the influences of weathering of plastics on the colonized biofilms, freshwater samples from the Yangtze River (Nanjing, China) were collected for biofilm incubation. Based on the characterization of plastics and biofilms, the effects of plastic surface properties on biofilm characteristics were revealed by the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Roughness was the principal influencing factor, while rigidity had the opposite effect to it. 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing results indicated the high relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and rising proportion of harmful components (e.g., Flavobacterium) on photoaged polyethylene plastics. The microbial functional profiles (KEGG) predicted by Tax4Fun showed that the functions (e.g., membrane transport, energy metabolism, etc.) of biofilm on photoaged plastics were dissimilar with those on original ones. These findings suggested that the distinct microbial community and the adverse functional changes in biofilms on photoaged plastics potentially enhanced their environmental risks. On the other hand, 28-day cultured biofilms on original low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were dominated by Exiguobacterium. The previously ignored potentials of this microorganism in rapidly accommodating to a hydrophobic substrate and its plastic degrading ability were both worthy of attention. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the weathering process of plastics in exploring the "plastisphere", and to give further insights into the double-edged nature of the "plastisphere".


Assuntos
Microbiota , Polietileno , Biofilmes , Plásticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131975, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454228

RESUMO

Autotrophic denitrification with biosulfur (ADBIOS) provides a sustainable technological solution for biological nitrogen removal from wastewater driven by biogenic S0, derived from biogas desulfurization. In this study, the effect of different biofilm carriers (conventional AnoxK™ 1 and Z-200 with a pre-defined maximum biofilm thickness) on ADBIOS performance and microbiomics was investigated in duplicate moving bed-biofilm reactors (MBBRs). The MBBRs were operated parallelly in continuous mode for 309 days, whilst gradually decreasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 72 to 21 h, and biosulfur was either pumped in suspension (days 92-223) or supplied in powder form. Highest nitrate removal rates were approximately 225 (±11) mg/L·d and 180 (±7) mg NO3--N/L·d in the MBBRs operated with K1 and Z-200 carriers, respectively. Despite having the same protected surface area for biofilm development in each MBBR, the biomass attached onto the K1 carrier was 4.8-fold more than that on the Z-200 carrier, with part of the biogenic S0 kept in the biofilm. The microbial communities of K1 and Z-200 biofilms could also be considered similar at cDNA level in terms of abundance (R = 0.953 with p = 0.042). A relatively stable microbial community was formed on K1 carriers, while the active portion of the microbial community varied significantly over time in the MBBRs using Z-200 carriers.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Microbiota , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Enxofre , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109462, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749188

RESUMO

The ability of Salmonella to resist and adapt to harsh conditions is one of the major features that have made this microorganism such a relevant health hazard. However, the impact of these resistance responses on other aspects of Salmonella physiology, such as virulence and growth ability, is still not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum growth rates (in three different media), virulence (adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells), and other phenotypic characteristics (biofilm-forming ability and antimicrobial resistance) of 23 Salmonella strains belonging to different serovars, and to compare them with their previously determined stress resistance parameters. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in growth rates, virulence, and biofilm-forming ability were found among the 23 strains studied. Nevertheless, whereas less than 3-fold change between the lowest and the highest growth rate was observed, the percentage of cells capable of invading Caco-2 cells varied more than 100-fold, that to form biofilms more than 30-fold, and the antibiotic MICs varied up to 512-fold, among the different strains. Results indicate that those strains with the highest cell adhesion ability were not always the most invasive ones and suggest that, in general terms, a higher stress resistance did not imply a reduced growth ability (rate). Similarly, no association between stress resistance and biofilm formation ability (except for acid stress) or antibiotic resistance (with minor exceptions) was found. Our data also suggest that, in Salmonella, acid stress resistance would be associated with virulence, since a positive correlation of that trait with adhesion and a negative correlation with invasion was found. This study contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of Salmonella and the relationship between bacterial stress resistance, growth ability, and virulence. It also provides new data regarding intra-specific variability of a series of phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella that are relevant from the food safety perspective.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella , Biofilmes , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Virulência
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 29-34, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a newly emerging pathogen, Candida auris has spread rapidly and caused a serious invasive infection. Candida auris often appeared high resistance to classical antifungal drugs. Drug combination therapy is emerging as an effective and well-established strategy to relieve drug resistance problems. The objective of present work was to examine the activity of fluconazole in combination with chlorhexidine acetate against Candida auris isolates. METHODS: Antiplanktonic activity was studied using the EUCAST methodology and growth curve assay. Antibiofilm effectiveness was determined by the crystal violet method, checkerboard microdilution assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results indicated that the 80% minimal inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole alone against Candida auris were 2-32 mg/L and for chlorhexidine acetate were 2-8 mg/L. The combination of fluconazole with chlorhexidine acetate exhibited synergism with the growth curve assay. In addition, the checkerboard microdilution assay presented that fluconazole was strongly synergistic with chlorhexidine acetate (sFICI <0.1875) in inhibiting the growth of Candida auris biofilms. The scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy further exhibited the alteration of morphology of the cells and architecture of the biofilms. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of fluconazole and chlorhexidine acetate provides a new potential strategy for the treatment of clinical Candida auris infection.


Assuntos
Candida , Fluconazol , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Candidíase Invasiva , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suspensões
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