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1.
Biol Lett ; 18(7): 20220150, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857890

RESUMO

For species primarily regulated by a common predator, the P* rule of Holt & Lawton (Holt & Lawton, 1993. Am. Nat. 142, 623-645. (doi:10.1086/285561)) predicts that the prey species that supports the highest mean predator density (P*) excludes the other prey species. This prediction is re-examined in the presence of temporal fluctuations in the vital rates of the interacting species including predator attack rates. When the fluctuations in predator attack rates are temporally uncorrelated, the P* rule still holds even when the other vital rates are temporally auto-correlated. However, when temporal auto-correlations in attack rates are positive but not too strong, the prey species can coexist due to the emergence of a positive covariance between predator density and prey vulnerability. This coexistence mechanism is similar to the storage effect for species regulated by a common resource. Negative or strongly positive auto-correlations in attack rates generate a negative covariance between predator density and prey vulnerability and a stochastic priority effect can emerge: with non-zero probability either prey species is excluded. These results highlight how temporally auto-correlated species' interaction rates impact the structure and dynamics of ecological communities.


Assuntos
Biota , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 181: 113890, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785720

RESUMO

We investigated the temporal changes from spring to summer of the stranded litter and the composition of plastic encrusting biota along an Italian beach. Our findings highlight a higher quantity of litter (average value 1510.67 ± 581.27 items) in spring, particularly plastic material with a composition driven by currents, winds and waves transported from rivers to sea. During summer the source was caused by anti-social behaviours (e.g. cigarettes). Regarding the plastic size, the most is macroplastic (85.96 %), followed by mesoplastic (13.74 %) and megaplastic (0.30 %) overall, and no seasonal trend was observed. Concerning the encrusting biota, Mollusca was the most frequent phylum found on plastic beach litter, whereas Porifera the most abundant overall. During spring a greater abundance of individuals was recorded compared to summer. The trend of taxa richness was decreasing from spring to summer. Arthropoda, Porifera and Mollusca phyla were significantly more abundant in spring, while Algae in summer.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Animais , Praias , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Moluscos , Resíduos/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 181: 113883, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797811

RESUMO

Face masks have been adopted as an essential measure to prevent transmission and spread of the virus infection during the pandemic of Covid-19. The present study evaluates the potential microfibers transfer from face masks to other recipients and the potential cross-contamination of samples by microfibers released from masks worn during the analysis of microlitter ingestion by fish. Results indicated that masks could easily transfer endogenous (originated from the mask tissue itself) and exogenous microfibers (with a different origin than the mask tissue itself) to other recipients (adhesive tape and air in our experiment). Exogenous fibers may be carried from everywhere and potentially released everywhere. Microfibers are also released into the air, driven by the airflow generated by breathing, and can be transferred to blanks and samples. Microfiber contamination by facial masks increases the risk of samples cross-contamination and raises concerns about the results reliability of the microlitter analysis on marine biota.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Biota , Peixes , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(7): e1010274, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816542

RESUMO

Interactions in natural communities can be highly heterogeneous, with any given species interacting appreciably with only some of the others, a situation commonly represented by sparse interaction networks. We study the consequences of sparse competitive interactions, in a theoretical model of a community assembled from a species pool. We find that communities can be in a number of different regimes, depending on the interaction strength. When interactions are strong, the network of coexisting species breaks up into small subgraphs, while for weaker interactions these graphs are larger and more complex, eventually encompassing all species. This process is driven by the emergence of new allowed subgraphs as interaction strength decreases, leading to sharp changes in diversity and other community properties, and at weaker interactions to two distinct collective transitions: a percolation transition, and a transition between having a unique equilibrium and having multiple alternative equilibria. Understanding community structure is thus made up of two parts: first, finding which subgraphs are allowed at a given interaction strength, and secondly, a discrete problem of matching these structures over the entire community. In a shift from the focus of many previous theories, these different regimes can be traversed by modifying the interaction strength alone, without need for heterogeneity in either interaction strengths or the number of competitors per species.


Assuntos
Biota
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 180: 113820, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689937

RESUMO

The Karnafullly River, which flows through Chattogram and falls into the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, is vulnerable to microplastic contamination. In this study, we looked at microplastics in the Karnafully River's surface water (5 sites), sediment (9 sites), and biota (4 species). Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.57 ± 0.07 to 6.63 ± 0.52 items/L in surface water, 143.33 ± 3.33 to 1240 ± 5.77 items/kg dry weight in sediment, and 5.93 ± 0.62 to 13.17 ± 0.76 items/species in biota. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in the concentration of MPs in the Karnafully River's sediment, biota, and surface water. High percentage of fiber-shaped and small-sized MPs (<1 mm) were detected throughout the samples. Water and sediment MPs were often transparent/white and blue, whereas biota MPs were mostly black and red, indicating a color preference during biological uptake. The Bay of Bengal received 61.3 × 109 microplastic items per day. The feeding zone of biota influenced the level of microplastics, with a trend of pelagic > demersal > benthic > benthopelagic. Polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate were the most abundant polymer. Using the average fish intake rate in Bangladesh, we computed a possible consumption of 4015-7665 items of MPs/person/year.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bangladesh , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Plásticos/análise , Rios , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129276, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739789

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are under regulatory scrutiny since some of them are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. The occurrence of 4777 PFAS was investigated in the Danube River Basin (DRB; 11 countries) using target and suspect screening. Target screening involved investigation of PFAS with 56 commercially available reference standards. Suspect screening covered 4777 PFAS retrieved from the NORMAN Substance Database, including all individual PFAS lists submitted to the NORMAN Suspect List Exchange Database. Mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns and retention time index predictions of the studied PFAS were established for their screening by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry using NORMAN Digital Sample Freezing Platform (DSFP). In total, 82 PFAS were detected in the studied 95 samples of river water, wastewater, groundwater, biota and sediments. Suspect screening detected 72 PFAS that were missed by target screening. Predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for each PFAS via a quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR)-based approach and used for assessment of their environmental risk. Risk characterization revealed 18 PFAS of environmental concern in at least one matrix. The presence of PFAS in all studied environmental compartments across the DRB indicates a potentially large-scale migration of PFAS in Europe, which might require their further systematic regulatory monitoring.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115445, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751255

RESUMO

Spontaneous urban plants (SUPs) constitute an important component of urban vegetation, but they have received less attention in urban biodiversity and ecological research, especially at the regional scale. We comprehensively reviewed the occurrence records of SUPs in 59 major cities across China's geographical regions. We systematically analyzed floristic composition profiles and diversity patterns of SUPs at the regional scale and explored their influencing factors. The study identified 1211 SUP species through an extensive search of existing field research studies and fieldwork. The species composition pattern of SUPs, displaying a spatial association with climatic zones, was mainly affected by climatic factors and also anthropogenic factors. At different geographic scales, the life-form characteristics revealed some patterns, with more diverse perennials at the regional scale. The abundance of SUPs and the high proportion of native species suggested that limited urban habitats can still contribute to the enrichment and accumulation of urban biodiversity. However, in the context of globalization, continual species exchanges between neighboring regions at different scales may significantly exacerbate urban-biota homogenization. In conclusion, our study provided a regional-scale case of a synoptic SUP profile. The results furnished a scientific basis for understanding the general patterns of SUPs. The findings could inform sustainable solutions for urban ecological planning and management of spontaneous nature in cities.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Plantas , Biota , China , Cidades , Ecossistema
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10159, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715498

RESUMO

The tapejarid pterosaurs flourished in the Jehol Biota with an abundance of immature individuals and a rarity of individuals at skeletal maturity. Most of these individuals plot well on an ontogenetic series based on the proportions of limb elements, but this has lacked histological evidence until now. Here, a new wing skeleton of Sinopterus was thin-sectioned to provide the first histological data about the ontogeny of the Jehol tapejarids. Histologically, the new specimen is an immature individual at a late juvenile stage prior to sexual maturity. It is grouped with medium-sized and medium-crested individuals, which are distinct from the small-sized and crestless individuals as well as the rare large-sized and large-crested individuals at skeletal maturity, supporting the presence of the premaxillary crest as an ontogenetic feature in the Jehol tapejarids. Furthermore, this histology indicates that the largest skeletally immature individuals might have reached the sexual maturity. Enigmatically, there is a size gap between sexual and skeletal maturity, which is at about 79% of the large size, implying a ontogenetic strategy comparable with Pteranodon and possibly with the Brazilian tapejarid Caiuajara. This size gap is consistent with lack of the larger sexually mature individuals in the Jehol Biota, which is hypothesized to be a migratory habitat for the Jehol tapejarids.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Esqueleto , Animais , Biota , Brasil , Humanos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2123274119, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759652

RESUMO

Biotic interactions that hierarchically organize ecosystems by driving ecological and evolutionary processes across spatial scales are ubiquitous in our biosphere. Biotic interactions have been extensively studied at local and global scales, but how long-distance, cross-ecosystem interactions at intermediate landscape scales influence the structure, function, and resilience of ecological systems remains poorly understood. We used remote sensing, modeling, and field data to test the hypothesis that the long-distance impact of an invasive species dramatically affects one of the largest tidal flat ecosystems in East Asia. We found that the invasion of exotic cordgrass Spartina alterniflora can produce long-distance effects on native species up to 10 km away, driving decadal coastal ecosystem transitions. The invasive cordgrass at low elevations facilitated the expansion of the native reed Phragmites australis at high elevations, leading to the massive loss and reduced resilience of the iconic Suaeda salsa "Red Beach" marshes at intermediate elevations, largely as a consequence of reduced soil salinity across the landscape. Our results illustrate the complex role that long-distance interactions can play in shaping landscape structure and ecosystem resilience and in bridging the gap between local and global biotic interactions.


Assuntos
Biota , Espécies Introduzidas , Poaceae , Áreas Alagadas , Salinidade , Solo/química
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220804, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703053

RESUMO

Sponge fossils from the Cambrian black shales have attracted attention from both palaeontologists and geochemists for many years in terms of their high diversity, beautiful preservation and perplexing adaptation to inhospitable living environments. However, the body shape of these sponges, which contributes to deciphering adaptive evolution, has not been scrutinized. New complete specimens of the hexactinellid sponge Sanshapentella tentoriformis sp. nov. from the Qingjiang biota (black shale of the Cambrian Stage 3 Shuijingtuo Formation, ca 518 Ma) allow recognition of a unique dendriform body characterized by a columnar trunk with multiple conical high peaks and distinctive quadripod-shaped dermal spicules that frame each high peak. The body shape of this new sponge along with other early Cambrian hexactinellids, is classified into three morpho-groups that reflect different levels of adaptivity to the environment. The cylindrical and ovoid bodies generally adapted to a large spectrum of environments; however, the dendriform body of S. tentoriformis was restricted to the relatively deep-water, oxygen-deficient environment. From a hindsight view, the unique body shape represents a consequence of adaptation that helps maintain an effective use of oxygen and a low energy cost in hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Grânulos de Ribonucleoproteínas de Células Germinativas , Biota , Fósseis , Minerais , Oxigênio
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1010151, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671270

RESUMO

The impact of invasion by a single non-native species on the function and structure of ecological communities can be significant, and the effects can become more drastic-and harder to predict-when multiple species invade as a group. Here we modify a dynamic Boolean model of plant-pollinator community assembly to consider the invasion of native communities by multiple invasive species that are selected either randomly or such that the invaders constitute a stable community. We show that, compared to random invasion, whole community invasion leads to final stable communities (where the initial process of species turnover has given way to a static or near-static set of species in the community) including both native and non-native species that are larger, more likely to retain native species, and which experience smaller changes to the topological measures of nestedness and connectance. We consider the relationship between the prevalence of mutualistic interactions among native and invasive species in the final stable communities and demonstrate that mutualistic interactions may act as a buffer against significant disruptions to the native community.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Biota , Plantas , Simbiose
12.
Ecol Lett ; 25(8): 1905-1913, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753949

RESUMO

Global biodiversity is organised into biogeographic regions that comprise distinct biotas. The contemporary factors maintaining differences in species composition between regions are poorly understood. Given evidence that populations with sufficient genetic variation can adapt to fill new habitats, it is surprising that more homogenisation of species assemblages across regions has not occurred. Theory suggests that expansion across biogeographic regions could be limited by reduced adaptive capacity due to demographic variation along environmental gradients, but this possibility has not been empirically explored. Using three independently curated data sets describing continental patterns of mammalian demography and population genetics, we show that populations near biogeographic boundaries have lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity, and are more genetically differentiated. These patterns are consistent with reduced adaptive capacity in areas where one biogeographic region transitions into the next. That these patterns are replicated across mammals suggests they are stable and generalisable in their contribution to long-term limits on biodiversity homogenisation. Understanding the contemporary processes that maintain compositional differences among regional biotas is crucial for our understanding of the current and future organisation of global biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Biota , Demografia , Mamíferos/genética
13.
Nature ; 607(7918): 307-312, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732740

RESUMO

The diversity of life on Earth is controlled by hierarchical processes that interact over wide ranges of timescales1. Here, we consider the megaclimate regime2 at scales ≥1 million years (Myr). We focus on determining the domains of 'wandering' stochastic Earth system processes ('Court Jester'3) and stabilizing biotic interactions that induce diversity dependence of fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates ('Red Queen'4). Using state-of-the-art multiscale Haar and cross-Haar fluctuation analyses, we analysed the global genus-level Phanerozoic marine animal Paleobiology Database record of extinction rates (E), origination rates (O) and diversity (D) as well as sea water palaeotemperatures (T). Over the entire observed range from several million years to several hundred million years, we found that the fluctuations of T, E and O showed time-scaling behaviour. The megaclimate was characterized by positive scaling exponents-it is therefore apparently unstable. E and O are also scaling but with negative exponents-stable behaviour that is biotically mediated. For D, there were two regimes with a crossover at critical timescale [Formula: see text] ≈ 40 Myr. For shorter timescales, D exhibited nearly the same positive scaling as the megaclimate palaeotemperatures, whereas for longer timescales it tracks the scaling of macroevolutionary rates. At scales of at least [Formula: see text] there is onset of diversity dependence of E and O, probably enabled by mixing and synchronization (globalization) of the biota by geodispersal ('Geo-Red Queen').


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biota , Clima , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Planeta Terra , Extinção Biológica , Água do Mar , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(17): 5283-5293, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748709

RESUMO

Mammals have experienced high levels of human-mediated extirpations but have also been widely introduced to new locations, and some have recovered from historic persecution. Both of these processes-losses and gains-have resulted in concern about functional losses and changes in ecological communities as new ecological states develop. The question of whether species turnover inevitably leads to declines in functional and phylogenetic diversity depends, however, on the traits and phylogenetic distinctiveness of the species that are lost, gained, or regained. Comparing ~8000 years ago with the last century, we show that extirpations and range retractions have indeed reduced the functional and phylogenetic diversity of mammals in most European regions (countries and island groups), but species recoveries and the introduction of non-native species have increased functional and phylogenetic diversity by equivalent or greater amounts in many regions. Overall, across Europe, species richness increased in 41 regions over the last 8000 years and declined in 1; phylogenetic diversity increased in 33 and declined in 12, while functional diversity results showed 20 increases and 25 decreases. The balance of losses (extirpations) and gains (introductions, range expansions) has, however, led to net increases in functional diversity on many islands, where the original diversity was low, and across most of western Europe. Historically extirpated mega- and mesofaunal species have recolonized or been reintroduced to many European regions, contributing to recent functional and phylogenetic diversity recovery. If conservation rewilding projects continue to reintroduce regionally extirpated species and domestic descendants of "extinct" species to provide replacement grazing, browsing, and predation, there is potential to generate net functional and phylogenetic diversity gains (relative to 8000 years ago) in most European regions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mamíferos , Animais , Biota , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Filogenia
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(13): 9182-9195, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723432

RESUMO

Monitoring mercury (Hg) levels in biota is considered an important objective for the effectiveness evaluation of the Minamata Convention. While many studies have characterized Hg levels in organisms at multiple spatiotemporal scales, concentration analyses alone often cannot provide sufficient information on the Hg exposure sources and internal processes occurring within biota. Here, we review the decadal scientific progress of using Hg isotopes to understand internal processes that modify the speciation, transport, and fate of Hg within biota. Mercury stable isotopes have emerged as a powerful tool for assessing Hg sources and biogeochemical processes in natural environments. A better understanding of the tissue location and internal mechanisms leading to Hg isotope change is key to assessing its use for biomonitoring. We synthesize the current understanding and uncertainties of internal processes leading to Hg isotope fractionation in a variety of biota, in a sequence of better to less studied organisms (i.e., birds, marine mammals, humans, fish, plankton, and invertebrates). This review discusses the opportunities and challenges of using certain forms of biota for Hg source monitoring and the need to further elucidate the physiological mechanisms that control the accumulation, distribution, and toxicity of Hg in biota by coupling new techniques with Hg stable isotopes.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Isótopos , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Isótopos de Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 437: 129350, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749896

RESUMO

Antibiotics accumulate in soils via various agricultural activities, endangering soil biota that play fundamental roles in maintaining agroecosystem function. However, the effects of land-use heterogeneity on soil biota tolerance to antibiotic stresses are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationships between antibiotic residues, bacterial communities, and earthworm populations in areas with different land-use types (forest, maize, and peanut fields). The results showed that antibiotic levels were generally higher in maize and peanut fields than in forests. Furthermore, land use modulated the effects of antibiotics on soil bacterial communities and earthworm populations. Cumulative antibiotic concentrations in peanut fields were negatively correlated with bacterial diversity and earthworm abundance, whereas no significant correlations were detected in maize fields. In contrast, antibiotics improved bacterial diversity and richness in forest soils. Generally, earthworm populations showed stronger tolerance to antibiotics than did soil bacterial communities. Agricultural land use differentially modified the responses of the soil bacterial community and earthworm population to antibiotic contamination, and earthworms might provide an alternative for controlling antibiotic contamination.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Biota , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115310, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642809

RESUMO

Dispersal is an essential natural process that influences community assembly, yet directional dispersal through wind and water may have distinctive effects. Environmental and spatial factors jointly influence community structure, but their relative importance is anticipated to vary with spatial distance, dispersal mode, and season. Accordingly, a systemic survey was conducted in subtropical Chinese mountain lotic systems to distinguish the relative contributions of environmental control and spatial structuring upon communities of macroinvertebrates with different dispersal ability. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the upper reaches and five tributaries of the Hanjiang River in October 2017 (autumn) and April 2018 (spring). These macroinvertebrates were identified and classified into three dispersal groups: aquatic passive (AqPa), terrestrial passive (TePa), and terrestrial active (TeAc). Variation partitioning analyses were performed on environmental factors and different sets of spatial factors (overland dispersal: Overland, directional downwind dispersal: AEM_Wind, along watercourse dispersal: Watercourse, and directional downstream dispersal: AEM_Water). Findings showed that both environmental filtering and spatial structuring influenced the structure of macroinvertebrate metacommunities. For AqPa and TePa groups, pure environmental effects were stronger than pure spatial effects based on most distance matrices; however, in AEM_Water, the effects of spatial processes surpassed those of environmental filtering. For TeAc group, the role of environmental control and spatial structuring varied depending on different spatial models. The results also highlighted seasonal shifts in metacommunity structuring processes. Spatial structures featuring direction, especially AEM_Water, were predominant in explaining the construction of macroinvertebrate communities. This work suggests that directional dispersal should be explicitly considered when examining the structure of ecological communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Biota , Trietilenofosforamida , Água
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156477, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660581

RESUMO

Urban freshwaters, their sediments and resident biota are often highly susceptible to microplastic contamination from catchment-specific sources. Water velocity and spatiotemporal dynamics within the system can impact microplastic loads, while biological features may additionally impact levels within freshwater biota. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations in microplastic loads collected from sediment, macroinvertebrate and fish samples from an urban watercourse (Bourne Stream) in Dorset, southwest England. Sediment particles were mostly fragments of colours (especially orange and purple) whereas microplastics in both macroinvertebrates and fishes were blue/green and fibres. Across all sample types, the dominant particle size class was ≤100 µm. Median (M) and range (R) of microplastic loads within each sample type were sediment: M = 0.06, R = 0-0.36 particles g-1; macroinvertebrates: M = 0, R = 0-4 particles per batch; and fishes: M = 1, R = 0-6 particles per individual. Sediment loads varied spatially, with the highest load in the most upstream site, whereas biotic loads did not vary across space and time. Macroinvertebrate batch loadings varied between taxa and feeding guild, with counts significantly higher in annelids but lower in herbivores. Fish counts were higher in species with true, differentiated stomachs, but with the effects of species, feeding guild and body size being non-significant. Within sites, mean microplastic loads did not correlate between sediment, macroinvertebrate and fish samples. These results suggest that sediment freshwater microplastic loadings may vary spatially but that these trends are not reflected by, or correlated to, those in the biota where ingestion varies with biological traits. Assessments of freshwater microplastic contamination must therefore consider sampling spatiotemporally and across different biotic communities to fully understand the scale of contamination, and to subsequently undertake effective mitigation steps.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Plásticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Ecol Lett ; 25(7): 1604-1617, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651315

RESUMO

When species simultaneously compete with two or more species of competitor, higher-order interactions (HOIs) can lead to emergent properties not present when species interact in isolated pairs. To extend ecological theory to multi-competitor communities, ecologists must confront the challenges of measuring and interpreting HOIs in models of competition fit to data from nature. Such efforts are hindered by the fact that different studies use different definitions, and these definitions have unclear relationships to one another. Here, we propose a distinction between 'soft' HOIs, which identify possible interaction modification by competitors, and 'hard' HOIs, which identify interactions uniquely emerging in systems with three or more competitors. We show how these two classes of HOI differ in their motivation and interpretation, as well as the tests one uses to identify them in models fit to data. We then show how to operationalise this structure of definitions by analysing the results of a simulated competition experiment underlain by a consumer resource model. In the course of doing so, we clarify the challenges of interpreting HOIs in nature, and suggest a more precise framing of this research endeavour to catalyse further investigations.


Assuntos
Biota
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210159, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491588

RESUMO

Pollination plays a central role in both crop production and maintaining biodiversity. However, habitat loss, pesticides, invasive species and larger environmental fluctuations are contributing to a dramatic decline of pollinators worldwide. Different management solutions require knowledge of how ecological communities will respond following interventions. Yet, anticipating the response of these systems to interventions remains extremely challenging due to the unpredictable nature of ecological communities, whose nonlinear behaviour depends on the specific details of species interactions and the various unknown or unmeasured confounding factors. Here, we propose that this knowledge can be derived by following a probabilistic systems analysis rooted on non-parametric causal inference. The main outcome of this analysis is to estimate the extent to which a hypothesized cause can increase or decrease the probability that a given effect happens without making assumptions about the form of the cause-effect relationship. We discuss a road map for how this analysis can be accomplished with the aim of increasing our system-level causative knowledge of natural communities. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Polinização , Biota , Produção Agrícola , Ecossistema
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