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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 219-236, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152291

RESUMO

Peptide microarrays are a powerful tool to identify linear epitopes of food allergens in a high-throughput manner. The main advantages of the microarray-based immunoassay are as follows: the possibility to assay thousands of targets simultaneously, the requirement of a low volume of serum, the more robust statistical analysis, and the possibility to test simultaneously several immunoglobulin subclasses. Among them, the last one has a special interest in the field of food allergy, because the development of tolerance to food allergens has been associated with a decrease in IgE and an increase in IgG4 levels against linear epitopes. However, the main limitation to the clinical use of microarray is the automated analysis of the data. Recent studies mapping the linear epitopes of food allergens with peptide microarray immunoassays have identified peptide biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis of food allergies and to predict their severity or the self-development of tolerance. Using this approach, we have worked on epitope mapping of the two most important food allergens in the Spanish population, cow's milk, and chicken eggs. The final aim of these studies is to define subsets of peptides that could be used as biomarkers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of food allergies. This chapter describes the protocol to produce microarrays using a library of overlapping peptides corresponding to the primary sequences of food allergens and data acquisition and analysis of IgE and IgG4 binding epitopes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Imunoglobulina G , Alérgenos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Peptídeos
4.
Food Chem ; 400: 133961, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084584

RESUMO

The broad application prospect of fish gelatin makes the traceability and identification of fish gelatin imminent. High performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to identify fish gelatins in seven commercial cyprinid fishes, namely, black carp, grass carp, silver carp, bighead carp, common carp, crucian carp, and Wuchang bream. By comparison with theoretical mammalian collagen (bovine and porcine collagen), the common and unique theoretical peptides were found in the collagen of grass carp, silver carp, and crucian carp, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that 7 common characteristic peptides were obtained from seven cyprinid fish gelatins. Moreover, 44, 36, and 42 unique characteristic peptides were detected in the gelatins of grass carp, silver carp, and crucian carp, respectively. The combined use of common and unique characteristic peptides could improve the accuracy and authenticity of traceability and identification of fish gelatin in comparison with mammalian gelatin.


Assuntos
Carpas , Gelatina , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colágeno , Peixes , Gelatina/química , Mamíferos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Food Chem ; 398: 133864, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969996

RESUMO

The ability of bovine κ-casein-derived caseinomacropeptide (CMP) to exert bioactivity in the human gut depends on its digestive survival. Sampling from the human jejunum after feeding CMP and top-down glycopeptidomics analysis facilitates the determination of CMP survival. To reduce interference from non-target molecules in mass spectrometric analysis, CMP must be isolated from digestive fluid. To identify an optimal extraction method, this study compared the profiles of CMP extracted from feeding material (commercial CMP in water) and digestive fluid by ethanol precipitation, perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation, and ultrafiltration. Ethanol precipitation yielded the highest ion abundances for aglycosylated CMP and glycosylated CMP in both feeding material and jejunal samples. Notably, PCA precipitation yielded the highest abundance of partially digested CMP-derived fragments in jejunal samples. Overall, ethanol precipitation was the most effective among the methods tested for intact CMP extraction from jejunal fluids, whereas PCA precipitation was optimal for extraction of CMP fragments.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Jejuno , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Citidina Monofosfato , Etanol , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Percloratos , Ultrafiltração
6.
Food Chem ; 398: 133903, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998485

RESUMO

To investigate the potential mechanisms by which cold storage affects the water-holding capacity (WHC) of beef through analysis of exudates using an untargeted metabolomics strategy. A total of 877 metabolites were detected in four groups of beef exudates that have been frozen for 1, 2, 4, and 6 days, of which, 278 were identified as differential metabolites (DMs). The metabolic pathways of the DMs analysed by KEGG pathway enrichment included ABC transporters, purine metabolism, biosynthesis of cofactors, protein digestion and absorption, and ferroptosis. Ferroptosis was identified during storage of beef, and the reduction in WHC of beef was accompanied by a ferroptosis process. In addition, six DMs were identified in the KEGG pathway of ferroptosis, and the process of cellular ferroptosis was dependent on the inhibition of glutathione metabolic processes. Overall, the ferroptosis of cells during beef storage had a negative impact on WHC, and the finding of ferroptosis complemented the post-slaughter apoptosis.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Água , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Glutationa , Metabolômica , Água/análise
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 17-33, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205884

RESUMO

Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells that synthesize and release catecholamines and neuroactive molecules. They have been used experimentally in animal models and preclinical studies as a source for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease. The long-term cell survival of these cells in the nervous system is limited, and the observed motor improvements are highly variable. An alternative source for transplantation is chromaffin progenitor cells. These cells have the capacity of self-renewal and to form spheres under low attachment conditions. They release higher quantities of dopamine than chromaffin cells and can differentiate into dopaminergic-like neurons in vitro. The transplantation of these cells into Parkinson's disease animal models has shown to induce stronger motor improvements and better survival rates than chromaffin cells. However, several aspects of chromaffin progenitor cell transplantation remain to be elucidated. Here, we describe methods to isolate and culture chromaffin and chromaffin progenitor cells from the adult cattle adrenal glands. We also describe the procedure for their transplantation into the nervous system and give recommendations for their histological analysis.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Catecolaminas , Bovinos , Sistema Nervoso Central , Transplante de Células-Tronco
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 77-87, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205888

RESUMO

Recent advances in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy offer an unparalleled avenue to study membrane dynamics of exo- and endocytosis, such as fusion pore opening, pore expansion, constriction, and closure, as well as the membrane transformation from flat-shaped to round-shaped vesicles in real time. Here we depict a method of using the state-of-the-art STED microscopy to image these membrane dynamics in bovine chromaffin cells. This method can potentially be applied to study other membrane structure dynamics in other cell model system.


Assuntos
Células Cromafins , Microscopia , Animais , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Endocitose , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 105-112, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205890

RESUMO

Amperometry is an electrochemical method based on the oxidation or reduction of molecules. Many secretion products, including catecholamines, contain in their molecule chemical groups with the ability to yield (oxidize) or capture (reduce) electrons upon its exposure to an electrical field. In order to measure the secretion of catecholamines, they are oxidized at +650 mV with a carbon electrode, releasing every molecule of catecholamine that is oxidized two electrons (e-) that are recorded as an electrical current. Amperometry is an easy-to-use and noninvasive technique for cells (unlike patch-clamp techniques for measuring membrane capacitance) and has been widely used to monitor online catecholamine release from perifused bovine chromaffin cell populations.


Assuntos
Células Cromafins , Animais , Carbono , Catecolaminas , Bovinos , Eletrodos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 283-296, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205901

RESUMO

Chromaffin granules isolated from adrenal glands constitute a powerful experimental tool to the study of secretory vesicle components and their participation in fusion and docking processes, vesicle aggregation, and interactions with cytosolic components. Although it is possible to isolate and purify chromaffin granules from adrenal glands of different species, bovine adrenal glands are the most used tissue source due to its easy handling and the large amount of granules that can be obtained from this tissue. In this chapter, we describe an easy-to-use and short-term protocol for efficiently obtaining highly purified chromaffin granules from bovine adrenal medulla. We additionally include protocols to isolate granules from cultured bovine chromaffin cells and PC12 cells, as well as a section to obtain chromaffin granules from mouse adrenal glands.


Assuntos
Medula Suprarrenal , Células Cromafins , Células Neuroendócrinas , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Animais , Bovinos , Grânulos Cromafim , Camundongos , Células PC12 , Ratos
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 297-309, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205902

RESUMO

Cultured bovine chromaffin cells have been characterized as a successful model to study changes in the cytoskeleton during the secretory process. In this sense, the distribution and dynamics of the F-actin cytoskeleton can be studied by confocal microscopy using appropriate molecular tools such as LifeAct, a peptide that stains the structures of F-actin. In this work, we describe some methodological protocols making possible to study, under controlled stimulus conditions, the local dynamic changes of F-actin in the cortical zone and also to detect the simultaneous displacements of chromaffin granules and organelles in active zones.


Assuntos
Actinas , Células Cromafins , Citoesqueleto de Actina , Animais , Bovinos , Grânulos Cromafim , Microscopia Confocal/métodos
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 311-327, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205903

RESUMO

Neuronal and hormonal communication relies on the exocytic fusion of vesicles containing neurotransmitters and hormones with the plasma membrane. This process is tightly regulated by key protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions and culminates in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex formation and zippering that promotes vesicular fusion. Located on both sides of the vesicle and the plasma membrane, the zippering of the SNARE complex acts to overcome the energy barrier afforded by the repulsive electrostatic force stemming from apposing two negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Another component opposing the timely organization of the fusion machinery is thermal Brownian energy that tends to homogenize all cellular molecules by constantly switching their motions and directions through short-lived molecular interactions. Much less is known of the mechanisms counteracting these chaotic forces, allowing seamless cellular functions such as exocytic fusion. Super-resolution microscopy techniques such as single-molecule imaging have proven useful to start uncovering these nanoscale mechanisms. Here, we used single-particle tracking photoactivatable localization microscopy (sptPALM) to track syntaxin-1-mEos, a SNARE protein located on the plasma membrane of cultured bovine chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that syntaxin-1-mEos undergoes dramatic change in its mobility in response to secretagogue stimulation leading to increased nanoclustering. These nanoclusters are transient in nature and likely to provide docked vesicles with a molecular environment conducive to exocytic fusion.


Assuntos
Células Cromafins , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Exocitose , Hormônios , Fusão de Membrana/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeos , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Secretagogos , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator Solúvel Sensível a N-Etilmaleimida , Sintaxina 1/metabolismo
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 361-370, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205906

RESUMO

Primary cultures of bovine chromaffin cells are considered a good model to evaluate potential neuroprotective compounds for two major reasons: (i) they share many common features to neurons as they synthesize, store, and release neurotransmitters; they are excitable cells that express voltage-dependent calcium, potassium, and sodium channels; they express different neuronal receptor subtypes; and (ii) they can be easily cultured in high quantities from adult animals; as adult para-neurons, they can be used to reproduce different neurodegenerative-like cytotoxicity models. In this chapter, we describe protocols to mimic calcium overload (veratridine and thapsigargin) and oxidative stress (rotenone plus oligomycin-A and 6-hydroxydopamine) to evaluate potential neuroprotective compounds.


Assuntos
Células Cromafins , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurotransmissores , Oligomicinas , Oxidopamina , Potássio , Rotenona , Canais de Sódio , Tapsigargina , Veratridina
14.
Food Chem ; 399: 133978, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007441

RESUMO

The occurrence of the DFD defect shortens microbiological stability and reduces consumer acceptance of meat. The effect of a chokeberry leaf extract (ChLE) addition at concentrations of 0.01 %, 0.05 % and 0.1 % on the sensory and physicochemical properties of burgers prepared from DFD meat during refrigerated storage under vacuum for 10 days was assessed. The pH, water activity, texture, colour, degree of lipid oxidation, and content of α-tocopherol were measured. The extract at concentrations of 0.05 % and 0.1 % significantly influenced lower levels of lipid oxidation and higher content of α-tocopherol on each tested period. Moreover, these concentrations had a beneficial effect on the instrumental and sensory evaluation of texture parameters and on overall quality. It was concluded that the addition of 0.1 % extract was the most beneficial over the entire 10-day storage period. In summary, use of ChLE may reduce the loss of raw meat caused by DFD defect.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Extratos Vegetais , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , alfa-Tocoferol
15.
Food Chem ; 399: 133867, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994856

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate changes of fat globules and their membranes, and further analyze evolution of lipid profile of lipid rafts in membranes during heat processing of cow milk. Size of fat globules increased from 3.16 µm to 3.70 µm and ζ-potential decreased from -0.53 mV to -0.38 mV after thermal treatment, suggesting that fat globule membrane was destroyed and fat globule occurred coalescence. Glycerophospholipids and cholesterol in fat globule membrane decreased while sphingomyelin increased after thermal treatment. Results of lipidomics show that total of 38 species of 5 lipids molecule showed ability to differentiate the samples. At high temperatures, highly unsaturated glycerophospholipids and sterol lipids were lost from rafts, meanwhile, sphingomyelin and ceramide increased in this region. Significant change of lipid profile in the raft region during thermal treatment suggested a potential relationship between lipid rafts and fat globule coalescence behavior.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos , Esfingomielinas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Glicoproteínas , Gotículas Lipídicas , Microdomínios da Membrana
16.
Food Chem ; 399: 133843, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998488

RESUMO

A facile approach was proposed for the preparation of boric acid-functionalized core-shell structured magnetic covalent organic framework (COF) nanocomposites through employing the Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic core, boric acid-functionalized COFs as the shell via sequential post-synthetic modification (denoted as Fe3O4@COF@BA). The synthesized nanocomposites showed large specific surface area, high magnetic responsiveness, and desirable chemical and thermal stability. Combined with HPLC-MS/MS, the as-prepared Fe3O4@COF@BA composite was applied as a sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from meat samples. Under optimal conditions, the method displays low limits of detection (LODs, 0.08-0.72 µg kg-1) and good precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.4 %. The approach was successfully employed for the extraction and detection of EDCs in blank and spiked beef, chicken and pork samples with recovery ranging from 88.8 to 104.2 %.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Animais , Ácidos Bóricos , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Carne/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Food Chem ; 399: 133987, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037686

RESUMO

αs1-Casein (αs1-CN) is a major cow milk allergen, while the tertiary structure of αs1-CN and conformational epitopes of αs1-CN have not been clarified. Here, a reasonable three-dimensional structure of αs1-CN was established using ab initio methods, and hot-spot residues and epitopes were investigated by combining molecular dynamics simulation, peptides synthesis, and ELISA. Obtained results demonstrated that the binding mechanism between αs1-CN and IgG was located on three main regions: a helical structure zone (E77-Q97), the flexible loop zone (Y154-T174), and a flexible C-terminal (N190-L198), mainly connecting via hydrogen bond and ionic bonds. The hydrolysates produced by papain with lowest antigenicity (12.43%), which could considerably destroy the essential epitopes of αs1-CN confirmed by epitope synthesis, and LC-MS/MS. The results reported herein would provide novel insights into the interface interactions between αs1-CN and IgG, and prove valuable for developing hypoallergenic infant-formula and peptide vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Alérgenos , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Epitopos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Leite/química
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2558: 1-10, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169851

RESUMO

Procedures are described for the purification of the mitochondrial-bound enzymes human and bovine monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and B) from placental and liver tissue sources, respectively. Enzyme purification follows isolation of the mitochondria and preparation of outer membrane particles. The membrane-bound enzymes are solubilized by treatment of membranes with phospholipases and detergent extraction. Functional bovine MAO B is purified by polymer fractionation and differential centrifugation. Functional human MAO A is purified by ion-exchange DEAE-Sepharose chromatography.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Mamíferos , Monoaminoxidase , Fosfolipases , Placenta , Polímeros , Gravidez
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMO

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Cervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Oceano Índico , Cavalos
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Cádmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulação
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