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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130587, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332424

RESUMO

Miniaturized and simplified sample preparation methods with reduced consumption of chemicals and non-halogenated solvents are presented for the determination of 12 sulfonamides in baby foods. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the identification and quantification of the compounds based on the acquisition of full spectrum at high resolution with accurate mass for precursor and its fragment ions. Three miniaturized protocols based on QuEChERS, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction or low-temperature cleanup were evaluated regarding the extraction efficiency and removal capability of matrix co-extractives. All approaches achieved satisfactory recoveries (70.0-120.0%); however, the miniaturized QuEChERS distinguished by lower co-extractives content in the final extract providing lower matrix effects. Thus, the performance characteristics of the miniaturized QuEChERS were established using different matrices: beef-, egg yolk- and vegetable-based baby food or chicken- and vegetable-based baby food, in compliance with the Codex Alimentarius Commission guidelines. The target compounds were investigated in 30 commercial baby foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Alimentos Infantis , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Sulfonamidas
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130700, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352694

RESUMO

Present study prepared curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes using bovine milk, krill phospholipids and cholesterol; and investigated the effects of cholesterol on membrane characteristics, storage stability and antibacterial properties of the curcumin nanoliposomes. Bovine milk phospholipids which have higher saturation than krill phospholipids resulted in formation of curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (84.78%), larger absolute value of zeta potential and vesicle size (size: 159.15 ± 5.27 nm, zeta potential: -28.3 ± 0.62 mV). Cholesterol helps to formation of a more hydrophobic, compact and tighter bilayer membrane structure which improved the storage stability of nanoliposomes under alkaline (66.25 ± 0.46%), heat (43.25 ± 0.69%) and sunlight (49.44 ± 1.78%) conditions. In addition, curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes can effectively target infectious bacteria which secrete pore-forming toxins such as Staphylococcus aureus by causing the bacterial cell wall to lysis. Findings from present work can guide future development of novel antibacterial agents for use in food preservation.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Fosfolipídeos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Colesterol , Lipossomos , Leite , Tamanho da Partícula
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130733, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375890

RESUMO

We used computational molecular dynamics (MD) to assess molecular conformations of apo- and holo-forms (respectively without and with Ca2+) of bovine α-lactalbumin (α-La) at different temperatures, and to correlate them with the protein's foaming properties. At 4 °C and 25 °C no major protein conformation changes occurred. At 75 °C, lots of changes were evidenced: the Ca2+ depletion triggered the complete loss of h2b, h3c helices and S1, S2 and S3 ß-sheets, and partial losses of H1, H2 and H3 α-helices. The absence of Ca2+ in apo-α-La and its leaving from holo-α-La triggered electrostatic repulsion among Asp82, Asp84 and Asp87, leading to the formation of a hydrophobic cluster involving Phe9, Phe31, Ile1, Va42, Ile55, Phe80 and Leu81. These conformational changes were related to an interfacial tension decrease and to a foaming capacity increase, for both apo-α-La and holo-α-La. This study exemplifies how powerful MD is as a tool to provide a better understanding of the molecular origins of food proteins' techno-functionalities.


Assuntos
Lactalbumina , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Animais , Cátions , Bovinos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Temperatura
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130820, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416488

RESUMO

Two commercially available food grade fungal protease preparations (Fungal Protease 31,000 and Fungal Protease 60000) were found to hydrolyse bovine acid whey proteins but left the beta-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg) intact under the processing conditions used. Comparative analysis before and after hydrolysis of bovine acid whey, by 1D- and 2D-PAGE, RP-HPLC and intact-mass mass spectrometry showed that the ß-Lg remains intact and in high yield after hydrolysis by the fungal proteases. The ß-Lg could be separated from the whey protein peptide hydrolysate by ultrafiltration. Subjecting whey fraction to hydrolysis with the fungal protease preparations provides a procedure, under relatively mild conditions, to generate a highly enriched ß-Lg fraction. ß-Lg is recognised as a valued material in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to its properties such as gelling and foaming. The enriched ß-Lg preparation would also have application in areas such as nanoencapsulation.


Assuntos
Lactoglobulinas , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Hidrólise , Proteínas do Leite , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Soro do Leite , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
5.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113945, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731956

RESUMO

Conversion of keratin waste to value-added products not only reduces waste volumes but also creates new revenue streams for the animal production industry. In the present study, combination of alkaline pretreatment of cattle hair with enzymatic hydrolysis was studied to produce keratin hydrolysates with relatively high antioxidant activities. Firstly, the effect of pretreatment conditions at a high solid/liquid mass ratio of 1:2 with different NaOH loadings and temperatures was studied. Increasing NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 2.5% and temperature from room temperature to 110 °C increased hair hydrolysis by keratinase and protein recovery in hydrolysates. Mild pretreatment with 1.5% NaOH at 70 °C for 30 min led to a protein recovery of 30% in the enzymatic hydrolysate. The resulting hydrolysate showed a high antioxidant activity, scavenging 69% of the ABTS radical with a low EC50 of 0.8 mg/mL. Severe pretreatment with 2.5% NaOH at 110 °C for 30 min resulted in a higher protein recovery of 45%, but a lower ABTS radical scavenging activity of 56% and a higher EC50 of 1.3 mg/mL. The reduced antioxidant activity was attributed to the reduced proportion of small peptides (<3 kDa) and the increased extent of amino acid chemical modification. This study demonstrated that controlling alkali pretreatment conditions could lead to the production of enzymatic hydrolysates with higher antioxidant activities for potential value-adding applications. The information generated from this study will aid scale-up and commercialisation of processes with optimised antioxidant peptide production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Animais , Bovinos , Hidrólise , Queratinas , Peptídeos
6.
Food Chem ; 367: 130661, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348197

RESUMO

Cow (CwC) and camel casein (CaC) hydrolysates were generated using Alcalase™ (CwCA and CaCA) and Pronase-E (CwCP and CaCP) each for 3 and 6 h, and investigated for their potential to inhibit key lipid digesting enzymes i.e., pancreatic lipase (PL) and cholesteryl esterase (CE). Results revealed stronger PL and CE inhibition by CaC hydrolysates compared to CwC. Potent hydrolysates (CwCP-3 h and CaCA-6 h) upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) showed significant improvement in inhibition of both PL and CE. However, both the SGID hydrolysates showed similar extent of PL and CE inhibition and were further sequenced for peptide identification. Peptides MMML, FDML, HLPGRG from CwC and AAGF, MSNYF, FLWPEYGAL from CaC hydrolysates were predicted to be most active PL inhibitory peptides. Peptide LP found in both CwC and CaC hydrolysates was predicted as active CE inhibitor. Thus, CwC and CaC could be potential source of peptides with promising CE and PL inhibitory properties.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Esterol Esterase , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos , Digestão , Feminino , Hidrólise , Lipase , Peptídeos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Esterol Esterase/genética
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131030, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144808

RESUMO

In current times of global change, several sources of stress such as contaminants and high temperatures may act synergistically. The extent to which organisms persist in stressful conditions will depend on the fitness consequences of multiple simultaneously acting stressors and the genetic basis of compensatory genetic responses. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug used in livestock that is excreted in dung of treated cattle, causing severe negative consequences on non-target fauna. We evaluated the effect of a combination of heat stress and exposure to ivermectin in the yellow dung fly, Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae). In a first experiment we investigated the effects of high rearing temperature on susceptibility to ivermectin, and in a second experiment we assayed flies from a latitudinal gradient to assess potential effects of local thermal adaptation on ivermectin sensitivity. The combination of heat and ivermectin synergistically reduced offspring survival, revealing severe effects of the two stressors when combined. However, latitudinal populations did not systematically vary in how ivermectin affected offspring survival, body size, development time, cold and heat tolerance. We also found very low narrow-sense heritability of ivermectin sensitivity, suggesting evolutionary constraints for responses to the combination of these stressors beyond immediate maternal or plastic effects. If the revealed patterns hold also for other invertebrates, the combination of increasing climate warming and ivermectin stress may thus have severe consequences for biodiversity. More generally, our study underlines the need for quantitative genetic analyses in understanding wildlife responses to interacting stressors that act synergistically and threat biodiversity.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ivermectina , Animais , Antiparasitários , Bovinos , Fezes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ivermectina/toxicidade
8.
Talanta ; 237: 122958, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736683

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a significant ingredient of immunological activity in milk and colostrum, the activity and content of which is easily disturbed by potentially conditional variant during sterilization. Therefore, developing robust methods for the detection of IgG levels in milk is especially important. Herein, protein A from the Staphylococcus aureus functionalized silica colloidal crystalline film (SCC@SPA) sensing unit combined with ordered porous layer interferometry (OPLI) for IgG detection in untreated bovine milk was developed. Calibration curves in milk and buffer were set up by the variations of the optical thickness (OT) of the sensing unit after the IgG association and dissociation phases. The influence of temperature on the level of IgG was evaluated. Furthermore, the identification of IgG levels with pasteurized milk and ultrahigh temperature (UHT) sterilized milk from the market randomly was successfully carried out without any sample pretreatment. More importantly, compared with other methods, this novel method has the advantages of convenient operation, low cost, and suitability for point-of-care (POC) testing.


Assuntos
Colostro , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G , Interferometria , Porosidade , Gravidez
9.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108643, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390897

RESUMO

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is often used as a disinfectant in beef preservation to ensure microbiological safety. However, it ineffectively inhibit lipid oxidation. Therefore, the combination of SAEW and tea polyphenols (TPs) was tested to inhibit lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef preservation. SAEW and TPs were selected as the optimum sanitizer and antioxidant, respectively. Then, the inactivation efficacies of different combination treatments of SAEW and TPs of Salmonella enteritidis in beef were compared and treatment of SAEW-TPs (SAEW immersion at an available chlorine concentration of 30 mg/L for 2.5 min, followed by the TPs immersion at a 0.1% concentration for 2.5 min) was selected. Finally, the effectiveness of SAEW-TPs on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of beef during storage was evaluated. The results revealed that the required quality standard of beef treated with SAEW-TPs was prolonged by approximately 9 d at 4 °C, and this treatment had greater antimicrobial and antioxidant effects than did the single treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Chá/química , Água/química
10.
Food Chem ; 370: 131264, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788949

RESUMO

Supercooling can preserve beef without freezing damage, whereas maintaining the supercooled state is difficult. An innovative method of static magnetic field extended supercooling (SM-ES) was proposed to maintain the non-frozen state of beef. Effect of SM-ES (-4 °C + SMF) compared with refrigerated (4 °C), slow-frozen (-4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C) treatment on beef quality was investigated. Results demonstrated that SM-ES successfully preserved beef at -4 °C without ice nucleation for 14 days. The SEM images revealed that the microstructure of slow-frozen/frozen samples was damaged due to crystallizing, while the ice nucleation was not observed in SM-ES treated beef. Compared with refrigerated, slow-frozen and frozen treatment, the drip loss of SM-ES decreased by 21.9%, 47.8% and 30.9%, respectively. The lipid oxidation degree of beef decreased following SM-ES treatment. SM-ES treatment extended the shelf-life of beef for more than 6 days compared with refrigeration while prevented its crystallizing.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Refrigeração , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Campos Magnéticos , Oxirredução
11.
Theriogenology ; 177: 195-205, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757242

RESUMO

We hypothesised that heifers and cows with positive genetic merit for fertility would have a follicular microenvironment that resulted in better quality oocytes. To test this, we compared cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COC) and follicular fluid from preovulatory follicles of 36 Holstein-Friesian nulliparous heifers and 50 primiparous lactating cows with either positive (POS, +5%) or negative (NEG, -5%) fertility breeding values (FertBV). Established gene markers of oocyte quality were measured in individual cumulus cell masses and oocytes, and concentrations of amino acids, steroids, and metabolites were quantified in corresponding follicular fluid and plasma. The timing of visually detectable oestrus in NEG FertBV heifers was inconsistent with their stage of COC maturation. Retrospective analyses of oestrous activity data indicated that NEG FertBV heifers were sampled earlier. Their recovered COC were morphologically less mature and exhibited differential expression of genes that are associated with follicular maturation (lower levels of BMPR2) and protein processing (higher levels of HSP90B1). Despite consistent sampling times being achieved in the lactating cows, lower concentrations of serine, proline, methionine, isoleucine, and non-esterified fatty acids were present in follicular fluid from POS FertBV cows. This was associated with higher expression of gene biomarkers of good oocyte quality (VCAN, PDE8A) in COC recovered from POS FertBV cows. This study supports our hypothesis that the follicular microenvironment in lactating dairy cows with high genetic merit leads to COC with higher metabolic rates and oocytes of superior quality. Moreover, an additional stressor such as lactation is required for this difference to be pronounced.


Assuntos
Lactação , Folículo Ovariano , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Líquido Folicular , Oócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Theriogenology ; 177: 50-55, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656837

RESUMO

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of tulathromycin in plasma and semen of beef bulls after administering a single sc dose at two different sites in the neck. Four Simmental bulls with excellent temperament received a comprehensive physical exam that included breeding soundness examination. In addition, blood was collected and analyzed for CBC and chemical panel in order to rule out any subclinical liver or kidney disease. All bulls were diagnosed as healthy and satisfactory potential breeders. The mean plasma levels of tulathromycin for the two neck sites of sc administration were not different between posterior aspect of the ear where it attaches to the head (RP; regio parotidea; 77.9 ± 43.3 ng/mL; X ± SD) and to the middle of the neck (RC; regio collis lateralis; 73.7 ± 39.7 ng/mL; P = 0.84). The mean seminal plasma levels of tulathromycin after administration in the RP was 608 ± 374 ng/mL and for RC was 867 ± 599 ng/mL without differences between both sites (P = 0.29). The mean level of tulathromycin in plasma was 75.8 ± 40.2 ng/mL, which was lower than mean seminal plasma levels of 781 ± 482 ng/mL (P = 0.001). The plasma peak tulathromycin concentration (Cmax) was 160 ± 27 ng/mL at 21 ± 6 h (Tmax) post-administration. The seminal plasma Cmax was 1539 ± 44.4 ng/mL at 33.00 ± 18.00 h (Tmax) post-administration. The Cmax between plasma and seminal plasma were different (P = 0.008) without any differences in Tmax between plasma and seminal plasma (P = 0.35). The terminal half-life for plasma tulathromycin (81.4 ± 27.6 h) showed a tendency to be shorter than in seminal plasma (114.7 ± 21.7; P = 0.10). The plasma area under the curve concentration time from the first to the last sample (AUC0-last) was 15,440 ± 1717 ng/mL/h, which was significatively smaller compared with 171,071 ± 58,556 ng/mL/h for seminal plasma AUC0-last (P = 0.01). The plasma means residence time from the first to the last sample (MRT0-last) was 89.3 ± 5.1 h and it was shorter than for seminal plasma of 96.6 ± 5.0 h (P = 0.05). From the present investigation, it was concluded that tulathromycin is a suitable antibiotic based in its pharmacokinetic properties that could be used for treatment of bull genital infections when its application is indicated.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Animais , Bovinos , Dissacarídeos , Masculino , Sêmen
13.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118457, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742818

RESUMO

A high demand exists in bisphenols (BPs) screening studies for quick, reliable and straightforward analytical methods that generate data faster and simultaneously. Herein, we describe a combination of enzymatic probe sonication (EPS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quick extraction and simultaneous quantification of eight important BPs in animal-derived foods. Results obtained demonstrated that the ultrasonic probe power could not only enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency, but also accelerate the liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Under optimized EPS parameters, one sample could be exhaustively extracted within 120 s, as compared with 12 h needed for the conventional enzymatic extraction which is more suitable for high-throughput analysis. The method was successfully applied to analyze residual BPs in animal-derived foods collected from Beijing, China. Widespread occurrence of BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, BPP, and BPB were found, with detection frequencies of 65.2%, 42.4%, 33.7%, 29.4%, 28.3%, and 27.2%, respectively. The highest total concentration levels of BPs (sum of the eight BPs analyzed, ΣBPs) were found in chicken liver (mean 12.2 µg/kg), followed by swine liver (6.37 µg/kg), bovine muscle (3.24 µg/kg), egg (2.03 µg/kg), sheep muscle (2.03 µg/kg), chicken muscle (1.45 µg/kg), swine muscle (1.42 µg/kg), and milk (1.17 µg/kg). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BPs, based on the mean and 95th percentile concentrations and daily food consumptions, was estimated to be 5.687 ng/kg bw/d and 22.71 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. The human health risk assessment in this work suggests that currently BPs do not pose significant risks to the consumers because the hazard index (HI) was <1.


Assuntos
Sonicação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ração Animal , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Leite/química , Ovinos , Suínos
14.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151812, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384858

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with aspirin (AA), on the morphology of cytokine release in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats induced with rheumatoid arthritis (IR) by injecting 100 µL of complete Freund's adjuvant with bovine type II collagen at the tail base. Thirty-two adult male rats were divided into treatment groups: Sham, treated with 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) p.o.; IR-control, treated with 0.9% NaCl p.o.; IR-ω3 treated with ω3 PUFAS (85 mg/kg/day p.o.); and IR-ω3 + AA treated with ω3 (85 mg/kg/day p.o.) + AA (20 mg/kg/day i.p.). After maintained treatment for seven days, the animals were euthanized. Bilateral TMJs from each rat were removed and one was subjected to histological immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to assess interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10 levels. Data analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. In the IR-ω3 and IR-ω3 + AA groups, the TMJ was greater than in the IR-control group (P < 0.0001). The addition of AA did not improve the effects of ω3 (P = 0.0698). Similarly, the addition of AA conferred no additional effects on the cytokine levels (P > 0.05); however, it increased the proteoglycan density, compared with ω3 alone. We found that ω3 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in arthritic rats, and the addition of AA increased proteoglycan density, but did not affect cytokine expression.


Assuntos
Artrite , Aspirina , Animais , Bovinos , Citocinas , Adjuvante de Freund , Masculino , Ratos , Articulação Temporomandibular
15.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106178, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627757

RESUMO

The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis is high in many livestock areas of Peru, where intermediate hosts such as sheep, cattle, and South American camelids can be infected. Several species of E. granulosus have been described in relation to its genetic diversity and distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the species of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) metacestodes collected from sheep, cattle, swine and camelids at different localities in the department of Puno, in the southern highlands of Peru. One hundred and fifty-two echinococcal cysts were collected from 10 different locations. E. granulosus s.l. species were determined by amplification of the Internal transcribed spacer 1 of the ribosomal DNA using a Nested PCR-RFLP technique. The cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene (450 bp) was also amplified and sequenced in samples with different RFLP patterns. Cysts samples were collected from sheep (39.5%), cattle (32.9%), pigs (15.8%) and alpacas/llamas (11.8%). E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was mainly identified in all animal hosts, while, the E. canadensis (G7) was only identified in cysts from pigs and alpacas. This is the first report of E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. canadensis in llamas and alpacas, respectively. Knowledge of species and molecular epidemiology of E. granulosus s.l. in endemic areas in Peru may help to evaluate preventive programs, understand disease transmission, as well as improve vaccine and chemotherapy effectiveness.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Animais , Bovinos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Genótipo , Gado , Peru/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Suínos
16.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106139, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562431

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite known for its heavy toll on people and livestock. It can cause abortion and a variety of congenital diseases. The current study aimed to examine some seroprevalence and molecular attributes of T. gondii obtained from ruminants in the North-West of Egypt. Specimens were random selected from five different locations in Alexandria and Matrouh governorates. A total of 483 blood samples, collected from 96 mixed flocks, were screened for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seropositive results were then confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the B1 and P30 genes. Specific PCR products were selected for sequencing and alignment against the GenBank, where phylogeny has been examined using the maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining, and maximum parsimony in MEGA6. ELISA confirmed the presence of T. gondii in 188 of the investigated samples (38.92%), indicating a higher prevalence in camels (64.51%) and sheep (43.75%) as compared to goats (27.93 %) and cattle (13.46%). PCR confirmed the presence of T. gondii-specific sequences in 159 seropositive specimens, with homology between 98.3 and 100%. The genetic distances between the investigated variants ranged from 0.1 to 0.9, and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were identified in the examined T. gondii specimens. The camel T. gondii parasite, isolated from Matrouh, showed a 100% homology with the most dangerous reference strains of T. gondii-RH in the GenBank. Our results showed that B1 and P30-specific PCR could detect T. gondii in blood samples more accurately than ELISA. In addition, the statistical analysis of our data indicated that species, age, sex, and animal location were all risk factors for toxoplasmosis. These findings are likely to boost disease control and help contain the spread of T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Egito/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
17.
Theriogenology ; 177: 73-83, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678544

RESUMO

The dairy industry is searching for new technologies to address low (<50%) estrus detection. However, the lack of information on the potential economic benefits regarding new technology implementation has led some dairy producers to continue using conventional estrus detection methods (e.g. visual observation of standing to be mounted). The objective of this study was to compare the costs of infrared thermography (IRT), visual observation (VO) and ovulation synchronization (Ovsynch: OVS) as breeding strategies at different accuracy levels (Sensitivity [Se], Specificity [Sp]) and pregnancy rates (PR). The costs associated with Breeding, Feeding, Operation Costs, Return to Equity and Culling Risk per estrus detection rate (ER; 30-100%, conception rate for OVS; 30-100%), PR [PR per Parity group; 1-2 (50%), 3-4 (43%), and >4 (41%)], and ER accuracy determined the potential financial benefit of each breeding method for a representative farm. Breeding Cost results (Canadian dollars per cow; CAD/cow) showed a higher cost of OVS (138.99) as compared to VO (115.78) and IRT (127.69). Pregnancy Costs were affected by Breeding Cost; however, ER had a significant effect on PR expense for each method, IRT (ER; 30%: 210.38; 100%: 132.19), VO (ER; 30%: 205.93; 100%: 129.39), and OVS (ER; 30%: 247.21; 100%: 155.33). The minimum Se level with a positive Financial Effect for IRT and VO was 60% with a Sp of 100%, and for the OVS was Se 65% and Sp 100%. However, when the Se was 100% a positive Financial Effect was observed with a minimum Sp of 85% for IRT and 75% for VO. Culling Risk was reduced if ER increases differently depending on the parity group. Implementing of IRT as an estrus detection method yields a competitive breeding cost compared to VO and OVS. Further, breeding methods must accomplish at least ∼60% accuracy to have a positive net return.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Inseminação Artificial , Alberta , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Dinoprosta , Detecção do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez
18.
Theriogenology ; 177: 116-126, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695665

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of a constant low (5-5%) and modulated (5-20%) oxygen environments on the in vitro development of bovine oocyte-cumulus-granulosa cell complexes (OCGCs) cultured in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (astaxanthin: Ax). OCGCs were cultured in a gas permeable culture device for 8 days in 5-5% O2 (±Ax) and 5-20% O2 (±Ax) culture conditions. In the oxygen modulated culture conditions, the oxygen concentration was switched from 5% to 20% on day 4 of culture. Ax promoted the viability of OCGCs (P < 0.05), but both oxygen and Ax had a significant effect on ROS production levels by OCGCs (P < 0.05). Specifically, ROS levels were significantly lower and higher under 5-5% O2 (+Ax) and 5-20% O2 (-Ax) conditions, respectively (P < 0.05), with intermediate levels observed in the 5-5% O2 (-Ax) and the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) culture conditions. The steroidogenic pattern was characterized by increasing estradiol-17ß but with constant progesterone production levels regardless of culture conditions, suggesting the inhibition of luteinization-like changes in granulosa cells. OCGCs cultured in the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) had higher nuclear maturation rates (P < 0.05) that were similar to the oocytes grown in vivo. However, there was no clear difference in the subsequent cleavage rates among the 5-5% O2 (±Ax) and the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) culture conditions (P > 0.05). A constant low oxygen environment significantly promoted the blastocyst rates (P < 0.05); however, the presence of Ax in the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) condition also promoted development similar to the OCGCs cultured in the 5-5% O2 (-Ax) condition (P > 0.05). In conclusion, exposure of OCGCs to constant low oxygen or oxygen modulation in the presence of Ax promotes the healthy development of OCGCs during the 8-day IVG culture using the gas permeable culture device.


Assuntos
Oócitos , Oxigênio , Animais , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano , Xantofilas
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 195: 113628, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543917

RESUMO

With the increased demand for beef in emerging markets, the development of quality-control diagnostics that are fast, cheap and easy to handle is essential. Especially where beef must be free from pork residues, due to religious, cultural or allergic reasons, the availability of such diagnostic tools is crucial. In this work, we report a label-free impedimetric genosensor for the sensitive detection of pork residues in meat, by leveraging the biosensing capabilities of graphene acid - a densely and selectively functionalized graphene derivative. A single stranded DNA probe, specific for the pork mitochondrial genome, was immobilized onto carbon screen-printed electrodes modified with graphene acid. It was demonstrated that graphene acid improved the charge transport properties of the electrode, following a simple and rapid electrode modification and detection protocol. Using non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which does not require any electrochemical indicators or redox pairs, the detection of pork residues in beef was achieved in less than 45 min (including sample preparation), with a limit of detection of 9% w/w pork content in beef samples. Importantly, the sample did not need to be purified or amplified, and the biosensor retained its performance properties unchanged for at least 4 weeks. This set of features places the present pork DNA sensor among the most attractive for further development and commercialization. Furthermore, it paves the way for the development of sensitive and selective point-of-need sensing devices for label-free, fast, simple and reliable monitoring of meat purity.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Grafite , Animais , Bovinos , DNA , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Carne
20.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108599, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365253

RESUMO

The impact of growth rate (GR) and finishing regime (FR) on growth and meat quality traits of Angus x Nellore crossbred steers, harvested at a constant body weight (530 ± 20 kg) or time on feed (140 days), was evaluated. Treatments were: 1) feedlot, high GR; 2) feedlot, low GR; 3) pasture, high GR and 4) pasture, low GR. Live body composition, carcass and meat quality traits were evaluated. High GR had greater impact on muscle and fat deposition in feedlot-finished, but not in pasture-finished animals. Feedlot animals had higher Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, meat luminosity and tenderness when compared to pasture groups. Moreover, pasture- and feedlot-finished animals with similar GR did not differ in the chromatic attributes of non-aged meat, regardless of endpoint. Thus, GR appeared to be the main factor driving beef chromatic parameters, while FR had a major impact on achromatic attributes and tenderness of meat.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tecido Adiposo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Cor , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
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