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1.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108599, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365253

RESUMO

The impact of growth rate (GR) and finishing regime (FR) on growth and meat quality traits of Angus x Nellore crossbred steers, harvested at a constant body weight (530 ± 20 kg) or time on feed (140 days), was evaluated. Treatments were: 1) feedlot, high GR; 2) feedlot, low GR; 3) pasture, high GR and 4) pasture, low GR. Live body composition, carcass and meat quality traits were evaluated. High GR had greater impact on muscle and fat deposition in feedlot-finished, but not in pasture-finished animals. Feedlot animals had higher Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, meat luminosity and tenderness when compared to pasture groups. Moreover, pasture- and feedlot-finished animals with similar GR did not differ in the chromatic attributes of non-aged meat, regardless of endpoint. Thus, GR appeared to be the main factor driving beef chromatic parameters, while FR had a major impact on achromatic attributes and tenderness of meat.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tecido Adiposo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Cor , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
2.
Gene ; 809: 146014, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655722

RESUMO

SIMPLE SUMMARY: As a member of genetic polymorphism, copy number variation has been a commonly used method in the world for investigating effect of genetic polymorphism on gene expression. Effect of genetic polymorphism made on livestock development has been more and more important in beef cattle molecular breeding. The characteristics of Chinese cattle are excellent meat quality, tolerant to rough feeding, good environmental adaptability and so on. But there are some obvious weaknesses still exist in the process of cattle growth and development, such as weak hindquarters and growth slowly. To improve the growth performance and market competitiveness of Chinese cattle, a lot of studies have been made about finding and investigating effective molecular marker. In this study, Q-PCR and data association analysis were used for PLA2G2A gene copy number variation detection and related effect analysis in Chinese cattle. Results showed that PLA2G2A gene has a significant effect on two breeds of Chinese cattle on growth traits, which could be a basic materials and effective information of cattle molecular markers breeding. PLA2G2A, member of secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) in superfamily of phospholipase A2, could catalyze the process of glycerophospholipids hydrolysis from position of sn-2 acyl with the release of free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Researches about PLA2G2A gene are mostly focus on disease, including tumors and diabetes, the number of study occurred on animal breeding is weak. In this study, blood samples were collected from five breeds of Chinese cattle (Qingchuan cattle, Xianan cattle, Yunling cattle, Pinan cattle and Guyuan cattle) for PLA2G2A gene CNV type detection. SPSS 20.0 software and method of ANOVA were used to analyzed the association between types of CNV and growth traits. Results reveal that the distribution of different copy number types in different cattle breeds is different. In QC, XN and GY cattle, the frequencies of Deletion and Duplication are about 40%; in YL cattle, the frequency of Deletion type exceeds 60%; in PN cattle, the frequency of Duplication is closed to 80%. Association analysis indicate that CNV of PLA2G2A gene showed a positive effect in cattle growth: in QC cattle, Chest depth with Normal type copy number possess a increased trend (P < 0.05); individuals with Deletion type copy number have better performance on Height at sacrum, Heart girth and Body height in GY cattle (P < 0.05). The functional role and molecular mechanism of PLA2G2A gene in animal growth and development are still unclear, and it is necessary for processing a further research. This research aims to provide basic materials for molecular breeding of Chinese cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo II/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Frequência do Gene
3.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108676, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656004

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate intramuscular fat and expression of genes in the muscle of Montana × Nellore treated with vitamin A at birth. We hypothesized that an injection of vitamin A after birth would increase marbling by increasing the expression of angiogenic, adipogenic, and lipogenic genes. Animals treated with vitamin A had greater marbling in the longissimus muscle (P = 0.05). The vitamin A treatment increased the expression of VEGFA gene at 40 days of age and at weaning and increased the expression of ZNF423 at weaning and at harvesting (P ≤ 0.03). The expression of WNT was higher (P = 0.01) at 40 days of age and at weaning in the animals treated with vitamin A. Vitamin A also increased the expression of SREBF1 at 40 days of age and at weaning (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the administration of vitamin A to cattle at birth could be a way to increase carcass marbling without affecting the performance of the animals.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne Vermelha/análise , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
4.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108685, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656005

RESUMO

Data on chemical body composition of cattle serve as a basis for recommendations on energy and nutrient requirements. Relevant data of growing dual-purpose Fleckvieh (German Simmental) bulls are scarce and originate from old trials, covering low rates of gain and live weights. Hence, the aim of the study was to analyze the body tissue distribution, chemical composition, and composition of body weight gain of growing Fleckvieh bulls within a 120-780 kg live weight range. Results showed that body composition changed during growth but was not affected by dietary energy concentration. Changes in body composition were characterized by increasing shares of fat tissue and ether extract. Body tissues as blood, organs, gastrointestinal tract, and bone proportionately decreased during growth, while muscle and tendon proportions remained constant. The bulls featured enhanced growth potential and high muscle and protein gain throughout the described weight range. The requirements for metabolizable protein in relation to energy decrease with increasing live weight of the animals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Tecido Adiposo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Ganho de Peso
5.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21926, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533870

RESUMO

The preimplantation period of embryonic development can be a key window for programming of postnatal development because extensive epigenetic remodeling occurs during this time. It was hypothesized that modification of one-carbon metabolism of the bovine embryo by addition of the methyl-donor choline to culture medium would change postnatal phenotype through epigenetic modification. Embryos produced in vitro were cultured with 1.8 mM choline chloride or control medium. Blastocysts were transferred into females and pregnancy outcomes and postnatal phenotype of the resultant calves determined. Exposure of embryos to choline increased gestation length and calf birth weight. Calves derived from choline-treated embryos were also heavier at weaning and had increased ratio of body weight to hip height than control calves. Choline altered muscle DNA methylation of calves 4 months after birth. A total of 670 of the 8149 CpG examined were differentially methylated, with the predominant effect of choline being hypomethylation. Among the genes associated with differentially methylated CpG were ribosomal RNAs and genes in AMPK, mTOR, integrin, and BEX2 canonical pathways and cellular functions involved in growth and proliferation. Results demonstrate that provision of the methyl-donor choline to the preimplantation embryo can alter its developmental program to increase gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight and cause postnatal changes in muscle DNA methylation including those associated with genes related to anabolic processes and cellular growth. The importance of the nutritional status of the embryo with respect to one-carbon metabolism for ensuring health and well-being after birth is emphasized by these observations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Músculos/metabolismo , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/embriologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colina/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
7.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
8.
Meat Sci ; 182: 108637, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333273

RESUMO

Carcass attributes of steers were examined for influences of selection for residual feed intake (RFI), and exposure to different levels of prenatal nutrition. Heifers characterized for RFI corrected for backfat were mated to bulls with genetic potential for either High-RFI or Low-RFI, such that the progeny were expected to be H/H or L/L RFI (sire/dam). Pregnant heifers were assigned to a low diet (Ldiet; 0.40 kg/d ADG), or moderate diet (Mdiet; 0.57 kg/d ADG), from 30 to 150 days of gestation, after which all heifers were managed similarly. Steer offspring (n = 23) were also managed similarly until slaughter. Dressing percentage of steers from H-RFI dams/sires exposed to Ldiet during gestation was lower than all other groups (P = 0.02). Marbling was greater for steers from H-RFI parents, as was fat content of longissimus thoracis et lumborum and triceps brachii (P ≤ 0.02). Results suggest that parental selection for RFI and prenatal maternal diet can influence carcass characteristics of progeny.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Gravidez
9.
Can J Vet Res ; 85(3): 210-217, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248266

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an energy additive on the metabolism of cattle. This article provides information on the analysis of the diet of young cattle calculated for when the animals were both indoors and outdoors. The ration was prepared for 40 heifers, divided into 4 groups consisting of 10 animals in each group. Three of these groups were fed different amounts of a high-energy additive, which was not fed to the control group. The effectiveness of the additive was analyzed according to the balance experiment and by calculating digestibility coefficients. It was determined that the percentage of nitrogen use in young animals was higher in the groups that were fed the additive than in the control group. Increasing the dose of the additive increased the level of nitrogen use. Comparative analysis of live weight indicated intergroup differences in favor of heifers in the groups that were fed the additive of 1.34% to 2.41% at the age of 9 mo; 2.51% to 4.16% at 12 mo; 3.14% to 5.46% at 15 mo; and 3.57% to 6.30% at 18 mo. The average daily growth dynamics indicated a gradual increase in all animals up to 15 mo, with a slight decrease by 18 mo of age. The difference among the groups ranged from 5.08% to 8.85% at 6 to 9 mo of age; 7.08% to 10.79% at 9 to 12 mo; 5.64% to 10.97% at 12 to 15 mo; and 6.05% to 11.11% at 18 mo. It was concluded that feeding the energy additive Tanrem to heifers increased their metabolism so that nitrogen use was improved, and feed was digested more efficiently, which in turn improved the growth of animals. Using an energy additive at the mid-range dose of 500 g a day per animal is recommended, since the effect was similar at the mid-range and maximum dosages.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia , Envelhecimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Ganho de Peso
10.
J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol. ; 09(03): 1-12, July 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764875

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to tested hypotheses that the primiparous cows behaviour is impacted by the method of rearing from the second day of life to weaning. 53 Holstein primiparous cows were used. They were reared in different ways during milk nutrition. Calf-heifers were assigned to one of five rearing groups on the second day after having nursed their mothers for 24 hours: H) hutch; HA) hutch, from 7 days pen with an automated drinking machine (ADM); MA) with mother, from 7 days pen with an ADM; MH) with mother, from 7 days hutch; MN) with mother, from 4 days with nursing cows. After weaning (56 days), all heifers were kept in group pens, after calving in free-stall housing. Maze learning ability was tested in the third month of lactation. In the 5th month, cows were observed in the open-field, in the seventh month they were subjected to an aversion test (AT). Group MN was the slowest in solving all tasks and HA the fastest. Differences were recorded among groups in the first-day evaluation (P < 0.01). No differences in open field tests were found. In the AT traversing, the slowest were groups H and HA, the fastest MH and MA (P < 0.01). The time of the first return was different (P < 0.001). On the first day, the most vocalized cows of the MN group (P < 0.05). The results show that the method used to rear heifers may have a significant impact on their maze and aversive behaviour.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Lactente , Bovinos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Desmame
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 5737-5746, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091911

RESUMO

Cows are adapted to degrade structural plant carbohydrates (SC), such as cellulose and hemicelluloses, prevailing in grasses. Yet, the need for energy-dense diets in many intensive dairy production systems has shifted the dairy cattle's diet from SC-rich to high levels of starch. Feeding of starch-rich diets increases the risk of ruminal acidosis in cows, and feeding starch in the form of grains intensifies the competition over cereal grains and arable land among different livestock species, as well as between livestock and humans. Besides cellulose and hemicelluloses, grasses are also often rich in water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which comprise mono-, di-, oligo- and polysaccharides (fructans). Although the ruminal fermentation profile of mono- and disaccharides resembles that of starch, the degradation of oligo- and polysaccharides is slower, and their fermentation elicits a rather protecting effect on ruminal pH. When harvested in an early phase (i.e. ear emergence), grass hay and silages can reach WSC levels up to 150-200 g kg-1 dry matter and energy levels close to starch-rich diets, allowing a significantly reduced inclusion of concentrate supplements. By doing so, this will enhance both rumen health and the sustainability of milk production. However, because the WSC are chemically very heterogeneous, the patterns and extent of their ruminal fermentation are difficult to predict without a clear analytical characterization. This review article aims to summarize both the benefits and potentials, as well as the challenges, with respect to using WSC-rich feedstuffs in the nutrition of dairy cattle and their effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics and milk production. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 148-160, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144282

RESUMO

The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded field trial was to investigate the effects of oral administration of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. (EP)) on performance, health and immune parameters in calves. Calves (n = 27) were enrolled to three groups (9 calves per group): 0.5 g EP/calf per day (ECL), 5 g EP/calf per day (ECH) or placebo. Calves were vaccinated with Bluetongue-Virus (BTV) serotype 4 vaccine to investigate EPs effects on seroconversion. Clinical and performance parameters, inter alia body weight, health and milk intake were recorded for 57 days. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV antibodies and IgG by ELISA, white and red blood cell counts by flow cytometry and mRNA abundance of various inflammatory markers in leukocytes (IL-1ß, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase) was studied. The findings demonstrated no differences between groups regarding performance parameters. In all groups, calves suffered from diarrhea for a minimum of 2 days, but EP reduced the number of diarrhea days by 44% in ECL and increased the body temperature. Interestingly, ECL resulted in an increased number of respiratory disease days during the follow-up period. EP did not change blood cell and IgG counts, whereas eosinophil granulocytes were reduced in ECL. Decreased levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were found in ECH. Prostaglandin E synthase levels in leukocytes were higher in ECL and ECH, whereas no differences were obtained for IL-1ß, IL-8, TNFα and Cox-2. Due to the unexpected occurrence of BTV seropositive calves before the first vaccination, 13 calves were excluded from the evaluation on seroconversion and no statistical analyses could be performed regarding antibody production. BTV-4 antibodies were not produced in 4 placebo-calves, whereas 4 of 5 and 1 of 6 ECL- and ECH-calves produced antibodies. Further investigations are needed to draw final conclusions on mode of action and efficacy of EP in calves.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Echinacea/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Soroconversão
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170953

RESUMO

Prebiotic supplementation has been studied as a means to enhance growth and health in dairy calves; however, results seem to be inconsistent across studies. The first objective of the future review is to identify, summarize, appraise, and discuss the current literature on the prebiotic supplementation for dairy calves. The second objective is to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation on growth and health of dairy calves. Eligible studies will be non-randomized and randomized controlled trials in English, Spanish, or Portuguese that examined the supplementation of prebiotics to dairy calves (up to 6 months of age) and reported growth or health outcomes. The main growth outcomes will be average daily gain, feed efficiency, and main health outcomes will be fecal score and diarrhea incidence. A search will be conducted in Biosis, CAB Abstracts, Medline, Scopus, and the Dissertations and Theses Database with the support of a UC Davis librarian. Two reviewers independently will screen the titles and abstracts of retrieved studies. The screening of full manuscripts will be performed by one reviewer. The data extraction will be executed based on pre-tested forms. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. If feasible, a random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted. Heterogeneity will be evaluated with I2 statistic. If possible, publication bias will be investigated by using funnel plots, Begg's adjusted rank correlation, and Egger's test. The certainty of the evidence will be determined using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) approach. The proposed review will contribute to the current knowledge on prebiotic supplementation for dairy calves; this information may guide management decision at the farm level and identify gaps of knowledge to be addressed in future research. The protocol is registered in Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/ar5g2/) and available in the Systematic Reviews for Animals and Food (http://www.syreaf.org/contact/).


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prebióticos , Animais , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086766

RESUMO

Exposure to heat stress can alter the development and immune system function in dairy calves. Serotonin is an immunomodulatory biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a stress-response mediator. Our objectives were to characterize the patterns of serum serotonin concentrations and the pattern of serotonin-related genes expressed by immune cells of calves exposed to chronic heat stress or heat stress abatement during early life, and to explore whether these might relate to immune system development. Dairy calves were exposed to chronic heat stress (HS; n = 6) or heat stress abatement (cooling, CL; n = 6) across the prenatal (late gestation, last 46 d) and postnatal (from birth to weaning, 56 d) developmental windows. Blood samples were collected to harvest serum (weekly, from d 1 to 49), to isolate of circulating leukocyte mRNA (at 1, 21 and 42 d of age) and characterize immune cell populations by flow cytometry (at 21 and 47 d of age). Calves exposed to chronic heat stress pre- and postnatally had lower red blood cell counts and lower circulating serotonin, immunoglobulin G, and B-lymphocytes compared to CL calves. Circulating blood leukocyte mRNA expression of serotonin receptors -1A, -1F, -4 and -5 was greater, while heat shock protein 70 and immune-related genes (i.e., TBX21, TLR4, and TGFß) were lower in HS relative to CL calves. Peripheral blood leukocytes from all calves secreted serotonin and interleukin-6 after in-vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. However, the HS calves produced more serotonin and less interleukin-6 than CL calves when activated in-vitro. Together, our data suggest that providing heat stress abatement to dairy calves across prenatal and postnatal developmental windows might modulate the serotonin synthesis pathway in ways that may benefit humoral immunity against microbial pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Linfócitos/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/veterinária , Receptores de Serotonina/genética
15.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060426

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that both genetics and diet influence the composition of the human cecal microbiota. However, it remains unclear whether and how occupational exposure to microbes impacts the microbial communities in human guts. Using a One Health approach, we visited pig farms (n = 26) and collected stool specimens from pig workers (n = 59), pig barn air samples (n = 19), and rectal swabs from pigs at three different growth stages (n = 144). Stool samples from cattle workers were included as a control group (n = 22). Each sample's microbiota was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the DADA2 pipeline.We obtained a significantly different clustering of the microbial compositions of pig and cattle workers by permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA; P < .001). Workers primarily exposed to pigs had higher relative abundances of Prevotellaceae and less Bacteroidaceae than workers exposed to cattle. We also found that the microbial compositions of pig workers' stool samples shared extensive fractions with the samples from their pigs. We also identified amplicon sequencing variants (ASVs) in the airborne microbiota which were likely involved in zoonotic transmission events.We hypothesize that ASVs originating from pig feces are aerosolized and, through breathing, get trapped in the pig farm workers' upper respiratory tract from where they can get swallowed. Consequently, some of the animal associated ASVs are transferred into the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) which leads to changes in the composition of the human gut microbiota. The importance of this finding for human health must be investigated further.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ar/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/microbiologia , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto/microbiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia
16.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13562, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041806

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of low-crude protein (CP) diets supplemented with rumen-protected lysine and methionine on growth performance, nitrogen excretion, and carcass traits in Holstein steers. Steers consumed the following diets: (1) 17.2% CP on a dry-matter basis during the early period (from 7 to 10 months of age) and 14.5% CP during the late period (from 10 to 18 months of age; CON, n = 4, initial body weight [BW] 238 kg), and (2) 14.4% CP during the early period and 11.4% CP during the late period (AA, n = 4, initial BW 243 kg). The AA diet contains rumen-protected lysine and methionine. Except for CP intake, feed intake and body weight gain were not affected by dietary CP content. Total nitrogen excretion per metabolic BW tended to be lower (p < .10) in the early period and significantly lower (p < .05) in the late period with decreasing the feed CP content. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were lower in AA than CON. Carcass traits and total free amino acid contents of the longissimus thoracis muscle were not affected by dietary CP content. Adding rumen-protected lysine and methionine to a low-CP diet would reduce nitrogen excretion in fattening Holstein steers without affecting productivity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
17.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108533, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975261

RESUMO

The aims of this study were, analysing the effects of rearing managements, carcass traits, and muscle type (M. complexus [CP], M. infraspinatus [IF], M. longissimus [LM], M. rhomboideus [RH], and M. serratus ventralis [SV]) on toughness of raw meat; developing prediction models to act on their toughness. According to our results obtained on the data of 77 heifers, the IF raw muscle was the toughest and appeared the most sensitive to a change in the rearing management. The four other raw muscles had a similar toughness within heifers from the same rearing management. The five raw muscles were less tough when the carcass was heavier and had higher dressing percentage and conformation. The 3 models explained about 40% of the variability observed. Our models showed that it is possible to improve the potential tenderness of raw meat, acting on: age of the heifer's mother, growth rate during the growth and fattening periods, slaughter age, carcass weight and temperature 24 h post-mortem.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Fatores Etários , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Músculo Esquelético , Temperatura
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 58-66, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95) plays a role in male fertility. Previous studies showed that genes with a significant impact on reproductive traits can also affect the growth traits of livestock. Thus, we speculated that the genetic variation of TMEM95 gene may have effects on growth traits of cattle. RESULTS: Two SNPs were genotyped. The rs136174626 and rs41904693 were in the intron 4 and 30 -untranslated region, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium analysis illustrated that these two loci were not linked. The rs136174626 was associated with six growth traits of Nanyang cattle, four traits of Luxi cattle, and three traits of Ji'an cattle. For rs41904693 locus, the GG individuals had greater body height and abdominal girth in Ji' an cattle than TT and TG individuals. In Jinnan cattle, GG and TT individuals had greater body height, height at hip cross, body length, and heart girth than TG individuals. The potential splice site prediction results suggest that the rs136174626 may influence the splicing efficiency of TMEM95, and the miRNA binding site prediction results showed that the rs41904693 may influence the expression of TMEM95 by affecting the binding efficiency of Bta-miR-1584 and TMEM95 30 -UTR. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggested that the two SNPs in TMEM95 could be a reliable basis for molecular breeding in cattle.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Variação Genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embaralhamento de DNA , Gado , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Frequência do Gene
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798231

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different selection practices on the environmental sensitivity of reproductive and growth traits in males and females of three Nellore selection lines [control (NeC), selection (NeS), and traditional (NeT) lines]. Moreover, genetic trends for the intercept and slope were estimated for each line, and the possible reranking of sires was examined. A total of 8,757 records of selection weight (SW), 3,331 records of scrotal circumference (SC), and 2,311 records of days to first calving (DFC) from Nellore cattle born between 1981 and 2017 were analyzed. (Co)variance components and genetic parameters of all traits were estimated using a reaction norm model with Gibbs sampler. In all cattle lines, the mean heritability of the studied traits ranged from 0.39 to 0.75 for SW in both males and females, from 0.46 to 0.68 for SC, and from 0.06 to 0.57 for DFC along with the environmental descriptor. In all cattle lines, the genetic correlation coefficients between the intercept and slope ranged from 0.03 to 0.81 for SW, from -0.14 to 0.39 for SC, and from -0.87 to -0.42 for DFC. Genetic trends for the slope and proportion of plastic genotypes indicated that the NeS line was more responsive to environmental changes, whereas the NeC and NeT lines tended to respond more modestly. Reranking of sires was observed for all traits, specifically in the NeC and NeT lines, because of the weak correlation between the opposite extreme environments. In the NeS line, reranking of sires was observed for DFC alone. Our results indicate that the effects of genotype-environment interaction are important and should be considered in genetic evaluations of Nellore cattle. Moreover, different selection practices affected the environmental sensitivity of the Nellore selection lines tested in this study.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução
20.
ISME J ; 15(8): 2306-2321, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649551

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is a complex ecological community that plays multiple critical roles within a host. Known intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect gut microbiota structure, but the influence of host genetics is understudied. To investigate the role of host genetics upon the gut microbiota structure, we performed a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the hindgut microbiota and its association with animal growth and immunity across life. We evaluated three different growth stages in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population with a graduated spectrum of genetic variation, raised under variable environmental conditions and diets. We found the gut microbiota structure was changed significantly during growth when preweaning, and fattening calves experienced large variations in diet and environmental changes. However, regardless of the growth stage, we found gut microbiota is significantly influenced by breed composition throughout life. Host genetics explained the relative abundances of 52.2%, 40.0%, and 37.3% of core bacterial taxa at the genus level in preweaning, postweaning, and fattening calves, respectively. Sutterella, Oscillospira, and Roseburia were consistently associated with breed composition at these three growth stages. Especially, butyrate-producing bacteria, Roseburia and Oscillospira, were associated with nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes involved in the regulation of host immunity and metabolism in the hindgut. Furthermore, minor allele frequency analysis found breed-associated SNPs in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) receptor genes that promote anti-inflammation and enhance intestinal epithelial barrier functions. Our findings provide evidence of dynamic and lifelong host genetic effects upon gut microbiota, regardless of growth stages. We propose that diet, environmental changes, and genetic components may explain observed variation in critical hindgut microbiota throughout life.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Estudos Longitudinais
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