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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2297, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145150

RESUMO

In high-yielding dairy cows, the rapidly increasing milk production after parturition can result in a negative nutrient balance, since feed intake is insufficient to cover the needs for lactation. Mobilizing body reserves, mainly adipose tissue (AT), might affect steroid metabolism. We hypothesized, that cows differing in the extent of periparturient lipomobilization, will have divergent steroid profiles measured in serum and subcutaneous (sc)AT by a targeted metabolomics approach and steroidogenic enzyme profiles in scAT and liver. Fifteen weeks antepartum, 38 multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to a high (HBCS) or normal body condition (NBCS) group fed differently until week 7 antepartum to either increase (HBCS BCS: 3.8 ± 0.1 and BFT: 2.0 ± 0.1 cm; mean ± SEM) or maintain BCS (NBCS BCS: 3.0 ± 0.1 and BFT: 0.9 ± 0.1 cm). Blood samples, liver, and scAT biopsies were collected at week -7, 1, 3, and 12 relative to parturition. Greater serum concentrations of progesterone, androsterone, and aldosterone in HBCS compared to NBCS cows after parturition, might be attributed to the increased mobilization of AT. Greater glucocorticoid concentrations in scAT after parturition in NBCS cows might either influence local lipogenesis by differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes and/or inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aldosterona/genética , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Androsterona/genética , Androsterona/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios , Metabolômica , Período Periparto/sangue , Período Periparto/metabolismo , Progesterona/genética , Progesterona/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Aldosterona/sangue , Androsterona/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Lactação , Lipogênese , Progesterona/sangue
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2554, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169253

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the relationship between the metabolome and changes in growth rate (i.e., liveweight change, LWC) and molasses-lick block supplement intake (MLB) of grazing cattle. Weaner beef cattle were fed for 220 days with a sequence of feed types and blood samples, growth rate, and supplement intake were taken on five points in time. The relative abundance (RA) of plasma metabolites were determined using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Sixty-four per cent of the metabolites identified were associated with LWC but only 26% with MLB intake (P < 0.05). Periods with faster growth rate showed high availability of amino acids (i.e., valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine), acetate, and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Periods with lower growth rate were associated with high RA of lipids, choline and acetate. The metabolic profile of individual animals during a period of compensatory growth (after periods of poor performance) showed that high-performing animals were characterised by lower RA of amino acids (i.e., valine, leucine, isoleucine, methylhistidine), creatinine, creatine, pyruvate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetyl groups. It is speculated that high-performing animals have faster uptake of these metabolites from the bloodstream. Cattle growth rate over time was associated with their metabolome which could be used to ensure that the availability of certain metabolites promoting growth is tailored in feed supplements to improve production.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metaboloma , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 819: 146220, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093446

RESUMO

The SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes belong to mothers against decapentaplegic proteins family, which participate in the BMP pathway to control skeletal myogenesis and growth. In the present study, we analyzed the associations between polymorphisms of SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes promoter and important economical traits in Qinchuan cattle. Four SNPs in the SMAD1 gene promoter and three SNPs in the SMAD5 promoter were identified by sequencing of 448 Qinchuan cattles. Allelic and frequency analyses of these SNPs resulted in eight haplotypes both in the promoters of the two genes promoter and identified potential cis-regulatory transcription factor (TF) components. In addition, correlation analysis showed that cattle SMAD1 promoter activity of individuals with Hap4 (P < 0.01) was stronger than that of individuals with Hap2. while the transcriptional activity of individuals with Hap3 within SMAD5 gene promoter was significantly (P < 0.01) higher followed by H2. Uniformly, diplotypes H4-H6 of SMAD1 gene and H1-H3 of SMAD5 gene performed significant (P < 0.01) associations with body measurement and improved carcass quality traits. All these results have indicated that polymorphisms in SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes promoter could impact the transcriptional regulation and then affect muscle content in beef cattle. Moreover, both the SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes were expressed ubiquitously in 10 tissues and had higher expression in the longissimus thoracis tissue from 6-month-old and 12-month-old cattle than in cattle of other ages. We can conclude that SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes may play an important role in muscle growth and development, and the variants mapped within SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes can be utilized in molecular marker-assisted selection for cattle carcass quality and body measurement traits in breed improvement programs of Qinchuan cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteína Smad1/genética , Proteína Smad5/genética , Alelos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262878, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077464

RESUMO

Buffalo and cow milk have a very different composition in terms of fat, protein, and total solids. For a better knowledge of such a difference, the milk metabolic profiles and characteristics of metabolites was investigated in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cows were investigated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in this study. Totally, 23 differential metabolites were identified to be significantly different in the milk from the two species of which 15 were up-regulated and 8 down-regulated in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that 4 metabolites (choline, acetylcholine, nicotinamide and uric acid) were significantly enriched in glycerophospholipid metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, as well as purine metabolism. The results provided further insights for a deep understanding of the potential metabolic mechanisms responsible for the different performance of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes' and Chinese Holstein cows' milk. The findings will offer new tools for the improvement and novel directions for the development of dairy industry.


Assuntos
Búfalos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Itália
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051003

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the mycotoxin binder montmorillonite (MMT) supplemented in the diet of dairy cows on the bioavailability of vitamins A, D, E, B1 and B6. Six multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a crossover design with two periods. Treatments were a control diet with or without MMT. Vitamins were infused individually into the abomasum through the ruminal cannula. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h after the administration of each vitamin. Results showed that vitamin A reached maximal concentration (Tmax) at 5.3 h after dosing, the maximal concentration (Cmax) was 1.2 times higher than the basal concentration (Cbasal), and the area under the curve (AUC) was 739 arbitrary units. Vitamin B6 reached the Tmax at 13 h after dosing, the Cmax was 1.4 times higher than the Cbasal, and the AUC was 222 arbitrary units. No differences were observed in Cbasal, Tmax, Cmax and AUC of vitamin A and B6 between control vs. MMT-supplemented cows. Plasma concentrations of vitamins D, E and B1 had no concentration peaks, and were not affected by MMT addition. The lack of a response suggests that their plasma concentration may be tightly regulated. Results of this study do not show evidence that MMT affects the bioavailability of vitamins A and B6 in vivo.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bentonita/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Espanha , Vitaminas/sangue
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(1): 654-664, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763907

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary doses of fennel seed powder (FSP) on growth performance and health status in calves. Holstein calves (n = 48; 3 d of age; 36.3 ± 1.06 kg BW; mean ± SE) were allocated randomly to diets containing 0 (FSP0), 1.5 (FSP1.5), or 3 g/d (FSP3) FSP in milk (morning feeding; during the first month) and then in the starter feed (top-dressed; from d 31 until weaning on d 71). The calves remained in the trial until d 81. Weight gain and final BW were greater in FSP-supplemented calves compared with control calves. Heart girth and hip width gained more in FSP-supplemented calves compared with control calves. Body weight gain and frame growth were not affected by calf sex. The calves receiving FSP had a lower chance of having elevated rectal temperature (≥39.4°C) and a lower probability of suffering from diarrhea or pneumonia. The chance of having diarrhea, but not pneumonia, was greater in female calves. The chance of medication occurrence for diarrhea and pneumonia was not affected by FSP and calf sex. The FSP3 calves had shorter days with elevated rectal temperature (≥39.4°C) compared with the FSP1.5 (1.2 d; SEM = 0.10) and FSP0 (2.9 d; SEM = 0.10) calves. Days with diarrhea but not its frequency and medication days was shorter (4 d; SEM = 0.10) in the FSP-supplemented calves. Control calves experienced more days with pneumonia compared with calves fed FSP1.5 (3.1 d; SEM = 0.08) and FSP3 (5.4 d; SEM = 0.08). Calves fed FSP3 experienced shorter days (2.3 d; SEM = 0.08) with pneumonia compared with calves fed FSP1.5. Feeding FSP tended to decrease (1.6 d; SEM = 0.10) medication days for pneumonia compared with control group. The duration (2.2 d; SEM = 0.10) and medication days (1.3 d; SEM = 0.15) for diarrhea were higher in female calves compared with the male calves. Compared with the control calves, feeding 3 g/d of FSP may be more beneficial in improving the weight gain and skeletal growth (heart girth and hip width) and in reducing the susceptibility to and duration of diarrhea and pneumonia in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Foeniculum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Estimulantes do Apetite , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Leite , Desmame
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(3): 1271-1280, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forty crossbred steers were supplemented with different doses (from 0 control to 6000 mg/animal/day) of natural additive blend containing clove essential oil, cashew oil, castor oil, and a microencapsulated blend of eugenol, thymol, and vanillin for 80 days. Carcass characteristics, drip loss, and antioxidant activity were evaluated 24 h post mortem on longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (until 14 days) were evaluated for water losses (thawing/aging and cooking), texture, color, and lipid oxidation. RESULTS: The use of the natural additive blend did not modify (P > 0.05) carcass characteristics but did, however, modify body composition (P < 0.05). Drip losses were unaffected by the treatments tested (P > 0.05). There was an observed quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on losses from thawing/aging on the first day of storage. Regarding the effects of natural additives on cooking losses, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) among the treatments on day 7 of aging. Differences between days of aging were only observed with control treatment. Shear force was similar among treatments on days 1 and 7 of aging. On day 14 a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed. Also, a linear effect (P < 0.05) appeared on meat lightness, meat from the control group being clearer on day 1. No changes were observed in redness among treatments or days of storage (P > 0.05). Yellowness was not modified by the treatments (P > 0.05)but only by the days of storage in control and the lowest dosage used. CONCLUSION: The blend of natural additives has potential use in pasture feeding and could improve meat quality. However, doses should be adjusted. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anacardium/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Óleo de Rícino/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Syzygium/metabolismo , Matadouros , Animais , Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eugenol/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 113-120, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, 'grass-fed' beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, as well as the duration of grazing, on selected sensory characteristics of beef within a heifer production system was examined. RESULTS: In general, fat from grass-fed cattle was more yellow than fat from similar cattle fed concentrates, whereas muscle from grass-fed cattle was darker than muscle from cattle fed concentrates. At the same carcass weight, muscle from grass-fed cattle had a lower fat concentration than cattle fed concentrates. In the most extreme situation examined, whereby early-maturing heifers were fed concentrates ad libitum from weaning or grazed grass/conserved grass throughout life, until slaughtered at a similar carcass weight (260 kg) and differed in age by 5 months, beef was rated similarly for tenderness and a range of flavours by a trained sensory panel. CONCLUSION: Within the range of beef heifer production systems examined, the sensory characteristics of grass-fed beef do not differ greatly from concentrate-fed beef. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Matadouros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cor , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
9.
Anim Genet ; 53(1): 58-67, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921423

RESUMO

Brazil is the largest exporter of beef in the world, and most of that beef derives from Nellore cattle. Although considered a zebu breed (Bos indicus), the history of Nellore cattle in Brazil is marked by the importation of bulls from India, the use of a Creole taurine (Bos taurus) maternal lineage to quickly expand the herds and backcrossing to Nellore bulls to recover zebu ancestry. As a consequence, the current Brazilian Nellore population carries an average taurine ancestry of approximately 1%. Although that percentage seems small, some taurine variants deviate substantially from that average, with the better-known cases being the PLAG1-Q haplotype involved with body size variation and the Guarani (PG ) polled variant producing hornless animals. Here, we report taurine haplotypes in 9074 Nellore animals genotyped for 539 657 imputed SNP markers. Apart from PLAG1-Q and PG , our analysis further revealed common taurine haplotypes (>3%) spanning genes related to immunity, growth, reproduction and hair and skin phenotypes. Using data from 22 economically important traits, we showed that many of the major QTL previously reported in the breed are at least partially driven by taurine haplotypes. As B. taurus and B. indicus haplotypes are highly divergent, presenting widely different sets of functional variants, our results provide promising targets for future scrutiny in Nellore cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Fenótipo , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 11): 1451-1459, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726172

RESUMO

Thyroglobulin is a homodimeric glycoprotein that is essential for the generation of thyroid hormones in vertebrates. Upon secretion into the lumen of follicles in the thyroid gland, tyrosine residues within the protein become iodinated to produce monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). A subset of evolutionarily conserved pairs of DIT (and MIT) residues can then engage in oxidative coupling reactions that yield either thyroxine (T4; produced from coupling of a DIT `acceptor' with a DIT `donor') or triiodothyronine (T3; produced from coupling of a DIT acceptor with an MIT donor). Although multiple iodotyrosine residues have been identified as potential donors and acceptors, the specificity and structural context of the pairings (i.e. which donor is paired with which acceptor) have remained unclear. Here, single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) was used to generate a high-resolution reconstruction of bovine thyroglobulin (2.3 Šresolution in the core region and 2.6 Šoverall), allowing the structural characterization of two post-reaction acceptor-donor pairs as well as tyrosine residues modified as MIT and DIT. A substantial spatial separation between donor Tyr149 and acceptor Tyr24 was observed, suggesting that for thyroxine synthesis significant peptide motion is required for coupling at the evolutionarily conserved thyroglobulin amino-terminus.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Tireoglobulina/química , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Halogenação , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Tireoglobulina/metabolismo , Tireoglobulina/ultraestrutura
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828308

RESUMO

This study investigated polymorphisms in the milk protein genes CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3, LALBA, and LGB, and casein haplotypes in Beninese indigenous cattle. Considering 67 animals, DNA sequencing of the genes' exons, flanking regions and parts of the 5'-upstream regions identified 1058 genetic variants including 731 previously unknown. In addition, four novel milk protein variants were detected, including CSN3K (p.Ala66Val), LALBAF (p.Arg58Trp), LGBB1 (p.Ala134Val) and LGBK (p.Thr92Asnfs*13). CSN3K is caused by a novel SNP (BTA6:85656526C>T, exon 4) whereas LALBAF and LGBB1 are due to rs714688595C>T (exon 1) and rs109625649C>T (exon 4), respectively. Regarding LGBK, a frameshift insertion of one adenine residue at BTA11:103257980 (exon 3) induces a premature translation termination resulting in a 46% reduction of the reference protein sequence. The casein polymorphisms formed five main CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotypes including B-A1-A-B, B-A1-A-A and C-A2-A-B which are predominant in the investigated cattle breeds. Moreover, in silico analyses of polymorphisms within the 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions of all six milk proteins revealed effects on microRNA and transcription factor binding sites. This study suggests a large genetic variation of milk protein genes in Beninese cattle, which should be investigated in further studies for their effects on milk production, including quality and yield traits.


Assuntos
Caseínas/genética , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas do Leite/genética , Animais , Benin , Cruzamento , Caseínas/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Lactação/genética , Lactação/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769186

RESUMO

Protein palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification by fatty acids (FA), mainly a palmitate (C16:0). Palmitoylation allows protein shuttling between the plasma membrane and cytosol to regulate protein stability, sorting and signaling activity and its deficiency leads to diseases. We aimed to characterize the palmitoyl-proteome of ovarian follicular cells and molecular machinery regulating protein palmitoylation within the follicle. For the first time, 84 palmitoylated proteins were identified from bovine granulosa cells (GC), cumulus cells (CC) and oocytes by acyl-biotin exchange proteomics. Of these, 32 were transmembrane proteins and 27 proteins were detected in bovine follicular fluid extracellular vesicles (ffEVs). Expression of palmitoylation and depalmitoylation enzymes as palmitoyltransferases (ZDHHCs), acylthioesterases (LYPLA1 and LYPLA2) and palmitoylthioesterases (PPT1 and PPT2) were analysed using transcriptome and proteome data in oocytes, CC and GC. By immunofluorescence, ZDHHC16, PPT1, PPT2 and LYPLA2 proteins were localized in GC, CC and oocyte. In oocyte and CC, abundance of palmitoylation-related enzymes significantly varied during oocyte maturation. These variations and the involvement of identified palmitoyl-proteins in oxidation-reduction processes, energy metabolism, protein localization, vesicle-mediated transport, response to stress, G-protein mediated and other signaling pathways suggests that protein palmitoylation may play important roles in oocyte maturation and ffEV-mediated communications within the follicle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células do Cúmulo/química , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/química , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Lipoilação , Oócitos/química , Oócitos/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/química , Proteínas/análise , Proteômica
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 359, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate spexin as a novel blood marker and to describe the relationship of this peptide with selected biochemical metabolites measured during the transition period in dairy cows. Additionally, mRNA expression of the spexin gene as well as spexin receptors - galanin receptor type 2 and galanin receptor type 3, was investigated in several bovine tissues. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting at 21 days before the estimated parturition day until 21 days in milk to determine concentrations of spexin, nonesterified fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate acid, total and active ghrelin, progesterone, glucose, insulin, IGF-I, triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, corticosterone and 17-ß-estradiol as well as the activity of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. RESULTS: Spexin concentration decreased from 21 d before parturition to calving day and next it rose during the first 14 d of lactation. The lowest concentration of spexin was recorded on the calving day and it differed from the mean level of this peptide before parturition as well as postpartum. Moreover, differences were observed between mean spexin concentrations before and after calving. Spexin levels were moderately negatively correlated with NEFA (r = - 0.39) and total ghrelin contents (r = - 0.41), weakly correlated with BHBA (r = - 0.35) while they showed a moderate positive relationship with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.42). Moreover, we detected that mRNA expression of GALR2, GALR3 and SPX is present in various bovine tissues (kidney, bowel, rumen, spinal cord, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, heart, fat and spleen). CONCLUSION: A negative correlation between spexin concentration and NEFA, BHBA and total ghrelin contents as well as a positive relationship with levels of progesterone, metabolites and hormones, which are key players in the dairy cow transition period, may confirm an important function of this peptide in metabolism regulation. Thus measurement of spexin concentration could provide useful supplementary information for dairy cow herd health monitoring.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Lactação/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez/metabolismo
14.
Theriogenology ; 176: 82-93, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597845

RESUMO

It is known that heat stress decreases dry matter intake in cattle with impacts on milk production and fertility. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone with suppressive effects on reproduction. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat stress and gestational status on ghrelin secretion and its possible associations with DMI in Holstein cattle. The study was conducted in a dairy farm without any artificial cooling measures. The animals were fed a total mixed ration twice daily; each morning the leftovers were removed and weighted. Lactating cows and heifers were used during the winter and the summer; in each season 8 groups were formed as following: non-pregnant cows (n = 10) and non-pregnant heifers (n = 10) and pregnant cows (3 groups, each n = 8) and heifers (3 groups, each n = 10), being at the 1st (days 65-90), the 2nd (days 114-144) and the 3rd (dry cows, days 198-220; heifers, days 192-230) trimester of gestation. In each season the blood samples were collected from all groups on the same day, 1 h prior to morning feeding. In the winter, the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was 58 in the winter and 73 in the summer. Normal and acidified sera were stored at -20 °C and analyzed for cortisol, total and acylated ghrelin concentrations, respectively. T-Test and Welch-Satterthwaite were performed for continuous data comparison, while two-way ANOVA to test for differences between gestation and season. Feed refusals were higher (p < 0.01) during the summer compared to the winter. In cows, total ghrelin levels differed between gestation stages in winter and summer(p < 0.04), while acylated ghrelin levels differed by gestation stage in winter (p < 0.001) but not in summer. There was an effect of season by the gestational stage in the pattern of acylated (p < 0.001) but not of total ghrelin. In heifers, the pattern of total and acylated ghrelin secretion was not affected by season or gestation stage (p > 0.05). Both in cows and heifers, acylated ghrelin levels were lower in summer compared to winter, (p < 0.002). During the summer months the low ghrelin levels might explain the reduced feed consumption of heat stressed animals. We infer that the lactation-induced altered metabolic status of the animals governed the different ghrelin levels at various gestational stages in cows and heifers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Lactação , Animais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Leite , Gravidez
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679007

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of a treatment diet contaminated with 1.7 mg deoxynivalenol and 3.5 mg fumonisins (B1, B2 and B3) per kg ration on immune status and peripheral blood gene expression profiles in finishing-stage Angus steers. The mycotoxin treatment diet was fed for a period of 21 days followed by a two-week washout period during which time all animals consumed the control diet. Whole-blood leukocyte differentials were performed weekly throughout the experimental and washout period. Comparative profiles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, along with bactericidal capacity of circulating neutrophils and monocytes were evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 days. Peripheral blood gene expression was measured at 0, 7, 21 and 35 days via RNA sequencing. Significant increases in the percentage of CD4-CD8+ T cells were observed in treatment-fed steers after two weeks of treatment and were associated with decreased CD4:CD8 T-cell ratios at this same timepoint (p ≤ 0.10). No significant differences were observed as an effect of treatment in terms of bactericidal capacity at any timepoint. Dietary treatments induced major changes in transcripts associated with endocrine, metabolic and infectious diseases; protein digestion and absorption; and environmental information processing (inhibition of signaling and processing), as evaluated by dynamic impact analysis. DAVID analysis also suggested treatment effects on oxygen transport, extra-cellular signaling, cell membrane structure and immune system function. These results indicate that finishing-stage beef cattle are susceptible to the immunotoxic and transcript-inhibitory effects of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins at levels which may be realistically encountered in feedlot situations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Contaminação de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
16.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 273, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatiotemporal changes in the chromatin accessibility landscape are essential to cell differentiation, development, health, and disease. The quest of identifying regulatory elements in open chromatin regions across different tissues and developmental stages is led by large international collaborative efforts mostly focusing on model organisms, such as ENCODE. Recently, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) has been established to unravel the regulatory elements in non-model organisms, including cattle. Now, we can transition from prediction to validation by experimentally identifying the regulatory elements in tropical indicine cattle. The identification of regulatory elements, their annotation and comparison with the taurine counterpart, holds high promise to link regulatory regions to adaptability traits and improve animal productivity and welfare. RESULTS: We generate open chromatin profiles for liver, muscle, and hypothalamus of indicine cattle through ATAC-seq. Using robust methods for motif discovery, motif enrichment and transcription factor binding sites, we identify potential master regulators of the epigenomic profile in these three tissues, namely HNF4, MEF2, and SOX factors, respectively. Integration with transcriptomic data allows us to confirm some of their target genes. Finally, by comparing our results with Bos taurus data we identify potential indicine-specific open chromatin regions and overlaps with indicine selective sweeps. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insights into the identification and analysis of regulatory elements in non-model organisms, the evolution of regulatory elements within two cattle subspecies as well as having an immediate impact on the animal genetics community in particular for a relevant productive species such as tropical cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos/metabolismo , Genoma , Fatores Nucleares de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Matrizes de Pontuação de Posição Específica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21926, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533870

RESUMO

The preimplantation period of embryonic development can be a key window for programming of postnatal development because extensive epigenetic remodeling occurs during this time. It was hypothesized that modification of one-carbon metabolism of the bovine embryo by addition of the methyl-donor choline to culture medium would change postnatal phenotype through epigenetic modification. Embryos produced in vitro were cultured with 1.8 mM choline chloride or control medium. Blastocysts were transferred into females and pregnancy outcomes and postnatal phenotype of the resultant calves determined. Exposure of embryos to choline increased gestation length and calf birth weight. Calves derived from choline-treated embryos were also heavier at weaning and had increased ratio of body weight to hip height than control calves. Choline altered muscle DNA methylation of calves 4 months after birth. A total of 670 of the 8149 CpG examined were differentially methylated, with the predominant effect of choline being hypomethylation. Among the genes associated with differentially methylated CpG were ribosomal RNAs and genes in AMPK, mTOR, integrin, and BEX2 canonical pathways and cellular functions involved in growth and proliferation. Results demonstrate that provision of the methyl-donor choline to the preimplantation embryo can alter its developmental program to increase gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight and cause postnatal changes in muscle DNA methylation including those associated with genes related to anabolic processes and cellular growth. The importance of the nutritional status of the embryo with respect to one-carbon metabolism for ensuring health and well-being after birth is emphasized by these observations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Músculos/metabolismo , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/embriologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colina/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13621, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448516

RESUMO

To determine the effects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) treatment and subsequent withdrawal on uterine proliferation and estrogen receptor (ESR), Brahman crossbred heifers (n = 12) were twice daily injected with FSH (4, 3, and 2 mg/injection) on Days 17-19 of the estrous cycle (FSH 3 days) and (4 and 3 mg/injection) on Days 17-18 (FSH 2 days) and withdrawal with saline on Day 19 and (4 mg/injection) on Day 17 (FSH 1 day) and withdrawal with saline on Days 18-19. Uterine tissue was subjectively collected on Day 20 and microscopically classified to four regions: endometrial stroma (ES), surface endometrial gland (EG), deep endometrial gland (DG), and myometrium (Myo). The cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was quantified as labeling index (LI) in uterine regions, and tissues were immunostained to detect ESR2 followed by image analysis. The LI of ES, EG, and DG was greater (P = 0.0018, P = 0.0005, and P = 0.0103; respectively) in heifers received FSH for 3 days. The expression of ESR2 protein on ES and EG was greatest (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0036, respectively) in FSH 3 days-treated group. Thus, FSH administration during proestrus stimulates uterine cell proliferation, and ESR2 expressions are affected by FSH during proestrus and differentially distributed in the uterine regions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Útero/citologia , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Estral/genética , Feminino
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440360

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of the ovarian stroma. Collagen and hyaluronan (HA) are critical ovarian stromal ECM molecules that undergo age-dependent changes in the mouse and human. How these matrix components are regulated and organized in other mammalian species with reproductive characteristics similar to women such as cows and pigs, has not been systematically investigated. Therefore, we performed histological, molecular, and biochemical analyses to characterize collagen and HA in these animals. Bovine ovaries had more collagen than porcine ovaries when assessed biochemically, and this was associated with species-specific differences in collagen gene transcripts: Col3a1 was predominant in cow ovaries while Col1a1 was predominant in pig ovaries. We also observed more HA in the porcine vs. bovine ovary. HA was distributed across three molecular weight ranges (<100 kDa, 100-300 kDa, and >300 kDa) in ovarian tissue and follicular fluid, with tissue having more >300 kDa HA than the other two ranges. Transcripts for HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, Has3 and Hyal2, respectively, were predominant in cow ovaries, whereas Has2, Kiaa1199, and Tmem2 tended to be predominant in pig ovaries. Together, our findings have implications for the composition, organization, and regulation of the ovarian ECM in large mammalian species, including humans.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Suínos , Animais , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colágeno/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Ovário/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Coloração e Rotulagem , Suínos/anatomia & histologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 287, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cows are the greatest livestock contributor of methane, a major global greenhouse gas (GHG). However, good feeding management with adequate mineral intake can offers an effective approach to maintaining high levels of milk production and the health of dairy cows over the entire course of lactation, while also helping to reduce methane emission. The study described here investigated the plasma concentrations of both macroelements (Ca, Na, K, Mg, P) and microelements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn), as well as enteric methane emission and milk composition in high-yielding dairy cows in different lactation periods. The experiment was performed on Holstein-Friesian dairy cows with the average milk yield of 41 (± 9) L/day in a Polish commercial farm with modern dairy systems. A total of thirty high-yielding dairy cows were randomly assigned into three groups differing by lactation stage: early stage (Early, days 25-100), middle stage (Middle, days 101-250), and late stage (Late, day 250 and later). Dietary treatment for all cows was a total mixture ration (TMR) with maize and alfalfa silage the main forage components. RESULTS: The greatest milk yield and methane production were recorded in early-stage lactating cows, but the greatest methane intensity per kg of corrected milk was recorded in the late stage of lactation. Plasma concentrations of macroelements and microelements did not differ by lactation stages, but increased plasma concentrations of Zn and Fe and decreased plasma levels of Mg were noted during lactation. A positive correlation was found between plasma levels of Mg and other macroelements (Ca, Na, K), and between the concentrations of Fe and Zn, P in plasma, but no correlation between methane emission and mineral status was detected in the different lactation stages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed different mineral requirements and enteric methane emissions in each lactation stage. The feeding strategy and mineral utilization were adequate to maintain the health, mineral status, and milk production of the Holstein cows during the entire lactation period, and suggest an effective way of reducing methane emission.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Metano/biossíntese , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Leite/química , Minerais/sangue
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