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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130480, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284192

RESUMO

The near-infrared spectrometry combined with the one-class classification method was applied as quality control of the agroforestry-grown specialty coffee. A total of 34 samples were analyzed in this study. Spectral data were obtained using a NIR portable and different pre-treatment strategies for baseline correction were evaluated. Unsupervised pattern recognition (PCA and HCA) techniques were performed. The construction of the classification model was carried out using the dd-SIMCA algorithm with 19 samples acquired directly from producers that are recognized for the best quality control of the specialty type coffee. In order to test the model, 15 samples of non-specialty type, obtained in local markets, were evaluated. The classification model with the highest correct classification rate (CCR) scored 100% and 87% in the validation and test groups, respectively. The results demonstrated that the application of this strategy was successful in verifying the authenticity of specialty type agroforestry-grown coffee samples.


Assuntos
Café , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Algoritmos , Brasil
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130652, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388629

RESUMO

Stingless Bees (SB) honey is a product used for different purposes, and it is worth highlighting the presence of metallic species, which can have a nutritional or toxic effect, depending on the metal present and/or the amount ingested. Therefore, the objective of this work was to quickly determine Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca in SB honey, using slurry sampling and FAAS of 88 honey samples from different regions of Brazil. The concentrations varied from < LOD to 364 µg g-1 (Ca). The order for average concentration in the samples was Ca > Mg > Mn > Fe. Through the principal component analysis, it was verified that the SB honey analyzed in the present study has higher contents of the evaluated metals than the honey of the species Apis mellifera and SB honey from other Brazilian states. Theoretical calculation demonstrated that there is a little contribution of SB honey to human diet in relation to the metals, being more significative for Mn.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Brasil
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130731, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404003

RESUMO

Rapadura is an artisanal candy obtained from concentrated sugarcane juice. In this study, a differentiation between South American rapadura producers has been tried using a Kurtosis-based projection pursuit analysis (kPPA) concerning essential minerals, acrylamide, moisture contents, pH, and color. These parameters revealed significant inter- and intra-country differences. Based on the employed measurements, a multivariate exploration with kPPA extracted information from rapadura even though it is a very artisanal product and was effective in separating classes, especially Brazilian and Ecuadorian rapadura, where principal component analysis failed. Moreover, ellipse confidence regions showed significant differences between non-organic and organic rapadura from Colombia and Peru in granulated form. From a chemometric point of view, the application of kPPA can be used in cases when other metrics (as based on the variance) fail and can be useful in the exploratory analysis of complex multivariate chemical data.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Saccharum , Brasil , Minerais , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 101-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Urolitíase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210070, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1346054

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo analisar os estilos e fatores intervenientes na gestão e liderança de enfermeiros em três países, Brasil, Portugal e Espanha, à luz da Burocracia Profissional. Método estudo exploratório e descritivo de abordagem qualitativa realizado em três hospitais universitários localizados em diferentes países: Brasil, Espanha e Portugal. Participaram da pesquisa 30 enfermeiros. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um roteiro de coleta de dados com questões sociodemográficas e entrevistas analisadas com auxílio do software WebQda. Resultados diferentes percepções sobre os elementos integradores da participação foram reveladas nos três países, destacando-se a comunicação em diversas óticas. Verificou-se algumas convergências em relação ao trabalho em equipe, sendo a confiança o elemento que impulsiona e motiva a equipe. Sinaliza-se para uma relação participativa no desenvolvimento do trabalho. Conclusão e implicações para a prática foi possível identificar, nos três países, a importância da comunicação no processo de gestão, bem como dos estilos de gestão e de liderança, como elementos que oportunizam a atuação da equipe. Também foi evidenciada a presença de fatores intervenientes de relevância, tais como escuta, clima organizacional, relação interpessoal, transparência no trabalho e delegação de funções, os quais envolvem a burocracia profissional em que o conhecimento do enfermeiro possibilita o exercício de suas habilidades de forma horizontalizada e participativa.


Resumen Objetivo analizar los estilos y factores implicados en la gestión y el liderazgo de enfermeros en tres países, Brasil, Portugal y España, a la luz de la Burocracia Profesional. Método estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo realizado en tres hospitales universitarios ubicados en diferentes países: Brasil, España y Portugal. Treinta enfermeros participaron en la investigación. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un script de recopilación de datos con preguntas sociodemográficas y entrevistas analizadas con la utilización del software WebQda. Resultados se revelaron diferentes percepciones sobre los elementos integradores de la participación en los tres países, destacando la comunicación desde diferentes perspectivas. Se constataron algunas convergencias en relación al trabajo en equipo, siendo la confianza el elemento que impulsa y motiva al equipo. Se advierte una relación participativa en el desarrollo del trabajo. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica se pudo advertir, en los tres países, la importancia de la comunicación en el proceso de gestión, así como los estilos de gestión y liderazgo, como elementos que permiten mejorar el desempeño del equipo. También se evidenciaron factores intervinientes relevantes, como la escucha, el clima organizacional, la relación interpersonal, la transparencia en el trabajo y la delegación de funciones, que conforman la burocracia profesional en la cual el conocimiento de los enfermos les permite el despliegue de sus competencias de manera horizontal y participativa.


Abstract Objective to analyze the styles and factors involved in nurses' management and leadership in three countries, Brazil, Portugal and Spain, in the light of Professional Bureaucracy. Method a descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach carried out in three university hospitals located in different countries, namely: Brazil, Spain and Portugal. Thirty nurses participated in the research. Data was collected through a collection script with sociodemographic questions and interviews analyzed using the WebQda software. Results different perceptions about the integrating elements of participation in the three countries were revealed, highlighting communication from different perspectives. Some convergences in relation to teamwork were verified, where trust was the element that drives and motivates the team. It is a participatory relationship in the development of work. Conclusion and implications for the practice in the three countries, it was possible to identify the importance of communication in the management process, as well as the management and leadership styles, as elements that favor performance of the team. Presence of relevant intervening factors was also evidenced, such as choice, organizational climate, interpersonal relationships, transparency in work and delegation of functions, which involves professional bureaucracy in which the nurses' knowledge allows them to exercise their skills in a horizontal and participatory manner.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Gestão em Saúde , Capacidade de Liderança e Governança , Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Portugal/etnologia , Prática Profissional , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Espanha/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Autonomia Profissional , Comunicação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Continuada , Integralidade em Saúde , Relações Interprofissionais
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Classe Social
7.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 402-412, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619638

RESUMO

Perna perna mussels, abundant throughout the Brazilian coast, are routinely applied as bioindicators in environmental monitoring actions due to their sessile and filter-feeding characteristics. In addition, they are noteworthy for their food importance, especially for coastal populations. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate elemental contamination in commercially marketed and highly consumed P. perna samples from the highly impacted Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 30 mussels were sampled, and elemental concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) were determined in adductor muscle samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Human consumption risks were assessed by comparisons to Brazilian and international legislations. No significant differences between sex were observed for all analyzed elements. Even when analyzing only the adductor muscle, all mussel samples exceeded the Brazilian limit for Cr, while 12 samples exceeded the limit for Se. When compared to other regulatory agencies, As and Zn levels were higher than the limits set by China, New Zealand, and the USA. Estimated daily dietary intake values were not above limits imposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization for any of the assessed elements, although it is important to note that only the adductor muscle was assessed. Therefore, continuous metal and metalloid monitoring in bivalves in the study region is suggested, as metal transport and bioavailability, especially in coastal estuaries such as Guanabara Bay, which are currently undergoing significant changes due to anthropogenic activities.


Assuntos
Perna (Organismo) , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132344, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826954

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are chemicals with multipurpose applications. Their global production has increased despite their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. In 2017, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Yet, specific exemptions were granted for their applications despite the recycling prohibition for products containing SCCPs. Therefore, we aimed to produce the first Brazilian inventory of SCCPs following its respective guidance to evaluate the applicability of the SCCP inventory guidance and to provide technical insights regarding SCCPs in the update of the Brazilian National Implementation Plan (NIP). Moreover, we performed a review of SCCP occurrence in Brazil to fulfil data gaps in the inventory development. We identified and consulted nationwide stakeholders and assessed foreign trade data of CPs and products that might contain CPs in relevant amounts. The Brazilian production of CPs was discontinued in 1994. However, CPs are still imported and used in the country. CPs have been mostly applied as plasticizers, flame retardants and lubricants in Brazil. The import of products containing CPs also pose a significant route of CP entrance into Brazil. Thus, the current end-of-life management of CP-containing products is a bottleneck towards the Convention implementation. The guidance application was feasible and useful despite the low engagement of stakeholders. To assess foreign trade of CPs and CP-containing products, we recommend the use of more specific tracking codes. Besides, the review of SCCP occurrence is not a demanded part for an inventory but was a useful complementation.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Brasil , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise
9.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106184, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637752

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic zoonosis endemic in Brazil. Despite virtual control of Triatoma infestans, the main domesticated vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, vectorial transmission by other triatomine species persists in some rural communities. This study aims to characterize triatomines role in transmitting T. cruzi to dogs and humans in the district of Santo Inácio, located in the northwest region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. It also describes environmental factors in housings associated with insect occurrence and assesses the perception, knowledge, and preventive practices adopted by the population regarding CD. Blood samples of humans and dogs, and biological samples of triatomines, were collected between November 2018 and February 2019 and subjected to the detection of T. cruzi by serological and molecular biology tests. Also, we applied a questionnaire to research the perception, knowledge, and local practices of people related to CD. The capture of triatomines in households was associated with exploratory variables of the questionnaires using multivariate logistic regression (p < 0.05). The 155 triatomines captured in the wild and domestic environment were of the species Triatoma sherlocki (n = 151), Panstrongylus sherlocki (n = 1) and Triatoma sordida (n = 3), and had a natural infection rate for T. cruzi by PCR of 18.5%, 100% and 0%, respectively. District residents (n = 126) were seronegative for T. cruzi, while 17.5% (7/40) of the dogs were seropositive. The fact that residents are aware that triatomines can "cause" CD was configured as a protection factor for residents according to the fitted logistic regression model (p = 0.04). However, respondents have limited perception and knowledge about the CD, prevention and control practices for triatomines in a household. The results suggest the existence of a domestic cycle of transmission of T. cruzi between triatomines and dogs, configuring a latent risk of infection to the human population of Santo Inácio. Studies that clarify the potential for the establishing of intrusive triatomines in households, surveillance actions for triatomines, and health education in rural communities are indispensable to prevent the reemergence of CD in vulnerable regions of Brazil and other American countries with similar epidemiological characteristics.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores
10.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106203, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688630

RESUMO

Hemoplasmas have already been detected in bats in the United States of America, Spain, Australia, Chile, Brazil, Peru, Belize, Nigeria, Costa Rica, Germany, Switzerland and New Caledonia. The recent detection of hemoplasmas closely related to Mycoplasma haematohominis, an agent causing disease in humans, emphasizes the need for additional studies on the diversity of hemoplasmas in bats. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic positioning and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas in bats and associated ectoparasites sampled in central-western Brazil. Overall, 43% (58/135) sampled bats and 1.56% (1/64) bat flies (Megistopoda aranea) were positive for hemoplasmas, however, twenty-four and two hemoplasma sequences were obtained from PCR assays targeting 16S and 23S rRNA genes, respectively, since the majority of the obtained amplicons showed faint bands in agarose gel electrophoresis. The obtained 16S rRNA sequences showed to be broadly distributed along the phylogenetic tree, albeit positioned within the 'Haemofelis group' and clustering with other bat-associated hemoplasmas. Twelve 16S rRNA hemoplasma genotypes were found among the 24 obtained sequences. When compared to other bat-related hemoplasmas sequences retrieved from the Genbank, 52 genotypes were found. The two 23S rRNA sequences obtained were positioned as a sister clade to "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematohydrochaerus", M. haemofelis and M. haemocanis. High genetic diversity was found among 16S rRNA hemoplasma sequences detected in non-hematophagous bats from central-western Brazil and previously detected in other regions of the world. Even though the genotype analysis showed that hemoplasmas from the same genus tend to group together, the results from the unipartite and bipartite analyses did not robustly support the hypothesis. Further studies addressing the specificity of hemoplasma genotypes according to bat species and genera should be performed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 38-46, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617799

RESUMO

After more than 1 year from the beginning of the pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached all continents. The number of infected people is still increasing, and Brazil is among the countries with the highest number of registered cases in the world. In this study, we investigated the profile of hospitalized COVID-19 cases and the eventual clusters of similar areas, using geographic information systems. The study was conducted using secondary data. Variables such as sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, hospitalization, signs, and symptoms among confirmed cases were considered for each microregion/city of the state of Rio de Janeiro. These proportions were used when calculating the Global Moran's I. The local indicator of spatial association was used to identify local clusters. A significant global spatial auto correlation was found in 28% of the variables. The presence of spatial autocorrelation indicates that the proportions of patients with COVID-19 according to these characteristics are spatially oriented. Moran maps reveal 2 clusters, 1 of high proportions and 1 of low proportions. Understanding the geographic patterns of COVID-19 may assist public health investigators, contributing to actions to prevent and control the pandemic in the state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espacial
12.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102457, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506948

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and factors associated with infection in goats, and to isolate protozoan strains in tissue samples from seropositive goats that were destined for human consumption in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 229 slaughtered goats were tested using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cutoff point of 1:64. Epidemiological questionnaires were applied to the producers, to acquire information about the sanitary management used in their herds. Tissue samples from the animals were collected during slaughter, in order to perform bioassays in mice. The seroprevalence found was 21.39% (49/229), with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:32,768. The municipalities of origin, Patos (OR: 3.047; CI: 1.384-6.706) and Sousa (OR: 3.355; CI: 1.536-7.327), were considered to be factors associated with infection by T. gondii. Thirty-eight bioassays were performed in mice, using tissues from seropositive goats, with an isolation rate of 50% (19/38). There was no correlation between isolation rate and antibody titers. Only one mouse died, at 30 days post-infection, which demonstrated that the strains isolated had low virulence towards mice. It was concluded that there is high seroprevalence in goats in northeastern Brazil, as well as a high percentage of viable tissue cysts in slaughtered animals destined for human consumption. These results demonstrate that there is an imminent one health problem relating to toxoplasmosis, especially in the most populous municipalities in the study (Patos and Sousa), which were identified as factors associated with T. gondii infection in goats.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150196, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798738

RESUMO

One of the largest environmental disasters worldwide occurred on November 5th, 2015, when the Fundão dam collapsed in Mariana (Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil). The tailing mud flooded the Doce River basin and reached the sea in the coast of Espírito Santo State (ES), Southeast Brazil. This coastal region is the habitat of the most isolated population of franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei), with the lowest populational census and lowest genetic diversity in Franciscana Management Area Ia (FMA Ia) - 18° 25'S and 21° 17'S. This study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation of trace-elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) in muscle, liver and kidney of franciscana dolphins collected near the Doce River's mouth before (n = 32) and after (n = 19) the tailing mud reached the sea. The Generalized Additive Model (GAM) showed increasing temporal trends of Hg and Zn in muscle and liver after the dam failure, probably related to higher concentrations and bioavailability in the water column and sediments from the Doce River. Declining trends were found for As and Cu muscular and hepatic concentrations and Fe concentrations in kidney due to their lower bioavailability after the disaster, caused by association with tailings mud trapped in the riverbanks and suspended particulate material. Additionally, higher As and Hg concentrations found in the first period of sampling may be due to historical contamination by mining activities. The full extent of the impacts caused by the Fundão dam failure is still unknown. However, due to their rapid increase and remobilization process, toxic effects can be induced in the biota by these elements. Elements' bioaccumulation in this study contributes to the knowledge of franciscana dolphins from FMA Ia. Considering the conservation concern regarding this franciscana population and its scarce knowledge, the impact of this disaster can be alarming for species conservation.


Assuntos
Desastres , Golfinhos , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração , Rios , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113881, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619585

RESUMO

The growing demand for plastics, for packaging and consumption, is a current environmental issue. Although there are many scientific developments concerning material science, knowledge about the public's perception is low, which can delay society's efforts to face this challenge. This study aimed to understand if Brazilians who practice different sustainable actions perceive differently biodegradable, recycled, and common plastics and have different purchase intentions for each specific type of packaging. A total of 1080 Brazilian adults were first classified by their day-to-day attitudes regarding sustainability efforts. Then, their purchase intention and perception about different plastics were assessed. Regardless of sustainability practices, people associate common plastic bags with negative attributes and biodegradable plastic bags with positive attributes. This shows that there is a well-established concept about these types of bags, even if there are some misconceptions (e.g. recyclable) or controversies (e.g. non-polluting). On the other hand, results showed that consumers who adopted more sustainable practices were 3.5 times more willing to pay for biodegradable packages, even though no differences were observed in the accepted price for biodegradable bags between consumer's groups. Finally, the purchase intention comparisons for products packaged in recycled and biodegradable plastics showed the consumers were more interested in those biodegradable plastics and the purchase intention was lower for perishable food (e.g. products that can have higher safety risks). The results are important for understanding environmental policy management in Brazil, highlighting the importance to improve the population's knowledge about different types of plastic, leading to more conscious choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Plásticos , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos , Percepção , Reciclagem
15.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113889, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610560

RESUMO

With the rapid global increase in the number and extent of marine protected areas (MPAs), there is a need for methods that enable an assessment of their actual contribution to biodiversity conservation. In Brazil, where MPAs have been designated to replenish biodiversity, there is a lack of regional-scale analysis of MPA impacts and the factors related to positive ecological change. This study aims to quantify the magnitude of the ecological effects of Brazilian MPAs and test whether some study and MPA characteristics (e.g., taxonomic group studied, exploitation level of species, MPA area, protection time, management effectiveness, level of connectedness, etc.) were underlying factors associated with their performance. We conducted a structured search in a database of scientific articles, selecting comparative studies of direct biodiversity metrics inside and outside MPAs offering different protection levels (i.e., fully- or partially-protected MPAs) or within MPAs with distinct zones. We then carried out a meta-analysis based on 424 observations found in 18 articles. Averaged across all studies, we found that MPAs had a 17% increase in the abundance of species, length of individuals, and community diversity. When compared to open-access areas, fully-protected MPAs increased biodiversity by 45%. However, MPAs offering partial protection had variable effects, ranging from significant positive to significant negative effects. MPA effects depended on the taxonomic group and exploitation level of species, with the strongest positive effects seen on exploited fish species and benthic invertebrates. Partially-protected MPAs that reported strong positive effects required long time of protection (>15years) and high level of connectivity. Conversely, fully-protected MPAs (i.e., no-take ones) could be effective even when small, under intense fishing pressure in their surroundings, and regardless of their level of connectivity. We used the Brazilian MPAs as a case study, but these results can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of the association between ecological impacts of MPAs and drivers of conservation success, and offer key information to consolidate MPA networks that sustain biodiversity.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Biodiversidade , Brasil
16.
Food Chem ; 370: 131318, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662792

RESUMO

This article compares information on the labels of Brazilian food bars with National Health Surveillance Agency legislation. Twenty-six brands of food bars were identified, comprising 50 commercial lines and 153 flavors. The marketing appeal to consumers on the front of pack labeling appeared in many ways to identify these products with a healthy and sustainable lifestyle. However, mandatory information was hard to see, both on the packaging and online, making it difficult for consumer to access. Most of the information on labels followed current legislation, but nutritional irregularities were identified since most bars were ultra-processed and one had incorrect information on the label. The claim that these foods are healthy reinforces the need to reformulate nutrition labeling in Brazil to facilitate identification of nutritional quality/value of foods as part of healthy and sustainable diets.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Brasil , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Valor Nutritivo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149744, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482147

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) are considered emerging contaminants with potential accumulation in aquatic organisms. Thus, seafood consumption may cause long-term effects and health risk for consumers. In the present study, the occurrence of PhACs in seafood from two Brazilian coastal areas, Sepetiba Bay (n = 43) and Parnaiba Delta River (n = 48), was determined for the first time, and their potential risk for human health was assessed. An eco-friendly multi-analytes method was used, after being validated for the different types of matrices (mussels, fatty and lean fish). All compounds under study were detected at least in four seafood species, including chloramphenicol, an antibiotic prohibited in animal foods. Most PhACs had mean concentrations below limit of quantification. Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as simvastatin and carbamazepine were the main PhACs bioaccumulated in edible parts of seafood species from Brazil. The high trophic level carnivorous species, snook, was the most contaminated by NSAIDs, while bivalves were the seafood more contaminated by lipid regulators. The profile of contamination did not vary among different types of matrix, except in relation to carbamazepine and ketoprofen. These PhACs were more abundant in species from Sepetiba Bay, an area highly impacted by human influence. The estimated daily exposure for Brazilian population that consumes the studied species was up to 20.3 ng/kg bw/day via carib pointed-venus and 25.7 ng/kg bw/day via snooks, lower than acceptable daily intake. Thus, consumption of seafood species from Sepetiba Bay and Parnaiba Delta River seems to be safe to the population in what concerns the PhACs studied.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149747, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487895

RESUMO

This study estimates exposure and inhaled dose to air pollutants of children residing in a tropical coastal-urban area in Southeast Brazil. For that, twenty-one children filled their time-activities diaries and wore the passive samplers to monitor NO2. The personal exposure was also estimated using data provided by the combination of WRF-Urban/GEOS-Chem/CMAQ models, and the nearby monitoring station. Indoor/outdoor ratios were used to consider the amount of time spent indoors by children in homes and schools. The model's performance was assessed by comparing the modelled data with concentrations measured by urban monitoring stations. A sensitivity analyses was also performed to evaluate the impact of the model's height on the air pollutant concentrations. The results showed that the mean children's personal exposure to NO2 predicted by the model (22.3 µg/m3) was nearly twice to those measured by the passive samplers (12.3 µg/m3). In contrast, the nearest urban monitoring station did not represent the personal exposure to NO2 (9.3 µg/m3), suggesting a bias in the quantification of previous epidemiological studies. The building effect parameterisation (BEP) together with the lowering of the model height enhanced the air pollutant concentrations and the exposure of children to air pollutants. With the use of the CMAQ model, exposure to O3, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 was also estimated and revealed that the daily children's personal exposure was 13.4, 38.9, 32.9, and 9.6 µg/m3, respectively. Meanwhile, the potential inhalation daily dose was 570-667 µg for PM2.5, 684-789 µg for PM10, and 163-194 µg for PM1, showing to be favourable to cause adverse health effects. The exposure of children to air pollutants estimated by the numerical model in this work was comparable to other studies found in the literature, showing one of the advantages of using the modelling approach since some air pollutants are poorly spatially represented and/or are not routinely monitored by environmental agencies in many regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Brasil , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150097, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500263

RESUMO

Pollution is a major worldwide problem that is increasing with urban growth, mainly along coastal areas. Pollution is often worse, governance is poorer and managerial strategies to improve environmental quality are less advanced in developing than developed countries. Here, we present an overview of the current scientific knowledge of the impacts of contamination on the biota of coastal ecosystems of Brazil and evaluate the scientific challenges to provide baseline information for local managerial purposes. We compiled data from 323 peer-reviewed published papers from the extensive Brazilian coast. We critically evaluated the produced knowledge (target contaminants, sources, ecosystems, taxa, response variables) and the science behind it (rigour and setting) within its socioenvironmental context (land occupation, use of the coast, sanitation status, contamination history). Research was driven largely by environmental outcomes of industrial development with a focus on the single effects of metals on the biota. The current knowledge derives mainly from laboratory manipulative experiments or from correlative field studies of changes in the biota with varying levels of contamination. Of these, 70% had problems in their experimental design. Environmental impacts have mainly been assessed using standard indicators of populations, mostly in ecotoxicological studies. Benthic assemblages have mostly been studied using structural indicators in field studies. Future assessments of impacts should expand research to more taxonomic groups and ecosystem compartments, adding combined functional and structural responses. Furthermore, further investigations need to consider the interactive effects of contaminants and other environmental stressors. By doing so, researchers would deliver more robust and effective results to solve problems of pollution.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Biota , Brasil , Poluição Ambiental
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150113, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520925

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, exhibiting toxicity towards a wide range of living organisms. Its properties and environmental dynamics are strongly regulated by its speciation, and the species As(III) and As(V) are the most commonly found in environmental systems. Recently, high concentrations of As were found in saline-alkaline lakes of the Pantanal (Brazil), which is the largest wetland area in the world. Therefore, we evaluated As contamination and its redox speciation (As(III) and As(V)) at the soil/water interface of biogeochemically distinct saline-alkaline lakes of Pantanal wetlands (Brazil). Both conventional sampling and in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique were employed. Zirconium oxide and 3-mercaptopropyl were used as ligand phases in DGT to selectively bind As species. High concentrations of total dissolved As in a shallow water table were found (<2337.5 µg L-1), whereas levels in soils were up to 2.4 µg g-1. Distinct scenarios were observed when comparing speciation analysis through spot sampling and DGT. Considering spot sampling, As(V) was the main species detected, whereas As(III) was only detected in only a few samples (<4.2 µg L-1). Conversely, results obtained by DGT showed that labile As(III) dominated arsenic speciation at the soil/water interface with levels up to 203.0 µg L-1. Coupling DGT data and DGT induced fluxes in sediments and soils model allowed obtaining kinetic data, showing that the soil barely participated in the arsenic dynamics on the shore of the lakes, and that this participation depends on the evapoconcentration process occurring in the region. Therefore, soil acts like a nonreactive matrix depending on the natural concentration process. In addition, our results reinforced the different geochemical characteristics of the studied saline-alkaline lakes and highlights the importance of robust passive sampling techniques in the context of metal/metalloid speciation in environmental analysis.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Solo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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