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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 645-683, jul. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538073

RESUMO

Information on the knowledge and ways of using food and medicinal plants by traditional populations, family farmers and Brazilian native population in the Amazon is essential to guarantee the food sovereignty of these groups. This study was conducted using semi-structured interviews applied to local respondents. A total of 269 species of both non-conventional food plants and medicinal plants were identified, distributed in 83 botanical families and 198 genera. The Arecaceae and Lamiaceae families had the highest species richness (11 and 7, respectively). The Shannon-Wiener (H') and Pielou (J') diversity indices were considered high (5.02 and 0.9, respectively) when compared to other ethnobotanical works. In the environment in which these families are found, these species become the only food and medicinal resources available.


La información sobre los saberes y formas de uso de las plantas alimenticias y medicinales por parte de las poblaciones tradicionales, agricultores familiares e indígenas brasileños en la Amazonía es fundamental para garantizar la soberanía alimentaria de estos grupos. Este estudio se realizó utilizando entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a encuestados locales. Se identificaron un total de 269 especies tanto de plantas alimenticiasno convencionales como de plantas medicinales, distribuidas en 83 familias botánicas y 198 géneros. Las familias Arecaceae y Lamiaceae tuvieron la mayor riqueza de especies (11 y 7, respectivamente). Los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener (H') y Pielou (J') fueron considerados altos (5,02 y 0,9, respectivamente) en comparación con otros trabajos etnobotánicos. En el ambiente en que se encuentran estas familias, estas especies se convierten en los únicos recursos alimenticios y medicinales disponibles.


Assuntos
Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49622

RESUMO

Ministério da Saúde brasileiro lidera iniciativa de regulamentar a comercialização digital dos produtos, buscando incorporação internacional. Durante a programação da 77ª Assembleia Mundial da Saúde, o Brasil fez uma declaração conjunta em nome de 27 países, defendendo uma resolução para regulamentar a comercialização digital de substitutivos do leite materno e sua incorporação no Código Internacional. “É poderosa a influência da comercialização de substitutivos do leite materno como uma barreira à amamentação. Estamos enfrentando um desafio emergente”, disse o secretário Carlos Gadelha, representante brasileiro no evento da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS).


Assuntos
Substitutos do Leite Humano , Leite Humano , Comercialização de Produtos , Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Brasil
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49623

RESUMO

Dados consolidados de 2023 mostram que o Ministério da Saúde registrou a doação de 253 mil litros de leite humano a partir da ação de 198 mil mulheres. Com isso, 225,7 mil recém-nascidos foram diretamente beneficiados.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Leite Humano , Bancos de Leite Humano , Recém-Nascido , Nutrição do Lactente , Brasil
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49624

RESUMO

Mais de 200 profissionais de saúde de 15 diferentes estados de Angola participaram do Congresso de Bancos de Leite Humano da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP), em Luanda, no país africano. O evento, teve como tema "Segurança alimentar e nutricional para recém-nascidos de risco e lactentes" e foi uma iniciativa conjunta dos governos do Brasil e de Angola, em colaboração com a direção da comunidade.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar , Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa , Angola , Brasil , Bancos de Leite Humano , Leite Humano
5.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49625

RESUMO

Em 2023, o Ministério da Saúde registrou a doação de 253 mil litros de leite humano a partir da ação de 198 mil mulheres. Com isso, 225.762 recém-nascidos foram diretamente beneficiados. O número é 8% maior do que o registrado em 2022 e representa 55% da real necessidade por leite humano no Brasil. Com o objetivo de ampliar ainda mais esse quantitativo, a pasta lançou, nesta segunda-feira (6), a campanha ‘Doe leite materno: vida em cada gota recebida’. A meta para 2024 é ampliar mais 5% a oferta de leite materno a recém-nascidos internados nas unidades neonatais do país.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Leite Humano , Bancos de Leite Humano , Aleitamento Materno , Nutrição do Lactente , Brasil
6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 60, 2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic consumption is a driver for the increase of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study is to analyze variations in antibiotic consumption and its appropriate use in Brazil from 2014 to 2019. METHODS: We conducted a time series study using the surveillance information system database (SNGPC) from the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency. Antimicrobials sold in retail pharmacies were evaluated. All antimicrobials recorded for systemic use identified by the active ingredient were eligible. Compounded products and formulations for topic use (dermatological, gynecological, and eye/ear treatments) were excluded. The number of defined daily doses (DDDs)/1,000 inhabitants/day for each antibiotic was attributed. The number of DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDIs) was used as a proxy for consumption. Results were stratified by regions and the average annual percentage change in the whole period studied was estimated. We used the WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) framework to categorize antimicrobial drugs. RESULTS: An overall increase of 30% in consumption from 2014 to 2019 was observed in all Brazilian regions. Amoxicillin, azithromycin and cephalexin were the antimicrobials more consumed, with the Southeast region responsible for more than 50% of the antibiotic utilization. Among all antimicrobials analyzed 45.0% were classified as watch group in all Brazilian regions. CONCLUSION: We observed a significant increase in antibiotics consumption from 2014 to 2019 in Brazil restricted to the Northeast and Central West regions. Almost half of the antibiotics consumed in Brazil were classified as watch group, highlighting the importance to promote rational use in this country.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Brasil , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0295985, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857224

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) represents a group of cardiovascular risk factors. This article aims to evaluate the accuracy of the tools of MetS diagnosis in Nursing professionals from Primary Health Care (PHC) in Bahia, Brazil. A cross-sectional study with a random sample selected according to essential health information for the diagnostic of MetS. For MetS diagnostic, we used EGIR, NCEP-ATPIII, AACE, IDF, Barbosa et al. (2006), and IDF/AHA/NHLBI (defined as gold standard) definition. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were estimated for each diagnostic tool and compared with the gold standard. Kappa statistic was used to determine the agreement between the diagnostic methods. One thousand one hundred and eleven nursing professionals were included in this study. Sensitivity varied from 15% to 95.1%, and specificity varied between 99.5% and 100%. IDF and Barbosa et al. (2006) definitions were more sensitive (95.1% and 92.8%, respectively), and EGIR, NCEP, ATP III, and IDF showed 100% specificity. IDF and Barbosa et al. (2006) use suitable metabolic syndrome identification and confirmation criteria. The highest agreement was found in the definition of the IDF, Barbosa et al. (2006) and the NCEP ATP III. Defining metabolic syndrome with a higher diagnostic accuracy could contribute to the screening and the early identification of nursing professionals with cardiovascular disease risk factors, which provide opportunities for appropriate prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Fatores de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304987, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857269

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Body image distortion and/or dissatisfaction may occur primarily due to body fat accumulation and/or distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of body image perception and (dis)satisfaction categories in adult men and women according to the adiposity classification. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study (n = 514; 33-79 years; 265 women) that is part of a prospective cohort (Pró-Saúde study). Adiposity measurements were determined by two methods: anthropometry, used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to estimate body fat percentage. Participants were grouped as "no excess adiposity" and "excess adiposity", considering BMI and body fat percentage (>30% for men, >40% for women). Perception and (dis)satisfaction with body image were evaluated using the Kakeshita scale, composed by 15 silhouettes, developed for the Brazilian population. Degree of distortion (perceived BMI - real BMI) and dissatisfaction (perceived BMI - desired BMI) were calculated. RESULTS: A high proportion of men (58.6%; 74.3%), and especially of women (82.6%; 86.8%), presented body size overestimation and dissatisfaction due to excess weight, respectively. A relevant fraction of the women (32.6%) and men (30.8%) who were dissatisfied due to excess weight did not present excess adiposity, especially if classified by DXA. Variability in degree of distortion was hardly explained by anthropometric and DXA variables in women (<5%) and men (∼22%). Both anthropometric and DXA measurements accounted for ∼30% and ∼50% of the variability in degree of dissatisfaction among women and men, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a high frequency of body image distortion in Brazilian adult individuals, as well as dissatisfaction with excess weight, especially among women with excess adiposity. The findings indicate that anthropometric measurements explain much of the variability in degree of body image dissatisfaction in men, with no apparent advantage of the use of more refined DXA measurements.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Satisfação Pessoal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia
9.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e55557, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is an evidence-based, group psychosocial intervention for people with dementia, and it has a positive impact on cognition and quality of life. CST has been culturally adapted for use globally. It was developed as a face-to-face intervention but has recently been adapted for online delivery. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of online or virtual CST (vCST) delivery in India and Brazil, emphasizing barriers and facilitators to implementation. METHODS: A single-group, multisite, mixed methods, feasibility study was conducted, with nested qualitative interviews. Primary feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, attendance, attrition, acceptability, and outcome measure completion. Exploratory pre- and postintervention measures, including cognition and quality of life, were assessed. Qualitative interviews were conducted with people with dementia, family caregivers, and group and organizational leaders following intervention delivery, and the data were analyzed using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: A total of 17 vCST group sessions with 59 participants were conducted for 7 weeks, with 53% (31/59) of participants attending all 14 sessions. Attrition rate was 7% (4/59), and outcome measure completion rate at follow-up was 68% (40/59). Interviews took place with 36 stakeholders. vCST was acceptable to participants and group leaders and enabled vital access to services during pandemic restrictions. While online services broadened geographic access, challenges emerged concerning inadequate computer literacy, poor technology access, and establishing interpersonal connections online. Exploratory, uncontrolled analyses indicated positive trends in quality of life but negative trends in cognition and activities of daily living, but these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: vCST demonstrated feasibility and acceptability, serving as a crucial resource during the pandemic but raised challenges related to technology access, computer literacy, and long-term implementation. The study highlights the potential of vCST while emphasizing ongoing development and solutions to address implementation challenges.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Demência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Demência/terapia , Índia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/psicologia
11.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(4): e13062, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837469

RESUMO

Although the order Rodentia does not present a high risk of extinction compared to mammals as a whole, several families demonstrate high levels of threat and/or data deficiency, therefore highlighting the need for targeted research and the application of ecological and reproductive data to the development of conservation actions. The order Rodentia, the largest among mammals, includes 9 families, and the family Cricetidae is the most diverse of the Brazilian rodents. In Brazil, 12 of the 16 genera of Oecomys are found. Oecomys bicolor is known in Brazil as the 'arboreal rat' and is, found in dry, deciduous and tropical forests. The mean body weight of Oecomys bicolor was 35.8 g and the gonadal, tubular and epithelial somatic indexes were, 0.53%, 0.47% and 0.37%, respectively. Seminiferous tubules volume density was 89.72% and the mitotic and meiotic indexes corresponded to 8.59 and 2.45 cells, respectively, and the yield of spermatogenesis was 23.83 cells. The intertubular compartment represented 10.28% of the testis parenchyma and around 5% of the interstitial space was occupied by Leydig cells, whose number per gram of testis was 11.10 × 107 cells. By evaluating the biometric and histomorphometric characteristics of the testis, there is evidence that this species has a high investment in reproduction. Due to the high contribution of the seminiferous epithelium and the intertubular compartment in this species, compared to the others of the same family, it is possible to infer that the species Oecomys bicolor has a promiscuous reproductive behaviour.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Espermatogênese , Testículo , Animais , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Masculino , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Arvicolinae/anatomia & histologia , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Túbulos Seminíferos/anatomia & histologia , Brasil
12.
HLA ; 103(6): e15543, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837862

RESUMO

The MHC class I region contains crucial genes for the innate and adaptive immune response, playing a key role in susceptibility to many autoimmune and infectious diseases. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous disease-associated SNPs within this region. However, these associations do not fully capture the immune-biological relevance of specific HLA alleles. HLA imputation techniques may leverage available SNP arrays by predicting allele genotypes based on the linkage disequilibrium between SNPs and specific HLA alleles. Successful imputation requires diverse and large reference panels, especially for admixed populations. This study employed a bioinformatics approach to call SNPs and HLA alleles in multi-ethnic samples from the 1000 genomes (1KG) dataset and admixed individuals from Brazil (SABE), utilising 30X whole-genome sequencing data. Using HIBAG, we created three reference panels: 1KG (n = 2504), SABE (n = 1171), and the full model (n = 3675) encompassing all samples. In extensive cross-validation of these reference panels, the multi-ethnic 1KG reference exhibited overall superior performance than the reference with only Brazilian samples. However, the best results were achieved with the full model. Additionally, we expanded the scope of imputation by developing reference panels for non-classical, MICA, MICB and HLA-H genes, previously unavailable for multi-ethnic populations. Validation in an independent Brazilian dataset showcased the superiority of our reference panels over the Michigan Imputation Server, particularly in predicting HLA-B alleles among Brazilians. Our investigations underscored the need to enhance or adapt reference panels to encompass the target population's genetic diversity, emphasising the significance of multiethnic references for accurate imputation across different populations.


Assuntos
Alelos , Etnicidade , Frequência do Gene , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Brasil , Etnicidade/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Genética Populacional/métodos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos
13.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104570, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839229

RESUMO

Cronobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens isolated from a wide variety of foods. This study aims at evaluating the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in low water activity functional food samples, detect the presence of virulence genes, and determine the antibiotic susceptibility of strains. From 105 samples, 38 (36.2%) were contaminated with Cronobacter spp. The species identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses (rpoB and fusA genes, respectively) were C. sakazakii (60.3%), C. dublinensis (25.4%), C. turincensis (9.5%), and C. malonaticus (4.8%). Nineteen fusA alleles were identified, including four new alleles. The virulence genes were identified by PCR and all isolates were positive for ompX and sodA genes, 60.3% to cpa gene, and 58.7% to hly gene. Using the disk diffusion method, antibiotic susceptibility to twelve antibiotics was assessed twice, separated by a 19-month period. In the first test, the isolates showed diverse antibiotic susceptibility profiles, with nineteen isolates (30.2%) being multi-drug resistant (resistant to three or more antibiotic classes), in the second, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics. Cronobacter spp. in functional foods demonstrates the need for continued investigation of this pathogen in foods, and further research is needed to clarify the loss of resistance of Cronobacter strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cronobacter , Alimento Funcional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Cronobacter/genética , Cronobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cronobacter/classificação , Brasil , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Água , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
14.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(4): 44, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839661

RESUMO

Species of Diolcogaster parasitize Lepidoptera pests of commercial plants. The diversity of this genus is high, but few species of Diolcogaster have been described. The description of a new Diolcogaster species provides information for the biological control using this insect. This study presents the description and key notes on the biology of a new Diolcogaster parasitoid wasp. This species was reared from a caterpillar of Hypercompe brasiliensis collected after feeding on a Gloxinia perennis plant important to floriculture. Two complementary identification analyzes were performed on Diolcogaster adult bodies. The first was the analyses of its external morphology and the second its molecular analysis (mitochondrial DNA). The morphological analysis defined the insect as a new species of Diolcogaster, named Diolcogaster joanesi sp. nov. A maximum-likelihood (ML) analysis partially confirmed the morphological analysis, placing D. joanesi within a cluster including a previously identified species (Diolcogaster choi) and seven other morphospecies. The proximity of D. joanesi to D. choi is discussed and an updated key for all New World species of the xanthaspis group is provided. Twenty-eight adult wasps were obtained (22 females and six males) out of 50 cocoons which larvae emerged from the caterpillar host. The findings contribute to the broader understanding of Diolcogaster in the Neotropics and its potential for the biological control of lepidopteran defoliators.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores , Especificidade da Espécie , Vespas , Animais , Brasil , Vespas/classificação , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Filogenia , Larva , Feminino
15.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 82(5): 1-8, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) focuses on assessing the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) based on the self-perception of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A Brazilian Portuguese version of the questionnaire is available (ADLQ-Brazil), and further investigation is needed to fully assess its measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate construct and concurrent validity of the telephone-based administration of the ADLQ-Brazil with community individuals with PD. METHODS: There were 50 adults with PD (mean age: 68 ± 9.5 years) invited to answer the ADLQ-Brazil on two randomized occasions, face-to-face and by telephone, 7 to 10 days apart. Clinical-based measures including the Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test, Apathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and Parkinson Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire were applied during the first session, to establish construct validity. RESULTS: The total scores on the ADLQ-Brazil were significantly associated with the clinical-based measures, thus providing evidence of construct validity. No significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained with the face-to-face and telephone-based administration of the questionnaire (95%CI = 0.997). A high level of agreement was found in the total scores obtained between both applications of the ADLQ-Brazil (95%CI = 0.994-0.998), and most of the individual items had, on average, moderate agreement. CONCLUSION: The findings provide psychometric support for the ADLQ-Brazil as a telephone interview to assess the performance of ADLs in individuals with PD.


ANTECEDENTES: O Questionário de Atividades da Vida Diária (Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire, ADLQ, em inglês) tem como foco avaliar a capacidade de realizar atividades da vida diária (AVDs) com base na autopercepção de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson (DP). Uma versão do questionário em português do Brasil está disponível (ADLQ-Brasil), sendo necessárias mais investigações para avaliar suas propriedades de medidas. OBJETIVO: Investigar as validades de construto e concorrente da aplicação por telefone do ADLQ-Brasil com indivíduos da comunidade com DP. MéTODOS: Foram 50 adultos com DP (média de idade: 68 ± 9,5 anos) convidados a responder o ADLQ-Brasil em duas ocasiões aleatórias, presencialmente e por telefone, com intervalo de 7 a 10 dias. Instrumentos clínicos incluindo a Escala Unificada de Avaliação da Doença de Parkinson, o teste Timed Up and Go, o teste Nine Hole Peg, a versão reduzida do teste de equilíbrio Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems, a Escala de Apatia, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck, a Escala de Impacto de Fadiga Modificada e o Questionário de Qualidade de Vida na Doença de Parkinson foram aplicados na primeira sessão para estabelecer a validade de construto. RESULTADOS: Os escores totais do ADLQ-Brasil foram significativamente associados às medidas clínicas, fornecendo, assim, evidências de validade de construto. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as pontuações médias obtidas entre a aplicação presencial e por telefone do questionário (IC95% = 0,997). Foi encontrado alto nível de concordância entre os escores totais do ADLQ-Brasil obtidos nas duas aplicações (IC95% = 0,994­0,998) e a maioria dos itens individuais apresentou, em média, concordância moderada. CONCLUSãO: Os achados fornecem suporte psicométrico para o ADLQ-Brasil como entrevista telefônica para avaliação do desempenho de AVDs em indivíduos com DP.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Parkinson , Telefone , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Qualidade de Vida , Psicometria , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(7): 245, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858271

RESUMO

This article assesses the environmental impacts of aquatic biota cultivation, focusing on shrimp farming in Brazil's Northeast, as this practice has proven to be one of the main sources of economic growth in the region. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from areas impacted and not directly impacted by shrimp farming, and concentrations of key geochemical parameters such as salinity, various elements (K, P, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Na), and natural radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226 and Ra-228) were compared using statistical tools. Element concentrations were determined using ICP-OES, and naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations were obtained through gamma spectrometry. Statistical tests, such as ANOVA and/or Mann-Whitney, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, were applied to the results. Additionally, the ERICA Tool software was employed to estimate deleterious effects on both human and non-human biota. Descriptive statistics reveal variability in sediment parameters around shrimp farming. ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests compare concentrations of shrimp farm sediment and not directly impacted sediment, showing non-significant differences for most elements. pH and salinity, crucial for shrimp health, exhibit higher values in shrimp farm sediment. Alkali and alkaline earth metals, including K and Na, show no significant differences. Factor and cluster analyses suggest that certain elements, mainly radionuclides, are influenced by sediment variability. Hazard indices for naturally occurring radionuclides indicate negligible risk to both human and non-human biota, reinforcing the absence of adverse effects from shrimp farming activities. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the environmental impacts of shrimp farming, emphasizing the importance of monitoring geochemical parameters for coastal environmental management.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Sedimentos Geológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Animais , Brasil , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Salinidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Penaeidae/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 239, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860991

RESUMO

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a species complex with the potential to cause cystic echinococcosis (CE). Contact with the feces of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) fed with raw viscera of intermediate livestock hosts is a risk factor for this infection in the southern region of Brazil. Although the region has been considered endemic to CE for many years, molecular data regarding the species of the complex causing CE in humans are scarce. This study aimed to perform a molecular analysis of the biological fluid from a human liver cyst to investigate the species responsible for CE. Genetic material obtained from the hydatid fluid of a hepatic cyst from a human with CE was subjected to PCR to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the human infection by Echinococcus canadensis G7 in the state of Paraná, Brazil. This is the first molecular record of E. canadensis G7 infecting a human in Brazil, and it is important to reiterate the risk of human CE caused by this species in South America, as reported by a previous study in Patagonia, Argentina. From the epidemiological point of view, this finding is of great relevance for the southern region of Brazil, since this parasite has previously only been detected in pigs in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, neighboring Paraná. The finding points to the importance of this identification in the molecular epidemiology of E. granulosus s.l., especially in South America.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos , Echinococcus , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Echinococcus/genética , Echinococcus/classificação , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305063, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848395

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is usually paucibacillary and the smear microscopy has limitations and may lead to high proportions of non-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (NC-PTB). Despite culture being the reference method, it usually takes 6 to 8 weeks to produce the results. This study aimed to analyze the effect of a rapid molecular test (Xpert) in the confirmatory rate of PTB among PLHIV, from 2010 to 2020, in São Paulo state, Brazil. This is an ecological study with time series analysis of the trend and the NC-PTB rates before and after Xpert implementation in 21 municipalities. The use of Xpert started and gradually increased after 2014, while the rate of NC-PTB in PLHIV decreased over this time, being more significant between late 2015 and mid-2017. The city of Ribeirão Preto stands out for having the highest percentage (75.0%) of Xpert testing among PLHIV and for showing two reductions in the NC-PTB rate. The cities with low Xpert coverage had a slower and smaller decrease in the NC-PTB rate. Despite being available since 2014, a significant proportion of PLHIV suspected of PTB in the state of São Paulo did not have an Xpert ordered by the doctors. The implementation of Xpert reduced the NC-PTB rates with growing effect as the coverage increased in the municipality.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Escarro/microbiologia
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e17428, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881861

RESUMO

Background: Patients in serious condition due to COVID-19 often require special care in intensive care units (ICUs). This disease has affected over 758 million people and resulted in 6.8 million deaths worldwide. Additionally, the progression of the disease may vary from individual to individual, that is, it is essential to identify the clinical parameters that indicate a good prognosis for the patient. Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been used for analyzing complex medical data and identifying prognostic indicators. However, there is still an urgent need for a model to elucidate the predictors related to patient outcomes. Therefore, this research aimed to verify, through ML, the variables involved in the discharge of patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19. Methods: In this study, 126 variables were collected with information on demography, hospital length stay and outcome, chronic diseases and tumors, comorbidities and risk factors, complications and adverse events, health care, and vital indicators of patients admitted to an ICU in southern Brazil. These variables were filtered and then selected by a ML algorithm known as decision trees to identify the optimal set of variables for predicting patient discharge using logistic regression. Finally, a confusion matrix was performed to evaluate the model's performance for the selected variables. Results: Of the 532 patients evaluated, 180 were discharged: female (16.92%), with a central venous catheter (23.68%), with a bladder catheter (26.13%), and with an average of 8.46- and 23.65-days using bladder catheter and submitted to mechanical ventilation, respectively. In addition, the chances of discharge increase by 14% for each additional day in the hospital, by 136% for female patients, 716% when there is no bladder catheter, and 737% when no central venous catheter is used. However, the chances of discharge decrease by 3% for each additional year of age and by 9% for each other day of mechanical ventilation. The performance of the training data presented a balanced accuracy of 0.81, sensitivity of 0.74, specificity of 0.88, and the kappa value was 0.64. The test performance had a balanced accuracy of 0.85, sensitivity 0.75, specificity 0.95, and kappa value of 0.73. The McNemar test found that there were no significant differences in the error rates in the training and test data, suggesting good classification. This work showed that female, the absence of a central venous catheter and bladder catheter, shorter mechanical ventilation, and bladder catheter duration were associated with a greater chance of hospital discharge. These results may help develop measures that lead to a good prognosis for the patient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aprendizado de Máquina , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Proteção , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Prognóstico , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
PeerJ ; 12: e17481, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881857

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 is an infectious pathology that shows vascular changes during pregnancy, as well as in the placentas. The main objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the risk factors for preeclampsia in hospitalized pregnant women with COVID-19. As well as comparing maternal and perinatal outcomes in hospitalized pregnant women with COVID-19 and preeclampsia with those without preeclampsia. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 100 hospitalized pregnant women from two tertiary hospitals, diagnosed with COVID-19, and divided into two groups: PE+ group (pregnant women with COVID-19 and preeclampsia) and PE- group (pregnant women with COVID-19 without preeclampsia). These pregnant women had prevalence, risk factors, maternal and perinatal data analyzed. Results: The prevalence of preeclampsia was 11%. Severe COVID-19 was the main risk factor for preeclampsia (OR = 8.18 [CI 1.53-43.52]), as well as fetal growth restriction was the main perinatal outcome (OR = 8.90 [CI 1.52-38.4]). Comorbidities were more frequent in the PE+ group (63.6% vs 31.5%, p = 0.03), as well as prematurity (81.8% vs 41.6%, p = 0.02), low birth weight (63.6% vs 24.7%, p = 0.01), and the need for neonatal intensive care admission of the newborn (63.6% vs 27.0%, p = 0.03). Pregnant women with PE had twice as long a length of stay in the intensive care unit (RR = 2.35 [CI 1.34-4.14]). Although maternal mortality was more frequent among pregnant women with PE, it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Prevalence of preeclampsia in hospitalized pregnant women with COVID-19 was 11%. Severe COVID-19 was the main risk factor for preeclampsia and associated comorbidities increased the risk for developing preeclampsia. Long length of stay in the intensive care unit was the main maternal outcome and fetal growth restriction was the main perinatal outcome of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recém-Nascido , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/virologia , Comorbidade
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