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1.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 101-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Urolitíase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106184, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637752

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic zoonosis endemic in Brazil. Despite virtual control of Triatoma infestans, the main domesticated vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, vectorial transmission by other triatomine species persists in some rural communities. This study aims to characterize triatomines role in transmitting T. cruzi to dogs and humans in the district of Santo Inácio, located in the northwest region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. It also describes environmental factors in housings associated with insect occurrence and assesses the perception, knowledge, and preventive practices adopted by the population regarding CD. Blood samples of humans and dogs, and biological samples of triatomines, were collected between November 2018 and February 2019 and subjected to the detection of T. cruzi by serological and molecular biology tests. Also, we applied a questionnaire to research the perception, knowledge, and local practices of people related to CD. The capture of triatomines in households was associated with exploratory variables of the questionnaires using multivariate logistic regression (p < 0.05). The 155 triatomines captured in the wild and domestic environment were of the species Triatoma sherlocki (n = 151), Panstrongylus sherlocki (n = 1) and Triatoma sordida (n = 3), and had a natural infection rate for T. cruzi by PCR of 18.5%, 100% and 0%, respectively. District residents (n = 126) were seronegative for T. cruzi, while 17.5% (7/40) of the dogs were seropositive. The fact that residents are aware that triatomines can "cause" CD was configured as a protection factor for residents according to the fitted logistic regression model (p = 0.04). However, respondents have limited perception and knowledge about the CD, prevention and control practices for triatomines in a household. The results suggest the existence of a domestic cycle of transmission of T. cruzi between triatomines and dogs, configuring a latent risk of infection to the human population of Santo Inácio. Studies that clarify the potential for the establishing of intrusive triatomines in households, surveillance actions for triatomines, and health education in rural communities are indispensable to prevent the reemergence of CD in vulnerable regions of Brazil and other American countries with similar epidemiological characteristics.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores
3.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 38-46, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617799

RESUMO

After more than 1 year from the beginning of the pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached all continents. The number of infected people is still increasing, and Brazil is among the countries with the highest number of registered cases in the world. In this study, we investigated the profile of hospitalized COVID-19 cases and the eventual clusters of similar areas, using geographic information systems. The study was conducted using secondary data. Variables such as sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, hospitalization, signs, and symptoms among confirmed cases were considered for each microregion/city of the state of Rio de Janeiro. These proportions were used when calculating the Global Moran's I. The local indicator of spatial association was used to identify local clusters. A significant global spatial auto correlation was found in 28% of the variables. The presence of spatial autocorrelation indicates that the proportions of patients with COVID-19 according to these characteristics are spatially oriented. Moran maps reveal 2 clusters, 1 of high proportions and 1 of low proportions. Understanding the geographic patterns of COVID-19 may assist public health investigators, contributing to actions to prevent and control the pandemic in the state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espacial
4.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102457, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506948

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and factors associated with infection in goats, and to isolate protozoan strains in tissue samples from seropositive goats that were destined for human consumption in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 229 slaughtered goats were tested using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cutoff point of 1:64. Epidemiological questionnaires were applied to the producers, to acquire information about the sanitary management used in their herds. Tissue samples from the animals were collected during slaughter, in order to perform bioassays in mice. The seroprevalence found was 21.39% (49/229), with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:32,768. The municipalities of origin, Patos (OR: 3.047; CI: 1.384-6.706) and Sousa (OR: 3.355; CI: 1.536-7.327), were considered to be factors associated with infection by T. gondii. Thirty-eight bioassays were performed in mice, using tissues from seropositive goats, with an isolation rate of 50% (19/38). There was no correlation between isolation rate and antibody titers. Only one mouse died, at 30 days post-infection, which demonstrated that the strains isolated had low virulence towards mice. It was concluded that there is high seroprevalence in goats in northeastern Brazil, as well as a high percentage of viable tissue cysts in slaughtered animals destined for human consumption. These results demonstrate that there is an imminent one health problem relating to toxoplasmosis, especially in the most populous municipalities in the study (Patos and Sousa), which were identified as factors associated with T. gondii infection in goats.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
5.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102472, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597759

RESUMO

Kudoa ocellatus n. sp. was found in the musculature of Astronotus ocelattus (Agassiz, 1831) from the Arari River on Marajó Island in Pará, Brazil. The new species forms pseudocysts in the epaxial and hypaxial musculature composed of various spores that are pseudoquadrate in the apical view. In the lateral view, the spores were triangular or pyramidal. In the lateral view, the spores were 46 ± 0.11 µm (4.5-4.8) in length and 6.6 ± 0.3 µm (6.2-7.2) in width, with four pyriform polar capsules of equal size that measured 2.0 ± 0.16 µm (1.8-2.2) in length and 1.5 ± 0.18 µm (1.3-1.8) in width. Based on the partial (1418 bps) sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, Kudoa ocellatus n. sp. was distinct from all the other Kudoa species deposited in GenBank. The phylogenetic Bayesian Inference and P distance placed the new species together with the other Kudoa species that parasitize freshwater Amazonian fish. The morphological evidence, together with the SSU rDNA gene sequence, supported the description of Kudoa ocellatus n. sp., a distinct new species of the genus, which parasitizes a freshwater Amazonian cichlid.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/ultraestrutura , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e54288, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224586

RESUMO

Objetivo: investigar a associação entre ideação suicida e violência por parceiro íntimo em mulheres. Método: estudo analítico e transversal, desenvolvido em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Piauí-Brasil, com 369 mulheres adultas e com histórico de relacionamento. Os dados foram coletados de agosto de 2015 a março de 2016, por meio do Revised Conflict Tactics Scales e Self-Reporting Questionnaire, e analisados no software Statistical Package for the Social Science, versão 20.0. Resultados: verificou-se que 65,3% das mulheres sofreram violência por parceiro íntimo, 61,0% foi vítima de violência psicológica, 32,2% física, 18,7% moral e 17,1% sexual. Identificou-se associação entre ideação suicida e violência por parceiro íntimo (p=0,000), violência psicológica (p=0,001) e moral (p=0,000). Ser vítima de violência por parceiro íntimo aumenta 4,35 vezes as chances de as mulheres pensarem em cometer atos contra a própria vida. Conclusão: a ideação suicida está associada a violência por parceiro íntimo, violência psicológica e moral.


Objective: to investigate the association between suicidal ideation and intimate partner violence in women. Method: analytical and cross-sectional study carried out in Basic Health Units in Piauí, Brazil, with 369 adult women and with a relationship history. Data were collected from August 2015 to March 2016 using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales and Self-Reporting Questionnaire, and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science software, version 20.0. Results: 65.3% of the women were found to have suffered intimate partner violence; 61.0%, psychological violence, 32.2%, physical violence, 18.7%, moral violence, and 17.1%, sexual violence. An association was identified between suicidal ideation and intimate partner violence (p = 0.000), psychological violence (p = 0.001), and moral violence (p = 0.000). Victims of intimate partner violence were 4.35 times more likely to think of committing acts against their own lives. Conclusion: suicidal ideation is associated with intimate partner violence, psychological and moral violence.


Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre ideación suicida y violencia de pareja en mujeres. Método: estudio analítico y transversal, realizado en Unidades Básicas de Salud de Piauí-Brasil, con 369 mujeres adultas y con antecedentes de parentesco. Los datos se recopilaron desde agosto de 2015 hasta marzo de 2016, utilizando el Revised Conflict Tactics Scales y Self-Reporting Questionnaire, y se analizaron utilizando el software Statistical Package for the Social Science, versión 20.0. Resultados: se encontró que el 65,3% de las mujeres sufrió violencia de pareja íntima, el 61,0% fue víctima de violencia psicológica, 32,2% física, 18,7% moral y 17,1% sexual. Se identificó asociación entre ideación suicida y violencia de pareja íntima (p = 0,000), violencia psicológica (p = 0,001) y violencia moral (p = 0,000). Ser víctima de violencia de pareja aumenta 4,35 veces las posibilidades de que las mujeres piensen en cometer actos contra su propia vida. Conclusión: la ideación suicida está asociada con la violencia de pareja, violencia psicológica y moral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Ideação Suicida , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Mulher
7.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56924, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224444

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a incidência de complicações em feridas operatórias de mastectomia e identificar fatores associados. Método: estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma coorte hospitalar de 545 mulheres mastectomizadas por câncer de mama no ano 2018 em um centro de assistência de alta complexidade em oncologia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, após aprovação por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Os dados foram coletados a partir dos prontuários, permitindo cálculos da taxa de incidência e da razão da taxa de incidência para cada complicação. Resultados: a complicação que apresentou maior taxa de incidência foi o sangramento (57,14/100 mastectomias-dia), tendo como fatores associados a raça/cor da pele não branca (Razão da Taxa de Incidência: 3,11) e a diabetes mellitus (Razão da Taxa de Incidência: 0,48). Conclusão: os fatores associados ao sangramento da ferida operatória apontam para a necessidade de novas práticas no cuidado ao pós-operatório de mulheres mastectomizadas.


Objective: to describe the incidence of complications in mastectomy surgical wounds and to identify associated factors. Method: this retrospective study was conducted in a hospital cohort of 545 women mastectomized for breast cancer in 2018 at a high-complexity cancer care center Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, after approval by the research ethics committee. Data were collected from medical records, allowing incidence rate and incidence rate ratio to be calculated for each complication. Results: the complication with the highest incidence rate was bleeding (57.14/100 mastectomies-day), associated factors being non-white race/skin color (incidence rate ratio 3.11) and diabetes mellitus (incidence rate ratio 0.48). Conclusion: the factors associated with bleeding from the surgical wound point to the need for new practices in post-operative care for women with mastectomies.


Objetivo: describir la incidencia de complicaciones en heridas quirúrgicas de mastectomía e identificar factores asociados. Método: estudio retrospectivo desarrollado en una cohorte hospitalaria de 545 mujeres mastectomizadas por cáncer de mama en 2018 en un centro de atención de alta complejidad en oncología de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética en Investigación. Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas, lo que permitió calcular la tasa de incidencia y el cociente de la tasa de incidencia para cada complicación. Resultados: la complicación que presentó mayor tasa de incidencia fue el sangrado (57,14 / 100 mastectomías-día), con factores asociados a la raza / color de piel no blanca (índice de tasa de incidencia: 3,11) y diabetes mellitus (índice de tasa de incidencia: 0,48). Conclusión: los factores asociados al sangrado de la herida quirúrgica apuntan a la necesidad de nuevas prácticas en el cuidado al postoperatorio de las mujeres con mastectomía.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48531

RESUMO

Página com as principais dúvidas sobre o coronavírus, tais como: o que é coronavírus?; como o Coronavírus é transmitido?; quais são os sintomas?; como é o tratamento?; quando se deve procurar o serviço de saúde?; quando devo usar a máscara de proteção?.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48529

RESUMO

Boletins Coronavírus de óbitos e casos confirmados no RJ


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4397-4409, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730631

RESUMO

This article aims to analyze if it is possible for Brazil to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3.1, based on a diagnosis of the situation of maternal mortality in the Health Regions (HRs) of Brazil, in 2018, and the main characteristics of this mortality between 1996 and 2018 in the country. The study consists of two articulated phases: (i) bibliographical analysis of maternal mortality in Brazil; (ii) study in the Mortality Information System (SIM, in Portuguese). In 2018, from the 450 HRs, 159 showed a maternal mortality rate (MMR) of above 70 per 100,000 live births (LBs). Between 1996 and 2018, in Brazil, there was a reduction among women 30 to 49 years of age. However, in the age group of 10 to 29 years, there was no change during the time studied. The dissemination of the Maternal Mortality Committees, the PHPN, the PNAISM, and the "Stork Network" have all contributed to improvements in late pregnancies; however, they were inefficient at preventing deaths among young mothers. Compliance with SDG 3.1 requires: prioritization of CIR with MMR greater than 70.0/100,000 LB; qualification of prenatal services, focusing on care among women aged 10 to 29 years and hypertensive complications; and legalization of abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4439-4451, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730634

RESUMO

The 2030 Agenda - a strategy of the United Nations Organization (UN) to promote global and sustainable human development capable of satisfying basic social needs - is still in the initial stages in most of the countries of South America. The scope of this investigation was to consult a group of health experts on the possibilities of Argentina fulfilling the 2030 Agenda, especially the goals of ODS3 - Health and Wellbeing - when they were consulted on obstacles, challenges, and policy recommendations to meet the goals. The change of management of the government in December 2019, and the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, broadened the investigation incorporating the analysis of the incumbent Minister of Health of the Nation on the 2030 Agenda, the study carried out and the current perspectives in the pandemic period. The results were analyzed from a comparative standpoint with a Brazilian study, which revealed that most experts agree on the country's potential to meet the goals of the 2030 Agenda. However, in the analysis of the new Minister of Health, there are "the paradoxes of the pandemic" that relate to the opportunity to empower the health system pursuant to the Covid-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4453-4469, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730635

RESUMO

Brazil is undergoing a demographic transition characterized by regional inequalities. It is reasonable to assume that aspects related to poverty, development and inequality might reverse the sign of the association of indicators of demographic transition, exemplifying a phenomenon known as Simpson's Paradox. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of inequality, poverty and social development on population dynamics in Brazil, verifying the occurrence of Simpson's paradox in demographic transition. We used population data from the 1991, 2000 and 2010 national censuses, broken down by age and federative unit (FU). The correlation between demographic indicators was assessed by stratifying the FUs into groups according to their median social indicators. The findings show that all FUs have progressed against social indicators and are undergoing demographic transition; however, despite reductions in disparities over the study period, persistent gaps exist between regions. Simpson's paradox was present when the analysis was carried out by census year and social indicators, and was particularly pronounced in 1991. The main challenge is to define how to analyze demographic dynamics in Brazil and understand how contextual factors alter the pace, quantum, and pattern of demographic transition.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4471-4482, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730636

RESUMO

In a context of disaster recurrence, naturalization or demotion of the concept to tragedy does not include all the dynamics and processes involved in affecting the communities and population groups most vulnerable to death and illness, such as the older adults. This paper aims to describe and analyze the socioeconomic, environmental, and health context of impact on older adults in four municipalities in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro. We carried out documentary research and open data survey of sociodemographic, environmental, economic, and health aspects of these locations and population groups. Also, descriptive, interrupted time series and documentary analyses were integrated. Among the results, collected documents and data point to the lack of preventive or mitigating actions for priority groups. Significant changes in hospital admissions for older adults were observed for some groups of causes. We conclude that institutional learning based on collective construction is required to corroborate the disruption of the disaster repetitive cycle.


Assuntos
Desastres , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4483-4496, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730637

RESUMO

In 2020, the 30th anniversary of the publication of the Organic Laws of the Unified Health System was celebrated. Since then, the change in the profile of morbidity and mortality has been a challenge to management to ensure that the health services can attend the significant heterogeneity of approximately 6,000 municipalities. To achieve this, it is necessary to monitor the leading indicators of the country. The scope of this study was to present an overview of trends in mortality and morbidity in Brazil between 1990 and 2019. Data from the Study on the Global Burden of Disease was used to describe morbidity and mortality by major groupings (infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and external causes), according to gender and age groups. There was a reduction in morbidity and mortality in the period, irrespective of the cause or age group, albeit with a varied difference between the sexes depending on the cause. The contribution of chronic diseases increases with age, with a marked difference according to gender. The curves for mortality and years lost due to disability have a typical profile, with a different pattern of curves for men due to external causes, with marked excess mortality at young ages. The trend confirms the decline of indicators in a linear manner over the period.


Assuntos
Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Doenças Transmissíveis , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Mortalidade
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4665-4680, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730653

RESUMO

This article aims to describe the epidemiological profile and the spatial distribution of deaths and confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the health macroregion of Western Bahia. An ecological study on the inland expansion of SARS-CoV-2 was performed from March 21, 2020 to March 31, 2021 considering incidence and mortality rate, case fatality rate, case density and moving average of cases and deaths. 37,036 cases and 536 confirmed deaths were registered. Of all cases, 94.5% recovered and 4.0% remained active. The incidence rate was 3884.1/100,000 inhabitants, the mortality rate 56.2/100,000 inhabitants and the fatality rate was 1.4% A predominance of very high and high intensity of the occurrence of COVID-19 in the macroregion was identified and moving average revealed an increasing trend. Findings show a high risk of infection and death in the macroregion, in addition to a growing trend in accumulated cases, confirming the inland expansion of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espacial
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4681-4691, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730654

RESUMO

We analyzed the social isolation relaxation strategies adopted by the twelve biggest Brazilian cities in 2020, in relation to the number of cases, number of deaths and the effective reproduction number (Rt), which are internationally considered the fundamental epidemiological criteria for allowing wider population mobility in public spaces. The Brazilian central government has not set unique guidelines neither for closure nor for opening, and states and cities have taken the lead in strategy definition. Until July 31 2020, in Belém do Pará, Fortaleza, Manaus, Recife and Rio de Janeiro, where the epidemic peak had already been surpassed, and in Salvador and São Paulo, in which the peak seemed to be already reached, the Rt curve followed a decreasing path after the openings. Porto Alegre, a city in which the epidemic curve was flattened, had an increase in Rt after the start of relaxation. In Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba and Goiânia, where the curve was also flattened, the Rt remained stable after the opening. The decision on how to operationalize the relaxation of social isolation and the speed with which it happened was heterogeneous among the cities studied. Also, broad population testing strategies were not done in any of the cities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Número Básico de Reprodução , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4703-4714, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730656

RESUMO

This paper analyzes crime reports and police activity in Rio de Janeiro during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate there was an overall drop in crime rates starting in April, especially in property crimes, which plummet to extremely unusual levels when compared with previous patterns. This pattern is most likely associated with an unprecedented decline in public mobility in some areas of the state. We show that the most significant reductions in street robberies occurred in neighborhoods where there was a greater decline in presence on the streets. Measures of police activity, in particular drug seizures and different types of arrests, displayed a reduction comparable with the drop in criminal indicators. In contrast, the number of police killings followed a unique pattern: in April, immediately after the adoption of social distance measures, this indicator increased above the average from the previous four years; as of May, however, it assumed a downward trend, which turned into extraordinarily low levels in June. The extreme variation in the use of force by the police during the pandemic reinforces the documented dissonance between police lethality and criminal dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, shedding light on the mechanisms that regulate police violence in the state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Crime , Humanos , Polícia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4749-4759, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730660

RESUMO

This article aims to assess the association between being a prisoner or homeless and treatment failure in cases of tuberculosis diagnosed in Brazil in 2015. We examined cases of tuberculosis in prisoners and the homeless in Brazil in 2015 reported to the national notifiable diseases information system using descriptive analysis and logistic regression. There were 82,056 cases of tuberculosis in 2015. Of these, 7,462 (10.3%) were prisoners and 2,782 (3.9%) were homeless. The rate of treatment success in prisoners was 78.6%, while the rate of failure in the homeless was 63.2%. Being a prisoner was a protective factor against treatment failure (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95%CI 0.63-0.73), while being homeless was a risk factor for treatment failure (adjusted odds ratio 2.38, 95%CI 2.17-2.61). Treatment success and failure rates differed between prisoners and the homeless. Our findings reinforce the need for public health policies tailored to the specific needs of these groups implemented in conjunction with social services and public security agencies in order to have a significant impact on TB incidence.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Prisioneiros , Tuberculose , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4795-4804, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730664

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal trend of suicide mortality in women in the states of Northeastern Brazil. This is an ecological study of a time series stratified by states in Northeast Brazil from 1996 to 2018, with data extracted from the Mortality Information System (SIM). The temporal trend was evaluated by negative binomial regression (p values≤0.05). There was a higher proportion of deaths in black and brown women (73.9%), single (57.3%), with the place of death occurring in the home (53.4%). Hanging and strangulation stood out as the perpetration means (47.6%). Most states showed an upward temporal trend, except for Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe and Maranhão, which showed a steady trend (p>0.05). An upward temporal trend was identified in the analysis of deaths by suicide in women in five states in northeastern Brazil between 1996 and 2018. The information presented can support planning and decision-making for the prevention of suicide among women in northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Asfixia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Mortalidade
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the space-time evolution of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in the Rio de Janeiro municipality, Brazil, during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: An ecological study was carried out. The units of analysis were the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Incidence and mortality rates, excess risk, Global Moran's Index (Moran's I), local indicator for spatial association, standardized incidence ratio, and standardized mortality ratio were estimated for neighborhoods in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: Over the first year of the pandemic, registries in the city of Rio de Janeiro included 204,888 cases and 19,017 deaths due to COVID-19. During the first three months of the pandemic, higher incidence rates were verified in the municipality compared with the state of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil, in addition to higher mortality rates compared with the state of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil from May 2020 to February 2021. Bonsucesso was the neighborhood with the highest incidence and mortality rates, and throughout the neighborhoods and months, there is no synchrony between the worst moments of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The authors emphasize the need for implementing more rigid control and prevention measures, increasing case detection, and accelerating the COVID-19 immunization campaign.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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