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1.
J Exp Med ; 220(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342455

RESUMO

Inborn and acquired deficits of type I interferon (IFN) immunity predispose to life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. We longitudinally profiled the B cell response to mRNA vaccination in SARS-CoV-2 naive patients with inherited TLR7, IRF7, or IFNAR1 deficiency, as well as young patients with autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs due to autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) and older individuals with age-associated autoantibodies to type I IFNs. The receptor-binding domain spike protein (RBD)-specific memory B cell response in all patients was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to healthy donors. Sustained germinal center responses led to accumulation of somatic hypermutations in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. The amplitude and duration of, and viral neutralization by, RBD-specific IgG serological response were also largely unaffected by TLR7, IRF7, or IFNAR1 deficiencies up to 7 mo after vaccination in all patients. These results suggest that induction of type I IFN is not required for efficient generation of a humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 by mRNA vaccines.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Autoanticorpos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Vacinação , Vacinas de mRNA , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/deficiência
2.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 121(1): e202202595, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984671

RESUMO

Introduction. In Argentina, health care workers have been the first ones to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, but there are still few data on the production of anti-S IgG antibodies. Objectives. To assess specific IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S IgG) after the vaccination of health care workers from a children's hospital. To explore the association between the presence of these antibodies, age, and history of prior infection. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study in 193 workers who received both doses of the two- component Sputnik V vaccine. The anti-S IgG antibody titer was measured and age, history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and date of vaccination were recorded. Results. Anti-S IgG antibodies were produced in 98.6% of the subjects. The titer was higher in those with prior infection (p < 0.001), but no relationship was established with subjects' age. Conclusion. We provide data on post-vaccination production of IgG anti-S antibodies among health care workers from a children's hospital and explore some predictors.


Introducción. En Argentina, el personal de salud ha sido el primero en vacunarse contra COVID-19, pero todavía existen pocos datos sobre la producción de anticuerpos IgG anti-S. Objetivos. Evaluar IgG específica contra glicoproteína spike del SARS-CoV-2 (IgG anti-S) posvacunación en personal de un hospital pediátrico. Explorar la asociación entre presencia de dichos anticuerpos, edad y antecedente de infección previa. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal que incluyó 193 trabajadores vacunados con los dos componentes de la vacuna Sputnik V. Se pesquisó el título de IgG anti-S y se registraron edad, antecedente de infección previa por SARS-CoV-2 y fecha de la vacunación. Resultados. El 98,6 % de los sujetos generó IgG anti-S. El título fue mayor en quienes habían cursado infección previamente (p <0,001), pero no hubo relación con la edad de los sujetos. Conclusión. Aportamos datos de generación de anticuerpos IgG anti-S posvacunación en personal de salud de un hospital pediátrico y exploramos algunos predictores.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 962079, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389664

RESUMO

Despite the efficacy of antiviral drug repositioning, convalescent plasma (CP), and the currently available vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still challenging because of the ongoing emergence of certain new SARS-CoV-2 strains known as variants of concern (VOCs). Mutations occurring within the viral genome, characterized by these new emerging VOCs, confer on them the ability to efficiently resist and escape natural and vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Consequently, these VOCs have enhanced infectivity, increasing their stable spread in a given population with an important fatality rate. While the humoral immune escape process is well documented, the evasion mechanisms of VOCs from cellular immunity are not well elaborated. In this review, we discussed how SARS-CoV-2 VOCs adapt inside host cells and escape anti-COVID-19 cellular immunity, focusing on the effect of specific SARS-CoV-2 mutations in hampering the activation of CD8+ T-cell immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , COVID-19 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
4.
Cell Syst ; 13(11): 924-931.e4, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323307

RESUMO

Male sex is a major risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. To understand the basis for this sex difference, we studied SARS-CoV-2 infection in a young adult cohort of United States Marine recruits. Among 2,641 male and 244 female unvaccinated and seronegative recruits studied longitudinally, SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in 1,033 males and 137 females. We identified sex differences in symptoms, viral load, blood transcriptome, RNA splicing, and proteomic signatures. Females had higher pre-infection expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) programs. Causal mediation analysis implicated ISG differences in number of symptoms, levels of ISGs, and differential splicing of CD45 lymphocyte phosphatase during infection. Our results indicate that the antiviral innate immunity set point causally contributes to sex differences in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Imunidade Inata , Caracteres Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferons , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cell Rep ; 41(7): 111650, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335937

RESUMO

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concerns (VOCs) continue to emerge, cross-neutralizing antibody responses become key toward next-generation design of a more universal COVID-19 vaccine. By analyzing published data from the literature, we report here that the combination of germline genes IGHV2-5/IGLV2-14 represents a public antibody response to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that potently cross-neutralizes a broad range of VOCs, including Omicron and its sub-lineages. Detailed molecular analysis shows that the complementarity-determining region H3 sequences of IGHV2-5/IGLV2-14-encoded RBD antibodies have a preferred length of 11 amino acids and a conserved HxIxxI motif. In addition, these antibodies have a strong allelic preference due to an allelic polymorphism at amino acid residue 54 of IGHV2-5, which is located at the paratope. These findings have important implications for understanding cross-neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its heterogenicity at the population level as well as the development of a universal COVID-19 vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366559

RESUMO

New variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to evolve. The novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) B.1.1.529 (Omicron) was particularly menacing due to the presence of numerous consequential mutations. In this study, we reviewed about 12 million SARS-CoV-2 genomic and associated metadata using extensive bioinformatic approaches to understand how evolutionary and mutational changes affect Omicron variant properties. Subsampled global data based analysis of molecular clock in the phylogenetic tree showed 29.56 substitutions per year as the evolutionary rate of five VOCs. We observed extensive mutational changes in the spike structural protein of the Omicron variant. A total of 20% of 7230 amino acid and structural changes exclusive to Omicron's spike protein were detected in the receptor binding domain (RBD), suggesting differential selection pressures exerted during evolution. Analyzing key drug targets revealed mutation-derived differential binding affinities between Delta and Omicron variants. Nine single-RBD substitutions were detected within the binding site of approved therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. T-cell epitope prediction revealed eight immunologically important functional hotspots in three conserved non-structural proteins. A universal vaccine based on these regions may likely protect against all these SARS-CoV-2 variants. We observed key structural changes in the spike protein, which decreased binding affinities, indicating that these changes may help the virus escape host cellular immunity. These findings emphasize the need for continuous genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 to better understand how novel mutations may impact viral spread and disease outcome.


Assuntos
Antivirais , COVID-19 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
9.
N Engl J Med ; 387(18): 1673-1687, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccine in young children are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned young children (6 months to 5 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two 25-µg injections of mRNA-1273 or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety and reactogenicity of the vaccine and to determine whether the immune response in these children was noninferior to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives were to determine the incidences of Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection after administration of mRNA-1273 or placebo. RESULTS: On the basis of safety and immunogenicity results in part 1 of the trial, the 25-µg dose was evaluated in part 2. In part 2, 3040 children 2 to 5 years of age and 1762 children 6 to 23 months of age were randomly assigned to receive two 25-µg injections of mRNA-1273; 1008 children 2 to 5 years of age and 593 children 6 to 23 months of age were randomly assigned to receive placebo. The median duration of follow-up after the second injection was 71 days in the 2-to-5-year-old cohort and 68 days in the 6-to-23-month-old cohort. Adverse events were mainly low-grade and transient, and no new safety concerns were identified. At day 57, neutralizing antibody geometric mean concentrations were 1410 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1272 to 1563) among 2-to-5-year-olds and 1781 (95% CI, 1616 to 1962) among 6-to-23-month-olds, as compared with 1391 (95% CI, 1263 to 1531) among young adults, who had received 100-µg injections of mRNA-1273, findings that met the noninferiority criteria for immune responses for both age cohorts. The estimated vaccine efficacy against Covid-19 was 36.8% (95% CI, 12.5 to 54.0) among 2-to-5-year-olds and 50.6% (95% CI, 21.4 to 68.6) among 6-to-23-month-olds, at a time when B.1.1.529 (omicron) was the predominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 25-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe in children 6 months to 5 years of age and elicited immune responses that were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Assuntos
Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/imunologia , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Eficácia de Vacinas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233174

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the dynamic changes of the total Natural Killer (NK) cells and different NK subpopulations according to their differentiated expression of CD16/CD56 in COVID-19 patients. Blood samples with EDTA were analyzed on day 1 (admission moment), day 5, and day 10 for the NK subtypes. At least 30,000 singlets were collected for each sample and white blood cells were gated in CD45/SSC and CD16/CD56 dot plots of fresh human blood. From the lymphocyte singlets, the NK cells subpopulations were analyzed based on the differentiated expression of surface markers and classified as follows: CD16-CD56+/++/CD16+CD56++/CD16+CD56+/CD16++CD56-. By examining the CD56 versus CD16 flow cytometry dot plots, we found four distinct NK sub-populations. These NK subtypes correspond to different NK phenotypes from secretory to cytolytic ones. There was no difference between total NK percentage of different disease forms. However, the total numbers decreased significantly both in survivors and non-survivors. Additionally, for the CD16-CD56+/++ phenotype, we observed different patterns, gradually decreasing in survivors and gradually increasing in those with fatal outcomes. Despite no difference in the proportion of the CD16-CD56++ NK cells in survivors vs. non-survivors, the main cytokine producers gradually decline during the study period in the survival group, underling the importance of adequate IFN production during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persistency in the circulation of CD56++ NK cells may have prognostic value in patients, with a fatal outcome. Total NK cells and the CD16+CD56+ NK subtypes exhibit significant decreasing trends across the moments for both survivors and non-survivors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Células Matadoras Naturais , Antígeno CD56/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/classificação , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264829

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Células B de Memória/imunologia
12.
Hum Immunol ; 83(12): 797-802, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229378

RESUMO

Differences in outcome to COVID-19 infection in different individuals is largely attributed to genetic heterogeneity leading to differential immune responses across individuals and populations. HLA is one such genetic factor that varies across individuals leading to differences in how T-cell responses are triggered against SARS-CoV-2, directly influencing disease susceptibility. HLA alleles that influence COVID-19 outcome, by virtue of epitope binding and presentation, have been identified in cohorts worldwide. However, the heterogeneity in HLA distribution across ethnic groups limits the generality of such association. In this study, we address this limitation by comparing the recognition of CTL epitopes across HLA genotypes and ethnic groups. Using HLA allele frequency data for ethnic groups from Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND), we construct synthetic populations for each ethnic group and show that CTL epitope strength varies across HLA genotypes and populations. We also observe that HLA genotypes, in certain cases, can have high CTL epitope strengths in the absence of top-responsive HLA alleles. Finally, we show that the theoretical estimate of responsiveness and hence protection offered by a HLA allele is bound to vary across ethnic groups, due to the influence of other HLA alleles within the HLA genotype on CTL epitope recognition. This emphasizes the need for studying HLA-disease associations at the genotype level rather than at a single allele level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antígenos HLA , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Humanos , Alelos , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Etnicidade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2352-2355, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191630

RESUMO

We assessed cross-reactivity to BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 of neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Primary infection elicited homologous antibodies with poor cross-reactivity to Omicron strains. This pattern remained after BA.1 challenge, although ancestral- and Delta-infected mice were protected from BA.1 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Reações Cruzadas
16.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(11): 1302-1310, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224497

RESUMO

Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have enhanced transmissibility and immune evasion with respect to current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). How naturally occurring spike mutations affect the infectivity and antigenicity of VOCs remains to be investigated. The entry efficiency of individual spike mutations was determined in vitro using pseudotyped viruses. BALB/c mice were immunized with 2-dose DNA vaccines encoding B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.1.529  and their single mutations. Cellular and humoral immune responses were then compared to determine the impact of individual mutations on immunogenicity. In the B.1.1.7 lineage, Del69-70 and Del 144 in NTD, A570D and P681H in SD1 and S982A and D1118H in S2 significantly increased viral entry, whereas T716I resulted in a decrease. In the B.1.351 lineage, L18F and Del 242-244 in the NTD, K417N in the RBD and A701V in S2 also increased viral entry. S982A weakened the generation of binding antibodies. All sera showed reduced cross-neutralization activity against B.1.351, B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron BA.1). S982A, L18F, and Del 242-244 hindered the induction of cross-NAbs, whereas Del 69-70, Del144, R246I, and K417N showed the opposite effects. B.1.351 elicited adequate broad cross-NAbs against both B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. All immunogens tested, however, showed low neutralization against circulating B.1.1.529. In addition, T-cell responses were unlikely affected by mutations tested in the spike. We conclude that individual spike mutations influence viral infectivity and vaccine immunogenicity. Designing VOC-targeted vaccines is likely necessary to overcome immune evasion from current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
17.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298854

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) show higher rates of COVID-19 breakthrough infection than the general population, and nowadays, vaccination is the key preventative strategy. Nonetheless, SOTRs show lower vaccine efficacy for the prevention of severe COVID-19. Moreover, the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has highlighted the need to improve vaccine-induced immune responses by the administration of repeated booster doses. In this study, we analyzed the humoral and cellular responses in a cohort of 25 SOTRs, including 15 never-infected SOTRs who received the fourth dose of the mRNA vaccine and 10 SOTRs who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection after the third dose. We analyzed the serum IgG and IgA levels through CLIA or ELISA, respectively, and the Spike-specific T cells by ELISpot assay. We report a significant increase in anti-Spike IgG and no differences in IgA secretion in both groups of patients before and after the booster dose or the natural infection. Still, we show higher IgA levels in recovered SOTRs compared to the fourth dose recipients. Conversely, we show the maintenance of a positive Spike-specific T-cell response in SOTRs who received the fourth dose, which, instead, was significantly increased in SOTRs who contracted the infection. Our results suggest that the booster, either through the fourth dose or natural infection, in vulnerable poor responder SOTRs, improves both humoral and cellular-specific immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Transplantados , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 78: 102252, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215931

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic one year after the centennial of the 1918 influenza pandemic reaffirms the catastrophic impact respiratory viruses can have on global health and economy. A key feature of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A viruses (IAV) is their remarkable ability to suppress or dysregulate human immune responses. Here, we summarize the growing knowledge about the interplay of SARS-CoV-2 and antiviral innate immunity, with an emphasis on the regulation of type-I or -III interferon responses that are critically implicated in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Furthermore, we draw parallels to IAV infection and discuss shared innate immune sensing mechanisms and the respective viral countermeasures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
19.
Science ; 378(6616): 128-131, 2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227990

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 wields versatile proteins to foil our immune system's counterattack.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Virais , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
20.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1805-1809, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies against coronavirus disease-2019 in post-infection and post-vaccinated individuals. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June, 1 to July 31, 2021 at the Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised subjects of either gender in whom immunogenicity was checked 35 days post-vaccination and 90 days post-infection. Correlation with age and gender was checked. Specimens were collected and investigated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies by consuming electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the total 256 patients enrolled, 70(27.34%) were included; 49(69%) males and 21(29.6%) females. The overall mean age was 44±7.75 years. Among 30(42.8%) patients with positive polymerase chain reaction test, the mean time between the positive test and antibody screening was 90±30 days. Among the 40(57.2%) vaccinated individuals, the time between vaccination and antibody screening was 35±9.74 days. Overall, 68(97%) patients revealed robust positive findings to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike proteins antibodies >50IU/mL. Male subjects had significantly higher immunogenic response compared to females (p=0.001), and immunogenicity decreased with advancing age (p<0.001). Also, post-vaccinated patients' antibody response was significant compared to post-infection patients' response (p=0.001). Conclusion: Majority of the patients had significantly higher antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 post-infection and post-vaccination. Males and younger individuals developed a significant humoral immunity compared to females and the elderly.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinação , Fatores Etários , Fatores Sexuais
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