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2.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the association between severe obesity and in-hospital mortality is inconsistent. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) levels on mortality in the medical wards. The analysis was performed separately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of adult patients admitted to the medical wards at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. The study was conducted between January 1, 2011, to March 23, 2021. Patients were divided into two sub-cohorts: pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19. Patients were then clustered into groups based on BMI ranges. A multivariate logistic regression analysis compared the mortality rate among the BMI groups, before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 179,288 patients were admitted to the medical wards and had a recorded BMI measurement. 149,098 were admitted before the COVID-19 pandemic and 30,190 during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic, multivariate analysis showed a "J curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity (BMI > 40) had an aOR of 0.8 (95% CI:0.7-1.0, p = 0.018) compared to the normal BMI group. In contrast, during the pandemic, the analysis showed a "U curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity had an aOR of 1.7 (95% CI:1.3-2.4, p < 0.001) compared to the normal BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Medical ward patients with severe obesity have a lower risk for mortality compared to patients with normal BMI. However, this does not apply during COVID-19, where obesity was a leading risk factor for mortality in the medical wards. It is important for the internal medicine physician to understand the intricacies of the association between obesity and medical ward mortality.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 37-41, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and cut-off values of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum ferritin, and D-dimer for predicting mortality of COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from January to May 2021. METHODOLOGY: Serum CRP, LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer were measured in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection at admission. Patients were followed for in-hospital disease outcome. ROC curve was used to determine area under curve (AUC) and cut-off values of biomarkers, followed by multi-variate analysis by logistic regression. RESULTS: In 386 patients, male to female ratio was 1.47/1 (230/156); and mean age was 54.03 ± 16.2 years. Disease was fatal in 135 (35%) patients. AUC for mortality was 0.730 for LDH, 0.737 for CRP, 0.747 for ferritin and 0.758 for D-dimer. Mortality was higher with LDH ≥400 U/ml, Odds Ratio (OR) 5.37 (95% CI 3.01-9.57: p = 0.001), CRP ≥30 ng/L, OR 4.30 (95% CI 2.11-8.74: p = <0.001), serum ferritin ≥200 ng/ml, OR 4.13 (95% CI 1.05-16.2: p = 0.02), and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml, OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.06-7.01: p = 0.03) with 2 log likelihood of 131.54 for predicting disease outcome with 71.7% accuracy in multi-variate analysis. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum CRP, LDH, ferritin and D-dimer are associated with higher mortality in patients of COVID-19 infection. Serum CRP ≥30ng/ml, LDH ≥400 U/L, ferritin ≥200 ng/ml and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml can predict fatal outcome in COVID-19 patients. Key Words: C-reactive protein (CRP), COVID-19 infection, D-dimer, Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Mortality.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262352, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection has been hypothesized to precipitate venous and arterial clotting events more frequently than other illnesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We demonstrate this increased risk of blood clots by comparing rates of venous and arterial clotting events in 4400 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a large multisite clinical network in the United States examined from April through June of 2020, to patients hospitalized for non-COVID illness and influenza during the same time period and in 2019. RESULTS: We demonstrate that COVID-19 increases the risk of venous thrombosis by two-fold compared to the general inpatient population and compared to people with influenza infection. Arterial and venous thrombosis were both common occurrences among patients with COVID-19 infection. Risk factors for thrombosis included male gender, older age, and diabetes. Patients with venous or arterial thrombosis had high rates of admission to the ICU, re-admission to the hospital, and death. CONCLUSION: Given the ongoing scientific discussion about the impact of clotting on COVID-19 disease progression, these results highlight the need to further elucidate the role of anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients, particularly outside the intensive care unit setting. Additionally, concerns regarding clotting and COVID-19 vaccines highlight the importance of addressing the alarmingly high rate of clotting events during actual COVID-19 infection when weighing the risks and benefits of vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , New Jersey , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003870, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess mortality captures the total effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mortality and is not affected by misspecification of cause of death. We aimed to describe how health and demographic factors were associated with excess mortality during, compared to before, the pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a time series dataset including 9,635,613 adults (≥40 years old) registered at United Kingdom general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We extracted weekly numbers of deaths and numbers at risk between March 2015 and July 2020, stratified by individual-level factors. Excess mortality during Wave 1 of the UK pandemic (5 March to 27 May 2020) compared to the prepandemic period was estimated using seasonally adjusted negative binomial regression models. Relative rates (RRs) of death for a range of factors were estimated before and during Wave 1 by including interaction terms. We found that all-cause mortality increased by 43% (95% CI 40% to 47%) during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. Changes to the RR of death associated with most sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were small during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. However, the mortality RR associated with dementia markedly increased (RR for dementia versus no dementia prepandemic: 3.5, 95% CI 3.4 to 3.5; RR during Wave 1: 5.1, 4.9 to 5.3); a similar pattern was seen for learning disabilities (RR prepandemic: 3.6, 3.4 to 3.5; during Wave 1: 4.8, 4.4 to 5.3), for black or South Asian ethnicity compared to white, and for London compared to other regions. Relative risks for morbidities were stable in multiple sensitivity analyses. However, a limitation of the study is that we cannot assume that the risks observed during Wave 1 would apply to other waves due to changes in population behaviour, virus transmission, and risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the UK COVID-19 pandemic appeared to amplify baseline mortality risk to approximately the same relative degree for most population subgroups. However, disproportionate increases in mortality were seen for those with dementia, learning disabilities, non-white ethnicity, or living in London.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/epidemiologia , Veteranos
7.
Cytokine ; 149: 155727, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is the hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multiple organ failure may develop in severe disease. TNFα receptors in their soluble form (sTNFR) are involved in the immune cascade in other systemic inflammatory processes such as septic shock, and could mediate the inflammatory activation of distant organs. The aim of this study is to analyse plasma levels of sTNFR 1 and 2 in association with organ failure and outcome in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: After informed consent, we included 122 adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 at ICU admission. Demographic data, illness severity scores, organ failure and survival at 30 days were collected. Plasma sTNFR 1 and 2 levels were quantified during the first days after ICU admission. Twenty-five healthy blood donors were used as control group. RESULTS: Levels of sTNFR were higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). Plasma levels of sTNFR were associated to illness severity scores (SAPS 3 and SOFA), inflammation biomarkers such as IL-6, ferritin and PCT as well as development of AKI during ICU stay. sTNFR 1 higher than 2.29 ng/mL and? sTNFR 2 higher than 11.7 ng/mL were identified as optimal cut-offs to discriminate survivors and non-survivors 30 days after ICU admission and had an area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75 and 0.67 respectively. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of sTNFR 1 and 2 were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls and were strongly associated with other inflammatory biomarkers, severity of illness and acute kidney injury development during ICU stay. In addition, sTNFR 1 was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality after adjustment for age and respiratory failure.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/mortalidade , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 165-168, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936401

RESUMO

Objectives. To test whether distortions in the age distribution of deaths can track pandemic activity. Methods. We compared weekly distributions of all-cause deaths by age during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States from March to December 2020 with corresponding prepandemic weekly baseline distributions derived from data for 2015 to 2019. We measured distortions via Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) and χ2 goodness-of-fit statistics as well as deaths among individuals aged 65 years or older as a percentage of total deaths (PERC65+). We computed bivariate correlations between these measures and the number of recorded COVID-19 deaths for the corresponding weeks. Results. Elevated COVID-19-associated fatalities were accompanied by greater distortions in the age structure of mortality. Distortions in the age distribution of weekly US COVID-19 deaths in 2020 relative to earlier years were highly correlated with COVID fatalities (K-S: r = 0.71, P < .001; χ2: r = 0.90, P < .001; PERC65+: r = 0.85, P < .001). Conclusions. A population-representative sample of age-at-death data can serve as a useful means of pandemic activity surveillance when precise cause-of-death data are incomplete, inaccurate, or unavailable, as is often the case in low-resource environments. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):165-168. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306567).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatística como Assunto , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 154-164, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936406

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on overall, race/ethnicity‒specific, and age-specific mortality in 2020 in the United States. Methods. Using surveillance data, we modeled expected mortality, compared it to observed mortality, and estimated the share of "excess" mortality that was indirectly attributable to the pandemic versus directly attributed to COVID-19. We present absolute risks and proportions of total pandemic-related mortality, stratified by race/ethnicity and age. Results. We observed 16.6 excess deaths per 10 000 US population in 2020; 84% were directly attributed to COVID-19. The indirect effects of the pandemic accounted for 16% of excess mortality, with proportions as low as 0% among adults aged 85 years and older and more than 60% among those aged 15 to 44 years. Indirect causes accounted for a higher proportion of excess mortality among racially minoritized groups (e.g., 32% among Black Americans and 23% among Native Americans) compared with White Americans (11%). Conclusions. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality and health disparities are underestimated when only deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 are considered. An equitable public health response to the pandemic should also consider its indirect effects on mortality. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):154-164. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306541).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Estatística como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Public Health ; 202: 84-92, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of in-hospital mortality among diabetic patients infected with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using logistic regression analysis, the independent association of potential prognostic factors and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality was investigated in three models. Model 1 included demographic data and patient history; model 2 consisted of model 1, plus vital signs and pulse oximetry measurements at hospital admission; and model 3 included model 2, plus laboratory test results at hospital admission. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were reported for each predictor in the different models. Moreover, to examine the discriminatory powers of the models, a corrected area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated. RESULTS: Among 560 patients with diabetes (men = 291) who were hospitalised for COVID-19, the mean age of the study population was 61.8 (standard deviation [SD] 13.4) years. During a median length of hospitalisation of 6 days, 165 deaths (men = 93) were recorded. In model 1, age and a history of cognitive impairment were associated with higher mortality; however, taking statins, oral antidiabetic drugs and beta-blockers was associated with a lower risk of mortality (AUC = 0.76). In model 2, adding the data for respiratory rate (OR 1.07 [95% CI 1.00-1.14]) and oxygen saturation (OR 0.95 [95% CI 0.92-0.98]) slightly increased the AUC to 0.80. In model 3, the data for platelet count (OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.99-1.00]), lactate dehydrogenase (OR 1.002 [95% CI 1.001-1.003]), potassium (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.33-3.08]) and fasting plasma glucose (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.02-1.07]) significantly improved the discriminatory power of the model to AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.83-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, a combination of past medical and drug history and pulse oximetry data, with four non-expensive laboratory measures, was significantly associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(1): 14-20, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using the National Child Mortality Database (NCMD), this work aims to investigate and quantify the characteristics of children dying of COVID-19, and to identify any changes in rate of childhood mortality during the pandemic. DESIGN: We compared the characteristics of the children who died in 2020, split by SARS-CoV-2 status. A negative binomial regression model was used to compare mortality rates in lockdown (23 March-28 June), with those children who died in the preceding period (6 January-22 March), as well as a comparable period in 2019. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Children (0-17 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics and number of the children who died in 2020, split by SARS-CoV-2 status. RESULTS: 1550 deaths of children between 6th of January and 28 June 2020 were notified to the NCMD; 437 of the deaths were linked to SARS-CoV-2 virology records, 25 (5.7%) had a positive PCR result. PCR-positive children were less likely to be white (37.5% vs 69.4%, p=0.003) and were older (12.2 vs 0.7 years, p<0.0006) compared with child deaths without evidence of the virus. All-cause mortality rates were similar during lockdown compared with both the period before lockdown in 2020 (rate ratio (RR) 0.93 (0.84 to 1.02)) and a similar period in 2019 (RR 1.02 (0.92 to 1.13)). CONCLUSIONS: There is little to suggest that there has been excess mortality during the period of lockdown. The apparent higher frequency of SARS-CoV-2-positive tests among children from black, Asian and minority ethnic groups is consistent with findings in adults. Ongoing surveillance is essential as the pandemic continues.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Epidemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Quarentena
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 372-379, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559436

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by dysregulated hyperimmune response and steroids have been shown to decrease mortality. However, whether higher dosing of steroids results in better outcomes has been debated. This was a retrospective observation of COVID-19 admissions between March 1, 2020, and March 10, 2021. Adult patients (≥18 years) who received more than 10 mg daily methylprednisolone equivalent dosing (MED) within the first 14 days were included. We excluded patients who were discharged or died within 7 days of admission. We compared the standard dose of steroids (<40 mg MED) versus the high dose of steroids (>40 mg MED). Inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) was used to examine whether higher dose steroids resulted in improved outcomes. The outcomes studied were in-hospital mortality, rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), hospital-associated infections (HAI), and readmissions. Of the 1379 patients meeting study criteria, 506 received less than 40 mg of MED (median dose 30 mg MED) and 873 received more than or equal to 40 mg of MED (median dose 78 mg MED). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in patients who received high-dose corticosteroids (40.7% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001). On IPWRA, the use of high-dose corticosteroids was associated with higher odds of death (odds ratio [OR] 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-3.14, p < 0.001) but not with the development of HAI, readmissions, or requirement of IMV. High-dose corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of AKI requiring hemodialysis (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.63). In COVID-19, corticosteroids more than or equal to 40 mg MED were associated with higher in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tracheostomy is an aerosol-generating procedure, thus performing it during the COVID-19 pandemic arises considerations such as the most appropriate timing and the patients to whom it is suitable. Medical teams lack sufficient data to assist determining whether or not to conduct tracheostomy, its short- and long-term implications are not fully understood. This study aims to shed light on the critically ill COVID-19 patients that require tracheostomy, and to investigate its value. METHODS: A retrospective multicentral case-control study of 157 hospitalized critically ill COVID-19 patients, among whom 30 patients went through tracheostomy and consisted of our study group. RESULTS: The mean age was similar between study and control groups (68.9 ± 12.7 years vs 70.5 ± 15.8 years, p = 0.57), as well as comorbidity prevalence (56.7% vs 67.7%, p = 0.25). Patients in the study group were hospitalized for longer duration until defined critically ill (5 ± 4.3 vs 3 ± 3.9 days; p = 0.01), until admitted to the intensive care unit (6 ± 6.6 vs 2.5 ± 3.7 days respectively; p = 0.005), and until discharged (24 ± 9.7 vs 10.7 ± 9.1 days, p < 0.001). Mortality rate was lower in the study group (30% vs 59.8%, p = 0.003). Kaplan Meier survival analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in survival time between groups (Log rank chi-sq = 20.91, p < 0.001) with mean survival time of 41 ± 3.1 days vs 21 ± 2.2 days. Survival was significantly longer in the study group (OR = 0.37, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy allows for more prolonged survival for gradually deteriorating critically ill COVID-19 patients. This should be integrated into the medical teams' considerations when debating whether or not to conduct tracheostomy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Traqueostomia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 384-387, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406670

RESUMO

The antiviral remdesivir has been shown to decrease the length of hospital stay in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring supplemental oxygen. However many patients decompensate despite being treated with remdesivir. To identify potential prognostic factors in remdesivir-treated patients, we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center between March 23, 2020 and May 27, 2020. We identified 55 patients who were treated with remdesivir for COVID-19 and analyzed inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes. C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in patients who progressed to intubation or death by 14 days compared to those who remained stable. CRP levels decreased significantly after remdesivir administration in patients who remained nonintubated over the study period. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date examining inflammatory markers before and after remdesivir administration. Our findings support further investigation into COVID-19 treatment strategies that modify the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 147-153, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411312

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study performed at Toyama University Hospital included consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. RNAemia was detected in 19.6% (11/56) patients on admission, and subsequently in 1.0% (1/25), 50.0% (6/12), and 100.0% (4/4) moderate, severe, and critically ill patients, respectively. Patients with RNAemia required more frequent oxygen supplementation (90.0% vs. 13.3%), ICU admission (81.8% vs. 6.7%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (27.3% vs. 0.0%). Among patients with RNAemia, the median viral loads of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were collected around the same time as the serum sample were significantly higher in critically ill (5.4 log10 copies/µl; interquartile range [IQR]: 4.2-6.3) than in moderate-severe cases (2.6 log10 copies/µl; [IQR: 1.1-4.5]; p = 0.030) and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (6.2 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 6.0-6.5]) than in survivors (3.9 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 1.6-4.6]; p = 0.045). This study demonstrated a relatively high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity. Moreover, among the patients with RNAemia, the viral loads of NP swabs were correlated with disease severity and mortality, suggesting the potential utility of combining serum testing with NP tests as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19, with higher quality than each separate test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Viremia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 197-204, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427922

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had different waves within the same country. The spread rate and severity showed different properties within the COVID-19 different waves. The present work aims to compare the spread and the severity of the different waves using the available data of confirmed COVID-19 cases and death cases. Real-data sets collected from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science were used to perform a comparative study between COVID-19 different waves in 12 countries with the highest total performed tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 detection in the world (Italy, Brazil, Japan, Germany, Spain, India, USA, UAE, Poland, Colombia, Turkey, and Switzerland). The total number of confirmed cases and death cases in different waves of COVID-19 were compared to that of the previous one for equivalent periods. The total number of death cases in each wave was presented as a percentage of the total number of confirmed cases for the same periods. In all the selected 12 countries, Wave 2 had a much higher number of confirmed cases than that in Wave 1. However, the death cases increase was not comparable with that of the confirmed cases to the extent that some countries had lower death cases than in Wave 1, UAE, and Spain. The death cases as a percentage of the total number of confirmed cases in Wave 1 were much higher than that in Wave 2. Some countries have had Waves 3 and 4. Waves 3 and 4 have had lower confirmed cases than Wave 2, however, the death cases were variable in different countries. The death cases in Waves 3 and 4 were similar to or higher than Wave 2 in most countries. Wave 2 of COVID-19 had a much higher spread rate but much lower severity resulting in a lower death rate in Wave 2 compared with that of the first wave. Waves 3 and 4 have had lower confirmed cases than Wave 2; that could be due to the presence of appropriate treatment and vaccination. However, that was not reflected in the death cases, which were similar to or higher than Wave 2 in most countries. Further studies are needed to explain these findings.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Ásia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Mutação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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