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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(1): 386-408, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975340

RESUMO

Responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an unexpected and unprecedented global challenge for humanity in this century. During this crisis, specialists from the laboratories and frontline clinical personnel have made great efforts to prevent and treat COVID-19 by revealing the molecular biological characteristics and epidemic characteristics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has severe consequences for public health, including human respiratory system, immune system, blood circulation system, nervous system, motor system, urinary system, reproductive system and digestive system. In the review, we summarize the physiological and pathological damage of SARS-CoV-2 to these systems and its molecular mechanisms followed by clinical manifestation. Concurrently, the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 will be discussed in preclinical and clinical studies. With constantly unfolding and expanding scientific understanding about COVID-19, the updated information can help applied researchers understand the disease to build potential antiviral drugs or vaccines, and formulate creative therapeutic ideas for combating COVID-19 at speed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade Inata , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos
2.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the association between severe obesity and in-hospital mortality is inconsistent. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) levels on mortality in the medical wards. The analysis was performed separately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of adult patients admitted to the medical wards at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. The study was conducted between January 1, 2011, to March 23, 2021. Patients were divided into two sub-cohorts: pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19. Patients were then clustered into groups based on BMI ranges. A multivariate logistic regression analysis compared the mortality rate among the BMI groups, before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 179,288 patients were admitted to the medical wards and had a recorded BMI measurement. 149,098 were admitted before the COVID-19 pandemic and 30,190 during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic, multivariate analysis showed a "J curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity (BMI > 40) had an aOR of 0.8 (95% CI:0.7-1.0, p = 0.018) compared to the normal BMI group. In contrast, during the pandemic, the analysis showed a "U curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity had an aOR of 1.7 (95% CI:1.3-2.4, p < 0.001) compared to the normal BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Medical ward patients with severe obesity have a lower risk for mortality compared to patients with normal BMI. However, this does not apply during COVID-19, where obesity was a leading risk factor for mortality in the medical wards. It is important for the internal medicine physician to understand the intricacies of the association between obesity and medical ward mortality.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262164, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982800

RESUMO

Given the overwhelming worldwide rate of infection and the disappointing pace of vaccination, addressing reinfection is critical. Understanding reinfection, including longevity after natural infection, will allow us to better know the prospect of herd immunity, which hinges on the assumption that natural infection generates sufficient, protective immunity. The primary objective of this observational cohort study is to establish the incidence of reinfection of COVID-19 among healthcare employees who experienced a prior COVID-19 infection over a 10-month period. Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection and 540 (20.57%) experienced recurrence after prior infection. Median days were 126.50 (105.50-171.00) to reinfection and 31.50 (10.00-72.00) to recurrence. Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units. Incidence rate of COVID-19 recurrence was 1.47 cases per 1,000 person-days. This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection ≥ 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262352, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection has been hypothesized to precipitate venous and arterial clotting events more frequently than other illnesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We demonstrate this increased risk of blood clots by comparing rates of venous and arterial clotting events in 4400 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a large multisite clinical network in the United States examined from April through June of 2020, to patients hospitalized for non-COVID illness and influenza during the same time period and in 2019. RESULTS: We demonstrate that COVID-19 increases the risk of venous thrombosis by two-fold compared to the general inpatient population and compared to people with influenza infection. Arterial and venous thrombosis were both common occurrences among patients with COVID-19 infection. Risk factors for thrombosis included male gender, older age, and diabetes. Patients with venous or arterial thrombosis had high rates of admission to the ICU, re-admission to the hospital, and death. CONCLUSION: Given the ongoing scientific discussion about the impact of clotting on COVID-19 disease progression, these results highlight the need to further elucidate the role of anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients, particularly outside the intensive care unit setting. Additionally, concerns regarding clotting and COVID-19 vaccines highlight the importance of addressing the alarmingly high rate of clotting events during actual COVID-19 infection when weighing the risks and benefits of vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , New Jersey , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
6.
Cytokine ; 149: 155751, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring the COVID-19 disease are the most important topics to be studied recently. We aimed to investigate the association between midkine levels and disease severity in pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 186 pregnant women were participated in this study. 96 of them were healthy pregnant women, 90 of them were pregnant women with COVID19. Pregnant women were evaluated according to their trimesters. Serum midkine level, biochemical profile clinical and disease severity outcomes of pregnant women were obtained. RESULTS: Our results showed that pregnant women with COVID19 have significantly increased serum midkine level compared to healthy pregnant women (1.801 ± 0.977 vs 0.815 ± 0.294 ng/dL). According to the data among each trimester, it was shown that there were significant increase in serum midkine level during all pregnancy trimesters (1st trimester Control Group: 0.714 ± 0.148, COVID-19 group 1.623 ± 0.824, p < 0.0001; 2nd trimester Control Group: 0.731 ± 0.261, COVID-19 group 2.059 ± 1.146, p < 0.0001; 3rd trimester Control Group: 1.0 ± 0.35, COVID-19 group 1.723 ± 0.907, p = 0.001). Serum midkine levels were significantly different between disease severity subgroups of pregnant women with COVID19; moderate and severe/critic groups had significantly higher serum midkine level than mild group. There was also significant correlation between serum midkine level and severity status (p:0.0001, r: 0.468). The most striking results of serum midkine levels were corelation between length of hospitalization (p: 0.01, r: 0.430) and O2 saturation (p < 0.0001, r: -0.521). ROC curve analysis showed that serum midkine level might be a tool for predicting COVID-19 in pregnant women with COVID-19 (AUC: 0.912, 95% CI: [0.871, 0.952], p < 0.0001) CONCLUSION: Our data showed that there is an obvious relation between COVID19 progression and serum midkine level for the first time which might be used for monitoring the disease process.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Midkina/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
7.
Virus Res ; 307: 198618, 2022 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740719

RESUMO

The second wave of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading over the world. Mechanisms behind the flee from current antivirals are still unclear due to the continuous occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants. Brazil is the world's second-most COVID-19 affected country. In the present study, we identified the genomic and proteomic variants of Brazilian SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We identified 16 different genotypic variants were found among the 27 isolates. The genotypes of three isolates such as Bra/1236/2021 (G15), Bra/MASP2C844R2/2020 (G11), and Bra/RJ-DCVN5/2020 (G9) have a unique mutant in NSP4 (S184N), 2'O-Mutase (R216N), membrane protein (A2V) and Envelope protein (V5A). A mutation in RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, particularly the change of Pro-to Leu-at 323 resulted in the stabilization of the structure in BRA/CD1739-P4/2020. NSP4, NSP5 protein mutants are more virulent in genotype 15 and 16. A fast protein folding rate changes the structural stability and leads to escape for current antivirals. Thus, our findings help researchers to develop the best potent antivirals based on the new mutant of Brazilian isolates.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/genética , Dobramento de Proteína , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Brasil , COVID-19/patologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Virulência/genética
8.
Cytokine ; 149: 155755, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773859

RESUMO

This study analyzed the levels at admission of biomarkers for their association with and ability to predict risk of severe outcomes, including admission to the ICU, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), need for vasopressor use (VU), and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in 700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Biomarker data split by outcomes was compared using Mann-Whitney U tests; frequencies of biomarker values were compared using Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to look at the impact of biomarkers by outcome. Patients that suffered IHM were more likely to have reduced platelet numbers and high blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels among patients admitted to the ICU. Risk factors for mortality were related to hyper-coagulability (low platelet count and increased D-dimer) and decreased respiratory (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) and kidney function (BUN). Association with risks of other severe outcomes were as follows: ICU with hyper-inflammation (IL-6) and decreased respiratory function; IMV with low platelet count, abnormal neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio with reduced respiratory function, VU with inflammatory markers (IL-6), and low platelet count with respiratory function. Our studies confirmed the association of biomarkers of hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, pulmonary and kidney functions with disease severity. Whether these biomarkers have any mechanistic or causal role in the disease progress requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2018900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965194

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19.Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mesocricetus , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Cricetinae , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1129): 20210759, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a deep-learning (DL)-based algorithm using chest computed tomography (CT) scans for the rapid diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as compared to the reference standard reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, data of COVID-19 suspected patients who underwent RT-PCR and chest CT examination for the diagnosis of COVID-19 were assessed. By quantifying the affected area of the lung parenchyma, severity score was evaluated for each lobe of the lung with the DL-based algorithm. The diagnosis was based on the total lung severity score ranging from 0 to 25. The data were randomly split into a 40% training set and a 60% test set. Optimal cut-off value was determined using Youden-index method on the training cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1259 patients were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of RT-PCR positivity in the overall investigated period was 51.5%. As compared to RT-PCR, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy on the test cohort were 39.0%, 80.2%, 68.0%, 55.0% and 58.9%, respectively. Regarding the whole data set, when adding those with positive RT-PCR test at any time during hospital stay or "COVID-19 without virus detection", as final diagnosis to the true positive cases, specificity increased from 80.3% to 88.1% and the positive predictive value increased from 68.4% to 81.7%. CONCLUSION: DL-based CT severity score was found to have a good specificity and positive predictive value, as compared to RT-PCR. This standardized scoring system can aid rapid diagnosis and clinical decision making. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: DL-based CT severity score can detect COVID-19-related lung alterations even at early stages, when RT-PCR is not yet positive.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patologia , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Radiografia Torácica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22052, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862979

RESUMO

The glycocalyx surrounds every eukaryotic cell and is a complex mesh of proteins and carbohydrates. It consists of proteoglycans with glycosaminoglycan side chains, which are highly sulfated under normal physiological conditions. The degree of sulfation and the position of the sulfate groups mainly determine biological function. The intact highly sulfated glycocalyx of the epithelium may repel severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through electrostatic forces. However, if the glycocalyx is undersulfated and 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B (3OST-3B) is overexpressed, as is the case during chronic inflammatory conditions, SARS-CoV-2 entry may be facilitated by the glycocalyx. The degree of sulfation and position of the sulfate groups will also affect functions such as immune modulation, the inflammatory response, vascular permeability and tone, coagulation, mediation of sheer stress, and protection against oxidative stress. The rate-limiting factor to sulfation is the availability of inorganic sulfate. Various genetic and epigenetic factors will affect sulfur metabolism and inorganic sulfate availability, such as various dietary factors, and exposure to drugs, environmental toxins, and biotoxins, which will deplete inorganic sulfate. The role that undersulfation plays in the various comorbid conditions that predispose to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is also considered. The undersulfated glycocalyx may not only increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but would also result in a hyperinflammatory response, vascular permeability, and shedding of the glycocalyx components, giving rise to a procoagulant and antifibrinolytic state and eventual multiple organ failure. These symptoms relate to a diagnosis of systemic septic shock seen in almost all COVID-19 deaths. The focus of prevention and treatment protocols proposed is the preservation of epithelial and endothelial glycocalyx integrity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Células Endoteliais , Endotélio Vascular , Glicocálix , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Glicocálix/patologia , Glicocálix/virologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 352: 109777, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection of patients based on sex and disease severity. METHODS: We used an analytical framework of 382 transcriptional modules and multi-omics analyses to discriminate COVID-19 patients based on sex and disease severity. RESULTS: Male and female patients overexpressed modules related to the innate immune response. The expression of modules related to the adaptive immune response showed lower enrichment levels in males than females. Inflammation modules showed ascending overexpression in male and female patients, while a higher level was observed in severe female patients. Moderate female patients demonstrated significant overexpression to interferon, cytolytic lymphocyte, T & B cells, and erythrocytes modules. Moderate female patients showed a higher adaptive immune response than males matched group. Pathways involved in metabolism dysregulation and Hippo signaling were upregulated in females than in male patients. Females and moderate cases showed higher levels of metabolic dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: The immune landscape in COVID-19 patients was noticeably different between the sexes, and these differences may highlight disease vulnerability in males. This study suggested that certain treatments that increase or decrease the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 might be necessary for male and female patients at certain disease stages.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914824

RESUMO

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Ativação do Complemento , Citocinas/metabolismo , Enterócitos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/patologia
19.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 23-32, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937933

RESUMO

Systemic immune cell dynamics during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are extensively documented, but these are less well studied in the (upper) respiratory tract, where severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replicates1-6. Here, we characterized nasal and systemic immune cells in individuals with COVID-19 who were hospitalized or convalescent and compared the immune cells to those seen in healthy donors. We observed increased nasal granulocytes, monocytes, CD11c+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD4+ T effector cells during acute COVID-19. The mucosal proinflammatory populations positively associated with peripheral blood human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRlow monocytes, CD38+PD1+CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells and plasmablasts. However, there was no general lymphopenia in nasal mucosa, unlike in peripheral blood. Moreover, nasal neutrophils negatively associated with oxygen saturation levels in blood. Following convalescence, nasal immune cells mostly normalized, except for CD127+ granulocytes and CD38+CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells persisted at least 2 months after viral clearance in the nasal mucosa, indicating that COVID-19 has both transient and long-term effects on upper respiratory tract immune responses.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nariz/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Granulócitos/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Nasofaringe/citologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Nariz/imunologia , Nariz/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
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