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1.
J Parasitol ; 108(1): 79-87, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171246

RESUMO

Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with great significance to public health, and appropriate detection and control strategies should be adopted to mitigate its impact. Most cases of echinococcosis are believed to be transmitted by the consumption of food and/or water contaminated with canid stool containing Echinococcus spp. eggs. Studies assessing Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, and Echinococcus shiquicus coinfection from contaminated water-derived, soil-derived, and food-borne samples are scarce, which may be due to the lack of optimized laboratory detection methods. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel triplex TaqMan-minor groove binder probe for real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to simultaneously detect the 3 Echinococcus spp. mentioned above from canid fecal samples in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTPA). The efficiency and linearity of each signal channel in the triplex rtPCR assay were within acceptable limits for the range of concentrations tested. Furthermore, the method was shown to have good repeatability (standard deviation ≤0.32 cycle threshold), and the limit of detection was estimated to be 10 copies plasmid/µl reaction. In summary, the evaluation of the present method shows that the newly developed triplex rtPCR assay is a highly specific, precise, consistent, and stable method that could be used in epidemiological investigations of echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Canidae/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Animais , Biologia Computacional/normas , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/classificação , Echinococcus/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Solo/parasitologia
2.
Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. (Online) ; 31(3): e005022, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1381854

RESUMO

We present the first report of parasitism by Sarcoptes scabiei (Linnaeus, 1758), in a sechuran fox "Lycalopex sechurae". Sarcoptes scabiei is a mite that produces sarcoptic mange, which can lead to the death of the animal host and can cause epidemic episodes in wildlife communities. The sechuran fox was collected by the environmental police from a citizen who reported the animal. It was sent to a veterinarian specializing in wildlife, "Clinica Mansion Mascota", in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Immediate physical examination showed crusts on its skin, and samples of skin and blood were collected and analyzed. The skin samples were analyzed using a microscope at 40x magnification in the clinic. In addition, skin and blood samples were sent to a private laboratory for further analyses. Both analyses were positive for S. scabiei infection. It is the second report of S. scabiei in a new wildlife species in the Guayas province of Ecuador within less than a year. These events cause concern due the possibility of biological community transmission. Since domestic and feral animals are considered habitual spreaders of this disease, management through ethical procedures such as adoption, medical treatment and neutering campaigns, and awareness-raising projects with empathetic approach are recommended.(AU)


Apresentamos o primeiro relato de infecção por Sarcoptes scabiei (Linnaeus, 1758) em uma raposa-do-deserto-Peruana Lycalopex sechurae. Sarcoptes scabiei é um ácaro que produz sarna sarcóptica, que pode levar à morte do animal hospedeiro e causar episódios epidêmicos em comunidades de vida selvagem. A raposa-do-deserto-Peruana foi recolhida pela polícia ambiental de um cidadão que denunciou o animal. O animal foi enviado para a Clinica Mansion Mascota em Guayaquil, Equador, para ser examinado por um veterinário especializado em vida selvagem. O exame físico imediato mostrou crostas na pele, e amostras de pele e sangue foram coletadas e analisadas. As amostras de pele foram examinadas na clínica usando um microscópio com aumento de 40x. Além disso, amostras de pele e sangue foram enviadas para um laboratório privado para análises posteriores. Ambas as análises foram positivas para infecção por S. scabiei. Este é o segundo relato de S. scabiei em um novo hospedeiro selvagem na província de Guayas, no Equador, em menos de um ano. Isto indica que existe transmissão comunitária biológica. Uma vez que animais domésticos e feroses são considerados disseminadores habituais dessa doença, recomenda-se o manejo por meio de procedimentos éticos, como adoção, tratamento médico e campanhas de castração, e projetos de conscientização com abordagem empática.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Sarcoptidae/patogenicidade , Canidae/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 984-988, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285258

RESUMO

O Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (PNSC), localizado no estado de Minas Gerais, é um importante habitat de inúmeras espécies de animais ameaçados de extinção, como o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Parasitos de animais selvagens podem representar um problema para os programas de manejo e recuperação de espécies ameaçadas, pois atuam como causa primária ou agravante de inúmeras doenças. Dependendo da época do ano, a suscetibilidade ao parasitismo pode ser maior devido à facilidade de infecção. Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de endoparasitos e a sazonalidade dessas parasitoses em diferentes épocas do ano, foram examinadas 103 amostras fecais de lobos-guarás, coletadas no PNSC, durante o período de março de 2017 a agosto de 2019. O número de amostras positivas para pelo menos uma espécie de parasito foi de 47 amostras (45,63%), sendo o outono a estação em que foi encontrada a maior frequência de formas parasitárias, com 60,86% (14/23) de amostras positivas, seguido do inverno, com 52,38% (11/21), verão com 37,5% (15/40), e primavera com 36,84% (7/19). Dentre os parasitos encontrados, Capillaria sp. apresentou a maior frequência, sendo encontrado em 23 amostras (22,33%), seguido de trematódeos, em 15 amostras (14,56%), acantocéfalos, ascarídeos, Trichuris sp. e Ancylostoma sp., em cinco amostras (4,85%), nematoides da superfamília Strongyloidea, Lynxacarus sp., em duas amostras (1,94%), e pentastomídeos em uma amostra (0,97%).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Brasil , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
4.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101731, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992911

RESUMO

Rangeliosis is a condition transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum and caused by the protozoan parasite Rangelia vitalii in canids. In domestic dogs, the disease causes a severe hemolytic disease, while in wild canids the piroplasm is often detected without any clinical abnormality. This study aimed to detect and quantify the number of copies of the R. vitalii Hsp70 gene (indirect parasite burden) in several organs of domestic and South American wild canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) to elucidate distinct clinical presentations of rangeliosis in these species. A total of seven domestic dogs that died due to rangeliosis and 38 wild foxes were initially included, with all dogs presenting histological and molecular features of rangeliosis, while eight C. thous were positive at the molecular analysis for R. vitalii. Fragments of 22 organs collected from domestic (n = 7) and wild foxes (n = 8) were employed for histological and molecular quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction aiming at the Hsp70 gene. Histologically, parasitophorous vacuoles were constantly detected in the dogs, while these were detected only in two C. thous. Parasitic burden was significantly higher in the digestive, cardiorespiratory, endocrine, genitourinary, and skeletal-muscle systems of domestic dogs when compared to wild foxes. In the hematopoietic system of wild canids, some organs, such as the lymph nodes and tonsils, presented significantly lower amounts of R. vitalii, while other organs (spleen, bone marrow, and blood) had results similar to those of domestic dogs. Additionally, the central nervous system of both domestic and wild canids presented a similar quantity of R. vitalii. The etiological agent is possibly maintained through an asexual reproductive process (merogony) in both domestic and wild species. Nonetheless, a limited or short-duration schizogony phase occurs in C. thous, which would designate this species as a possible reservoir host for the agent. Dogs, in contrast, would most likely act as accidental hosts, presenting a severe and more pathogenic schizogony phase, resulting in characteristic clinical and pathological rangeliosis.


Assuntos
Canidae/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão , Piroplasmida , Animais , DNA de Protozoário , Reservatórios de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1713-1725, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693988

RESUMO

The nematode family Spirocercidae Chitwood and Wehr, 1932, comprises three subfamilies, Spirocercinae Chitwood and Wehr, 1932; Ascaropsinae Alicata and McIntosh, 1933; and Mastophorinae Quentin, 1970, which occur worldwide. Spirocercids infect canids and can cause severe illness. The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a canid that inhabits most of South America, including Brazil and is a host for several parasitic worms, in particular, nematodes. However, few reports or genetic data are available on the spirocercids found in this host. In the present study, we describe a new species of Spirobakerus Chabaud and Bain 1981, from the intestine of two crab-eating foxes from two different biomes in Brazil. Spirobakerus sagittalis sp. nov. presents a) unequal spicules, with a long, thin left spicule with a lanceolated shape at the tip; b) a pair of sessile papillae and a median unpaired papillae located anteriorly of the cloaca, and c) a tuft without spines at the tip of the tail in females. The molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. sagittalis sp. nov. is basal to the other species of the subfamily Ascaropsinae, which was not recovered as monophyletic. Our phylogenies also indicated that Spirocercidae is paraphyletic, given that Mastophorinae did not group with Ascaropsinae and Spirocercinae. We provide the first molecular data on the genus Spirobakerus and expand the molecular database of the spirocercids. However, further studies, including the sequences of other spirocercid taxa, are still needed to infer the relationships within this family more accurately.


Assuntos
Canidae/parasitologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spiruroidea/classificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spiruroidea/citologia , Spiruroidea/genética
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 292: 109400, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713884

RESUMO

Prompt and reliable diagnostic tests for taeniid infection in canids are important due to the risk of zoonoses like Echinococcus spp. Current diagnostic methods relying on fecal flotation lack sensitivity and specificity, but this has rarely been quantified due to the challenges in performing adult cestode recovery (the gold standard) in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Therefore, we recovered adult Taenia and Echinococcus spp. from intestines, as well as fecal/intestinal material from 484 wild canids trapped for fur in two Canadian provinces (276 foxes - primarily Vulpes vulpes, coyotes - Canis latrans, and wolves - Canis lupus in Québec and 208 coyotes in Saskatchewan). The performances of a newly developed coproPCR for tapeworm DNA detection in dogs, and centrifugal fecal flotation using Sheather's solution, were evaluated against adult cestode recovery. Overall, adult taeniid cestode prevalence (Taenia and/or Echinococcus) was 28 % (95 % CI: 23-33 %) in Québec (62 % (CI: 51-73%) of 74 coyotes, 65 % (CI: 44-82) of 23 wolves, and 11 % (CI: 7-16%) of 179 foxes) and 79 % (CI: 73-84%) of 208 coyotes in Saskatchewan. In Québec, E. canadensis and Taenia spp. were detected in coyotes and wolves, and foxes were only infected with Taenia spp., whereas Saskatchewan coyotes were predominantly infected with E. multilocularis (at significantly higher prevalence, but not intensity, than coyotes in Québec). Compared with centrifugal fecal flotation, the new coproPCR had at least double the sensitivity (58 % vs 23 % in QC coyotes, 57 % vs 23 % in QC wolves, 24 % vs 0% in QC foxes, and 80 % vs 25 % in SK coyotes). Notably, no taeniid eggs were detected on flotations from foxes infected with Taenia spp., and the new coproPCR had highest sensitivity in Saskatchewan coyotes, which were predominantly infected with E. multilocularis. CoproPCR has promising prospects for use in Veterinary clinics and diagnostic laboratories to detect taeniid cestode infections because of its higher sensitivity than faecal flotation methods. This is particularly important for zoonotic Echinococcus spp. where, from a public health perspective, false negatives are a much greater concern than false positives.


Assuntos
Canidae/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 291: 109381, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667987

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, babesiosis in domestic dogs is caused primarily by Babesia rossi. Black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), which are subclinical carriers of B. rossi, were a likely reservoir host from which infection passed to domestic dogs. The role of other indigenous canids, e.g. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), as reservoirs of B. rossi has not been elucidated. The question also arises whether genetic differences have arisen between B. rossi infecting domestic dogs and "ancestral" B. rossi in jackals. In a previous study we found that nearly one-third (27 of 91) of jackals were infected with B. rossi; this was confirmed by 18S rDNA sequence analysis. In this study, the near full-length B. rossi 18S rRNA gene was successfully amplified from 6 domestic dogs and 3 black-backed jackals. The obtained recombinant sequences were identical (100 %) to previously described B. rossi sequences of black-backed jackals in South Africa, and 99 % similar to B. rossi from dogs in South Africa and the Sudan. Although blood specimens from 5 (10 %) of 52 free-ranging African wild dogs (from Kruger National Park, South Africa, reacted with the B. rossi probe on RLB hybridisation, the presence of B. rossi could not be confirmed by amplification and sequencing, nor by multiplex, real-time PCR. Although African wild dogs they can be infected with B. rossi without showing clinical signs, our findings suggest that they are apparently not important reservoir hosts of B. rossi.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Chacais/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , África do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 197-202, Jan.-Feb. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153066

RESUMO

Dioctophymosis is the disease caused by Dioctophyma renale, a large nematode, popularly known as giant kidney worm, and whose definitive hosts are the domestic dog and many wild mammal species. There are some reports of maned wolf parasitism by D. renale, however, in most cases the reports are restricted to the finding of the parasite during necropsy, without clinical assessment. The present report aimed to describe the clinical-therapeutic, ultrasonographic and pathological aspects of D. renale parasitism in a free-ranging maned wolf, emphasizing the treatment with an association of doramectin, praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel that resulted in complete elimination of the parasite.(AU)


A dioctofimose é a doença causada pelo Dioctophyma renale, um nemátodo grande, popularmente chamado de verme gigante do rim e que tem como hospedeiro definitivo o cão doméstico e inúmeras espécies de mamíferos silvestres. Existem alguns relatos do parasitismo do lobo-guará por D. renale, contudo, na maioria das vezes, os relatos se restringem apenas ao achado do parasita durante a necropsia, sem a correlação clínica. O presente relato objetiva descrever os aspectos clínico-terapêuticos, ultrassonográficos e patológicos do parasitismo por D. renale em um lobo-guará de vida livre, enfatizando o tratamento com uma associação de doramectina, praziquantel, pamoato de pirantel e febantel, o que resultou na eliminação completa do parasita.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Enoplida/patologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico por imagem , Canidae/parasitologia , Dioctophymatoidea , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667501

RESUMO

Among the Nematodes of Cerdocyon thous, the genus Pterygodermatites is characteristic for presenting cuticular projections along the body, being mentioned in different hosts in South America, although there are no records of its occurrence in the Amazon Biome. To enable further exploration in terms of their morphology and morphometry, the nematodes collected from cadavers of C. thous were fixed and observed using bright field microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing characteristics compatible with P. (Multipectines) affinis, thus contributing more information about the geographic distribution of the parasite, as well as knowledge of the helminthological fauna of wild mammals in the Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Canidae , Infecções por Nematoides , Espirurídios , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Canidae/parasitologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Espirurídios/ultraestrutura
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 293-299, Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135613

RESUMO

Hemoplasmas are bacteria able to adhere themselves loosely to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes and may parasitize several species of mammals. There are three known species of hemoplasmas that parasitize domestic and wild cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Dogs are infected by at least two species of hemoplasmas: 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' and Mycoplasma haemocanis. The hemoplasmoses are very important in veterinary clinics, either because of its worldwide distribution and severity of clinical signs, depending on parasite species and host immune competence, or due to its zoonotic potential and capability of infecting endangered species. This study set out to investigate which hemoplasmas species parasitize different captive wild carnivores in order to clarify the epidemiology of hemoplasmoses in wild animals. Furthermore, the research intended to characterize the hematological changes caused by different species of hemotropic mycoplasmas infection in order to establish their clinical importance to wild species and the capacity of these species to become a reservoir of studied agents. Samples of 33 wild felids and 18 wild canids were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect hemoplasmas DNA and it was observed that the occurrence of infection in these species is 45.5% and 83.3%, respectively. Factors such as age, gender or anaemia are not more frequent in animals positive for the infection. Therefore, it is concluded that infection caused by hemoplasmas in wild carnivores has high prevalence, and either agent pathogenicity is low, or chronic stage is more frequent, resulting in a low rate of diagnosis.(AU)


Hemoplasmas são bactérias capazes de aderir frouxamente à membrana plasmática de eritrócitos e que podem parasitar diversas espécies de mamíferos. São conhecidas três espécies de hemoplasmas que parasitam felídeos domésticos e selvagens: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Cães são infectados por ao menos duas espécies de hemoplasmas: Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' and Mycoplasma haemocanis. As hemoplasmoses são de grande importância na clínica veterinária, tanto pela sua distribuição ubíqua e severidade dos sinais clínicos, a depender da espécie do parasita e imunocompetência do hospedeiro, quanto pelo seu potencial zoonótico e capacidade de infectar espécies ameaçadas. Este estudo visa investigar quais espécies de hemoplasmas parasitam diferentes carnívoros selvagens de cativeiro, a fim de esclarecer a epidemiologia das hemoplasmoses em animais selvagens. Além disso, o trabalho objetivou caracterizar as alterações hematológicas causadas pela infecção por diferentes espécies de micoplasmas hemotrópicos visando estabelecer sua importância clínica para espécies selvagens e a capacidade destas espécies de se tornar reservatórios dos agentes estudados. Amostras de 33 felídeos selvagens e de 18 canídeos selvagens foram investigadas por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) para detectar o DNA dos agentes e foi observado que a ocorrência da infecção por hemoplasmas nestas espécies é de 45,5% e 83,3%, respectivamente. Fatores como idade, sexo ou anemia não são mais frequentes em animais positivos para a infecção. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a infecção causada por hemoplasmas em carnívoros selvagens possui alta prevalência, no entanto ou a patogenicidade dos agentes é baixa ou o estágio crônico da infecção é mais frequente, resultando em uma baixa frequência diagnóstica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Canidae/microbiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Felidae/microbiologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Anemia/veterinária
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 759-762, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879805

RESUMO

Trematode Alaria spp. have a complex life cycle that includes canids, mustelids, and felids as definitive hosts. However, several mammal species, besides acting as definitive hosts, may also act as paratenic hosts. Alaria spp. life cycles are well studied. Still, there is a lack of knowledge on one host significance as both-the paratenic and definitive host, especially in the case of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Previous studies have described Eurasian lynx as a definitive host for A. alata although the prevalence has always been low. The aim of the present study was to analyze the occurrence of A. alata in Eurasian lynx in Latvia. The viscera (n = 231) and muscle samples (n = 234) from Eurasian lynx were collected during the hunting seasons from 2004/2005 to 2017/2018. The prevalence of the adult A. alata in Eurasian lynx was 1.7%. However, mesocercariae infection in Eurasian lynx was detected for the first time. These findings suggest that the Eurasian lynx may serve both as paratenic and definitive host for A. alata.


Assuntos
Lynx/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Canidae/parasitologia , Letônia/epidemiologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Mustelidae/parasitologia , Prevalência , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e003220, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138106

RESUMO

Abstract Among the Nematodes of Cerdocyon thous, the genus Pterygodermatites is characteristic for presenting cuticular projections along the body, being mentioned in different hosts in South America, although there are no records of its occurrence in the Amazon Biome. To enable further exploration in terms of their morphology and morphometry, the nematodes collected from cadavers of C. thous were fixed and observed using bright field microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing characteristics compatible with P. (Multipectines) affinis, thus contributing more information about the geographic distribution of the parasite, as well as knowledge of the helminthological fauna of wild mammals in the Brazilian Amazon.


Resumo Entre os nematodas de Cerdocyon thous, o gênero Pterygodermatites é característico por apresentar projeções cuticulares ao longo do corpo, sendo citado em diferentes hospedeiros na América do Sul, porém, sem registros de sua ocorrência no Bioma Amazônia. Passível de maior exploração quanto à sua morfologia e morfometria, os nematoides colhidos de cadáveres de C. thous foram fixados e observados em microscopia de campo claro e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, revelando características compatíveis com P. (Multipectines) affinis. Com isso contribuiu com mais informações sobre a distribuição geográfica do parasito, bem como o conhecimento da fauna helmintológica de mamíferos selvagens na Amazônia brasileira.


Assuntos
Animais , Espirurídios/ultraestrutura , Canidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Brasil , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Distribuição Animal
13.
R. bras. Parasitol. Vet. ; 29(3): e003220, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28907

RESUMO

Among the Nematodes of Cerdocyon thous, the genus Pterygodermatites is characteristic for presenting cuticular projections along the body, being mentioned in different hosts in South America, although there are no records of its occurrence in the Amazon Biome. To enable further exploration in terms of their morphology and morphometry, the nematodes collected from cadavers of C. thous were fixed and observed using bright field microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing characteristics compatible with P. (Multipectines) affinis, thus contributing more information about the geographic distribution of the parasite, as well as knowledge of the helminthological fauna of wild mammals in the Brazilian Amazon.(AU)


Entre os nematodas de Cerdocyon thous, o gênero Pterygodermatites é característico por apresentar projeções cuticulares ao longo do corpo, sendo citado em diferentes hospedeiros na América do Sul, porém, sem registros de sua ocorrência no Bioma Amazônia. Passível de maior exploração quanto à sua morfologia e morfometria, os nematoides colhidos de cadáveres de C. thous foram fixados e observados em microscopia de campo claro e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, revelando características compatíveis com P. (Multipectines) affinis. Com isso contribuiu com mais informações sobre a distribuição geográfica do parasito, bem como o conhecimento da fauna helmintológica de mamíferos selvagens na Amazônia brasileira.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Canidae/parasitologia , Adenofórios/parasitologia
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 779-785, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057995

RESUMO

Abstract A free-living, adult male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was referred to the Governador "Laudo Natel" - FCAV/Unesp veterinary hospital after being found with skin lesions and a fracture on the right pelvic limb, which had to be amputated due to compromised integrity. Around 20 days later, bilateral accentuated swollen on humerus-radius-ulna articulation was observed. The synovial liquid was drained and sent to the laboratory for synovial cytology with Rosenfeld staining that revealed predominantly degenerated neutrophils with karyolytic chromatin associated with intracellular inclusions suggestive of Hepatozoon sp. gametocytes. Blood and synovial liquid samples were submitted to molecular analysis, aiming to amplify the Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA gene fragment. Despite the positioning of the found Hepatozoon sequence together with Hepatozoon canis previously detected in domestic carnivores, the BLAST analysis showed only 98% identity with H. canis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a Hepatozoon was detected in the synovial liquid by clinical pathology and molecular analyses.


Resumo Um lobo guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus) adulto, macho, de vida livre foi encaminhado para atendimento no hospital veterinário Governador "Laudo Natel" - FCAV/Unesp após ser encontrado com lesões de pele e fratura em membro pélvico direito, sendo amputado devido a comprometimento da integridade do membro. Aproximadamente 20 dias após a chegada ao hospital, foi notado acentuado aumento de volume bilateral em região de articulação úmero-rádio-ulnar. O líquido sinovial foi drenado e enviado para análise citológica com coloração de Rosenfeld, revelando a presença de neutrófilos degenerados com cromatina cariolítica associados a inclusões intracelulares sugestivas de gametócitos de Hepatozoon sp. Amostras de sangue e líquido sinovial foram submetidas a análises moleculares visando amplificar um fragmento do gene 18S rRNA de Hepatozoon spp. Apesar da sequência de Hepatozoon detectada se posicionar filogeneticamente no mesmo clado que H. canis previamente detectado em carnívoros domésticos, o resultado da análise do BLAST mostrou somente 98% de identidade com H. canis. De acordo com o conhecimento dos autores, esta é a primeira vez que Hepatozoon foi detectado no líquido sinovial por meio de patologia clínica e análises moleculares.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Líquido Sinovial/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Canidae/parasitologia , Filogenia , Brasil , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Achados Incidentais
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 275: 108935, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704657

RESUMO

Spirocerca lupi is a parasitic and carcinogenic nematode of canids distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The excretion-secretion proteins (PES) of S. lupi have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of its infection. We aimed to identify the PES of different stages of S. lupi and search for proteins that would be useful for diagnostic, therapeutic and vaccination purposes as well as understand their functions. A nano-UPLC mass spectrometry de novo analysis was performed on proteins collected from cultures of S. lupi L3 larvae, L4 females, adult females and adult males from naturally infected hosts. A total of 211 proteins were identified in all cultures. Accordingly, 117, 130, 99 and 116 proteins were detected in L3 larva, L4 females, adult females and adult males, respectively, with a strong correlation in the biological replicates (Pearson coefficients > 0.73). Fourty-four proteins were detected in all developmental stages, 64 were stage-specific and 49 were exclusively identified in L4 females. Cell compartment enrichment analysis revealed that proteins common to all stages were cytoplasmatic (p < 9.x10-6), whereas L4 unique proteins were in collagen trimers, and macromolecular complexes (p < 0.00001). Functional enrichment analysis of proteins showed significant enrichment in lipid metabolism in L3-unique proteins (p<0.00005), in mannose metabolism and protein de-glycosylation for L4-unique proteins (p < 0.00004), and in phosphorus metabolism in proteins shared by all stages (p <  2.1 x10-9). Interestingly, annexin 6, associated with cancer in humans, was detected in all life stages, but in a larger abundance in L4 females and adults. These findings indicate that S. lupi establishes complex interactions with its hosts by an arsenal of proteins expressed in different patterns in each life stage which influence the pathogenesis and oncogenesis of S. lupi and may be used as potential targets for diagnostic assays, drug targets or vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Canidae/parasitologia , Proteínas de Helminto/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/química , Thelazioidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anexinas/genética , Anexinas/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Besouros/parasitologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Israel , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteômica , Infecções por Spirurida/complicações , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Clima Tropical
16.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 487(1): 108-111, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571077

RESUMO

Progressive expansion of the most hazardous human parasitoses caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes has been found on the south of the Russian Far East. Decelerating expansion of the trematode Clonorchis sinensis, an agent of clonorchiasis towards the southern Primorye Territory from the Amur River basin, that began 10-15 years ago, was revealed. A prognosis was made on the activation of the natural foci of clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis. Circulation possibilities are discussed of the highly pathogenic trematode Pagonimus heterotremusar in the South Asian regional ecosystems. Our experiments showed that the freshwater gastropods of the Parajuga genus from the Amur River basin and those of Stenothyra genus from Primorsky Territory were resistant to this trematode infection. Nevertheless, this does not exclude the possibility of this parasite penetration into the Far East region via infection of the local gastropods of other genera.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Animais , Canidae/parasitologia , Cestoides/patogenicidade , Clima , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Felidae/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Moluscos/parasitologia , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Sibéria , Trematódeos/patogenicidade
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 779-785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483033

RESUMO

A free-living, adult male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was referred to the Governador "Laudo Natel" - FCAV/Unesp veterinary hospital after being found with skin lesions and a fracture on the right pelvic limb, which had to be amputated due to compromised integrity. Around 20 days later, bilateral accentuated swollen on humerus-radius-ulna articulation was observed. The synovial liquid was drained and sent to the laboratory for synovial cytology with Rosenfeld staining that revealed predominantly degenerated neutrophils with karyolytic chromatin associated with intracellular inclusions suggestive of Hepatozoon sp. gametocytes. Blood and synovial liquid samples were submitted to molecular analysis, aiming to amplify the Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA gene fragment. Despite the positioning of the found Hepatozoon sequence together with Hepatozoon canis previously detected in domestic carnivores, the BLAST analysis showed only 98% identity with H. canis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a Hepatozoon was detected in the synovial liquid by clinical pathology and molecular analyses.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Canidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Líquido Sinovial/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100308, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303228

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis and the dog is considered the most important urban reservoir. Cases in cats have been reported, but little is known about Leishmania infection and disease in wild felids and canids kept in captivity in endemic areas. Thus, the serological pattern of wild felids and canids kept in captivity at the Belo Horizonte Zoological Garden was investigated using two primary antigens for conventional ELISA: k39 and rKDDR, as well as three serological rapid kits: Dual Path Platform (DPP®) immunochromatographic test, rKDDR Immunochromatographic assay and ELISA SNAP Leishmania IDEXX®. A total of 21 serum samples, 13 of wild felids and 8 wild canids of varying age and sex were evaluated. The results obtained in the tests were analyzed by agreement using Kappa coefficient, and between ELISA antigens all the analysis performed had showed significant agreement among both of them, as well between the three immunochromatographic tests. The results demonstrated that there is serological evidence of wild animals seropositive for Leishmania antibodies at the Belo Horizonte Zoological Garden, and that all the antigens and rapid tests used can be employed in serological screening for VL in wild felids and canids.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Primatas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2583-2590, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278516

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), the parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a global public health problem. In Mongolia, despite wide distribution of human CE, not enough information is available on the prevalence and molecular characterization of CE in livestock and its zoonotic linkage with human cases. We investigated the distribution of human CE cases and livestock population using statistical models to get insight into the zoonotic linkage. The incidence of human CE cases increased by a factor of 1.71 for one interquartile range increment in the density of the camel population. No significant association was observed with other livestock species. The samples collected from 96 camels and 15 goats in an endemic region showed a CE prevalence of 19.7% and 6.7%, respectively. All livestock CE were E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 species of the E. granulosus s.l. complex. The genetic diversity was investigated using the haplotype network based on full cox1 gene analysis of the samples collected from livestock CE and nucleotide sequences previously reported from human CE and wild canids infection in Mongolia. Four haplotypes were identified within the livestock samples, two of which had not been previously reported. A common haplotype was identified among humans, camels, goats, and a wolf, all of which were within the same geographical area. A mixed infection of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 with different haplotypes in the intermediate host was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive description of the current epidemiological situation of CE in Mongolia with substantial evidence that camels might be the main intermediate host of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 in Mongolia. Moreover, our result presents the first report in the country to provide insight into the prevalence of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 in livestock.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Camelus/fisiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Genótipo , Cabras/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Mongólia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
20.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 79(3): 533-542, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-742082

RESUMO

Host infection by parasites is influenced by an array of factors, including host and environmental features. We investigated the relationship between host sex, body size and age, as well as seasonality on infection patterns by acanthocephalan in coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua nasua) and in crab-eating foxes (Canidae: Cerdocyon thous ) from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. Between 2006 and 2009, we collected faecal samples from these hosts and analyzed for the presence of acanthocephalan eggs. Prevalence, abundance and intensity of eggs of acanthocephalans were calculated. Egg abundance was analyzed using generalized linear models (GLM) with a negative binomial distribution and models were compared by Akaike criteria to verify the effect of biotic and abiotic factors. Prevalence of acanthocephalans was higher in the wet season in both host species but did not differ between host sexes; however, adult crab-eating foxes showed higher prevalence of acanthocephalan eggs than juveniles. In contrast, prevalence of acanthocephalan eggs found in coatis was higher in coati juveniles than in adults. Host age, season and maximum temperature were the top predictors of abundance of acanthocephalan eggs in crab-eating foxes whereas season and host sex were predictors of egg abundance in coatis. The importance of seasonality for abundance of acanthocephalan was clear for both host species. The influence of host-related attributes, however, varied by host species, with host gender and host age being important factors associated with prevalence and parasite loads.(AU)


A infecção de hospedeiro por parasitos é influenciada por uma série de fatores, incluindo características do hospedeiro e ambientais. Nós investigamos a relação entre sexo do hospedeiro, tamanho corporal e idade, bem como sazonalidade nos padrões de infecção por acantocéfalos em coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua nasua) e em cachorro-do-mato (Canidae: Cerdocyon thous ) do Pantanal brasileiro e quais fatores explicaram melhor a prevalência e a intensidade desses parasitos. Entre 2006 e 2009, coletamos amostras fecais desses hospedeiros e analisamos a presença de ovos de acantocéfalos. Prevalência, abundância e intensidade de ovos de acantócefálios foram calculados. A abundância de ovos foi analisada utilizando modelos lineares generalizados (GLM) com distribuição binomial negativa e os modelos foram comparados pelo critério de Akaike para verificar o efeito de fatores bióticos e abióticos. A prevalência de acantocéfalos foi maior na estação úmida em ambas as espécies de hospedeiros, mas não diferiu entre os sexos do hospedeiro; no entanto, os cachorros-do-mato adultos apresentaram maior prevalência de ovos de acantocéfalos do que em juvenis. Em contraste, a prevalência de ovos de acantocéfalos encontrados em coatis foi maior em juvenis do que em adultos. A idade do hospedeiro, a estação e a temperatura máxima foram os preditores de abundância de ovos de acantocéfalos em cachorro-do-mato, enquanto a estação e o sexo do hospedeiro foram preditores da abundância dos ovos do parasito em coatis. A importância da sazonalidade para a abundância do acantocéfalo foi clara para ambas as espécies hospedeiras. A influência dos atributos relacionados ao hospedeiro, no entanto, variou entre as espécies de hospedeiros, sendo o sexo e idade do hospedeiro fatores importantes associados à prevalência e às cargas parasitárias.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Canidae/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/patogenicidade , Helmintíase , Carnívoros
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