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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253731, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355871

RESUMO

Abstract Petroleum water soluble fraction (WSF) impairs organisms, but damages may vary among cell and tissue levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and subchronic effects (36 days) of WSF (0%, 25% and 100%) in juveniles of the Neotropical top predator fish Hoplias aff. malabaricus. The effects of WSF were evaluated at a molecular level using the comet assay and micronucleus test for genome damage; and at a morphological level through histological identification of liver pathologic lesions. In both acute and subchronic exposure we found low levels of DNA damage (< 10% of comet tail) and non-significant frequency of micronucleus in WSF exposed fish. The most significant liver lesions in WSF exposed fish were fatty vacuolization, hypertrophy and focal necrosis. Since these tissue injuries were progressive and persistent, their irreversibility may negatively affect fish recruitment, even in a such resistant top predator.


Resumo A fração solúvel de petróleo (WSF) prejudica os organismos, porém os danos podem variar entre os níveis celular e tecidual. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito agudo (24 h, 48 h e 72 h) e subcrônico (36 dias) da WSF (0%, 25% e 100%) em juvenis do peixe neotropical predador topo Hoplias aff. malabaricus. Os efeitos da WSF foram avaliados no nível molecular utilizando o ensaio do cometa e o teste do micronúcleo para o dano genômico e no nível morfológico através da identificação histológica de lesões patológicas no fígado. Em ambas exposições (aguda e subcrônica) encontramos baixos níveis de dano no DNA (< 10% de DNA na cauda do cometa) e frequência de micronúcleos não significativa em peixes expostos a WSF. As lesões mais significativas no fígado dos peixes expostos a WSF foram a vacuolização lipídica, hipertrofia e focos de necroses. Como estas lesões foram progressivas e persistentes, sua irreversibilidade pode afetar negativamente o recrutamento dos peixes, mesmo sendo um predador topo resistente.


Assuntos
Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade , Caraciformes , Água Doce , Fígado
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMO

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Rios , Caraciformes , Estações do Ano , Lagos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250003, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339392

RESUMO

Abstract This study estimated the length-weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m taken for standard length (SL - 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW - 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Resumo Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Caraciformes , Characidae , Brasil , Rios
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244784, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278541

RESUMO

Abstract The work aimed to evaluate the weight-length relationship and the condition factor, characterizing the biometry, anatomy, histology and volumetric density of the liver of Brycon amazonicus, in different stages of body growth. The experiment used twenty specimens in four stages of body growth (PI, PII, PIII and PIV) harvested every 90 days, containing five specimens, each group. The livers were dissected, weighed (g) and processed routinely using the hematoxylin and eosin technique. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation test and linear regression. The equation that represented the weight-length relation was W = 0.05902 x L2.63, with negative allometric growth, but with a relative condition factor equal to 1.0. The liver was divided into three lobes with the gallbladder close to the right lobe and its color varied from light red to dark red, not varying in relation to other fish species. The hepatosomatic relationship followed body growth until the PII group stage and then declined, demonstrating the behavior of its development in Brycon amazonicus. The organ consists predominantly of hepatocytes, followed by sinusoidal vessels and capillaries, with histological morphology similar to that of many species of fish. Melanomacrophage centers were found only in the most developed animals, but in small quantities, prompting the development of new research on this cell, in this species. In this way, research of this nature allows the characterization of fish species, helping to improve breeding methods, understanding pathological processes caused by diseases, and obtaining better productive capacity, serving an increasingly demanding and prosperous market.


Resumo O trabalho objetivou avaliar a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição, caracterizando a biometria, anatomia, histologia e densidade volumétrica do fígado de Brycon amazonicus, em diferentes estágios de crescimento corporal. O experimento utilizou vinte espécimes em quatro fases de crescimento corporal (PI, PII, PIII e PIV) colhidos a cada 90 dias, contendo cinco espécimes, cada grupo. Os fígados foram dissecados, pesados (g) e processados rotineiramente pela técnica da hematoxilina e eosina. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, teste de correlação de Pearson e regressão linear. A equação que representou a relação peso-comprimento foi W = 0,05902 x L2,63, com crescimento alométrico negativo, mas com fator de condição relativo igual a 1,0. O fígado apresentou-se dividido em três lobos com a vesícula biliar próxima ao lobo direito e sua cor variou de vermelho claro a vermelho escuro, não variando em relação a outras espécies de peixes. A relação hepatossomática acompanhou o crescimento corporal até a fase do grupo PII e então declinou, demonstrando o comportamento de seu desenvolvimento em Brycon amazonicus. O órgão constitui-se predominantemente por hepatócitos, seguido de vasos e capilares sinusoidais, com a morfologia histológica semelhante ao de muitas espécies de peixes. Centros melanomacrófagos foram encontrados apenas nos animais mais desenvolvidos, mas em pequena quantidade, instigando o desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas sobre esta célula, nesta espécie. Desta forma, pesquisas desta natureza permitem a caracterização de espécies de peixes, auxiliando no aperfeiçoamento de métodos de criação, compreensão de processos patológicos provocados por enfermidades, e obtenção de melhor capacidade produtiva, atendendo um mercado cada vez mais exigente e próspero.


Assuntos
Animais , Caraciformes , Fígado
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765521

RESUMO

The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.(AU)


O conhecimento da morfologia testicular e ovariana de uma determinada espécie de peixe é de suma importância, pois através destas análises é possível o desenvolvimento de estudos e técnicas visando o melhoramento de sua reprodução, manejo e comercialização e até mesmo auxiliar em sua conservação. Este estudo realizou a caracterização ovariana e testicular do peixe Amazônico ornamental Serrapinnus kriegi. Um total de três machos e três fêmeas tiveram suas gônadas analisadas através de microscopia óptica. As fêmeas apresentam ovários preenchidos por oócitos em desenvolvimento assincrônico, indicando desova parcelada da espécie. Além disso, observou-se a formação de micrópila e célula micropilar em oócitos em crescimento primário, representando o desenvolvimento precoce do oócito; a zona radiata nos oócitos vitelogênicos finais é mais espessa em comparação a outras espécies relacionadas, evidenciando o desenvolvimento de uma melhor proteção aos embriões, em função das águas turbulentas que caracterizam seu local de desova nos córregos amazônicos. Os machos apresentam testículos do tipo tubular anastomosado com espermatogônias irrestritas, espalhadas por todo o túbulo seminífero. Os dados apresentados elucidam a dinâmica da espermatogênese e oogênese de uma espécie de peixe ornamental amazônica, por meio da descrição das células germinativas masculinas e femininas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Caraciformes/anatomia & histologia , Caraciformes/genética , Oogênese , Espermatogênese
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765400

RESUMO

The work aimed to evaluate the weight-length relationship and the condition factor, characterizing the biometry, anatomy, histology and volumetric density of the liver of Brycon amazonicus, in different stages of body growth. The experiment used twenty specimens in four stages of body growth (PI, PII, PIII and PIV) harvested every 90 days, containing five specimens, each group. The livers were dissected, weighed (g) and processed routinely using the hematoxylin and eosin technique. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation test and linear regression. The equation that represented the weight-length relation was W = 0.05902 x L2.63, with negative allometric growth, but with a relative condition factor equal to 1.0. The liver was divided into three lobes with the gallbladder close to the right lobe and its color varied from light red to dark red, not varying in relation to other fish species. The hepatosomatic relationship followed body growth until the PII group stage and then declined, demonstrating the behavior of its development in Brycon amazonicus. The organ consists predominantly of hepatocytes, followed by sinusoidal vessels and capillaries, with histological morphology similar to that of many species of fish. Melanomacrophage centers were found only in the most developed animals, but in small quantities, prompting the development of new research on this cell, in this species. In this way, research of this nature allows the characterization of fish species, helping to improve breeding methods, understanding pathological processes caused by diseases, and obtaining better productive capacity, serving an increasingly demanding and prosperous market.(AU)


O trabalho objetivou avaliar a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição, caracterizando a biometria, anatomia, histologia e densidade volumétrica do fígado de Brycon amazonicus, em diferentes estágios de crescimento corporal. O experimento utilizou vinte espécimes em quatro fases de crescimento corporal (PI, PII, PIII e PIV) colhidos a cada 90 dias, contendo cinco espécimes, cada grupo. Os fígados foram dissecados, pesados (g) e processados rotineiramente pela técnica da hematoxilina e eosina. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, teste de correlação de Pearson e regressão linear. A equação que representou a relação peso-comprimento foi W = 0,05902 x L2,63, com crescimento alométrico negativo, mas com fator de condição relativo igual a 1,0. O fígado apresentou-se dividido em três lobos com a vesícula biliar próxima ao lobo direito e sua cor variou de vermelho claro a vermelho escuro, não variando em relação a outras espécies de peixes. A relação hepatossomática acompanhou o crescimento corporal até a fase do grupo PII e então declinou, demonstrando o comportamento de seu desenvolvimento em Brycon amazonicus. O órgão constitui-se predominantemente por hepatócitos, seguido de vasos e capilares sinusoidais, com a morfologia histológica semelhante ao de muitas espécies de peixes. Centros melanomacrófagos foram encontrados apenas nos animais mais desenvolvidos, mas em pequena quantidade, instigando o desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas sobre esta célula, nesta espécie. Desta forma, pesquisas desta natureza permitem a caracterização de espécies de peixes, auxiliando no aperfeiçoamento de métodos de criação, compreensão de processos patológicos provocados por enfermidades, e obtenção de melhor capacidade produtiva, atendendo um mercado cada vez mais exigente e próspero.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e006822, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674534

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelminthic efficacy of seeds of Cucurbita maxima and Carica papaya for controlling monogeneans in the gills of Leporinus macrocephalus, besides hepatosomatic and splenosomatic index and condition factor of host. The fish were fed with seeds of C. maxima or C. papaya for seven days, and these treatments did not cause any mortality among them. Jainus leporini, Urocleidoides paradoxus, Urocleidoides eremitus and Tereancistrum parvus were the monogeneans found, and their prevalence in fish fed with seeds of C. papaya was 100%, while in fish fed with C. maxima the prevalence was 42.8%. Fish fed with seeds of C. papaya showed decreased in intensity and abundance of monogeneans, while fish fed with seeds of C. maxima presented decreased in abundance. Feeding of L. macrocephalus with seeds of C. maxima or C. papaya had efficacy of 69.6 and 67.8%, respectively. The hepatosomatic index of fish fed with seeds of C. maxima or C. papaya was not affected by the treatments. However, the splenosomatic index and condition factor of fish fed with C. maxima seeds decreased. Seeds of C. maxima and C. papaya may be used for controlling monogeneans of L. macrocephalus in fish farming.


Assuntos
Carica , Caraciformes , Cucurbita , Trematódeos , Animais , Brânquias , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes
8.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 92: 103862, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405334

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate if Lemna minor can mitigate the observed effects of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) exposure in Prochilodus lineatus. Fish were exposed for 96 h to 20 µg L-1 of Cd, 1.5 mg L-1 of Ni, or to a mixture of these two metals. In all tests, one group was exposed to the metals with duckweed on the water surface, and other group was exposed only to the metals, without plants. After each exposure, samples of P. lineatus tissues were collected to evaluate multiple biomarkers. Duckweed prevented bioaccumulation in some fish tissues and attenuated changes in acetylcholinesterase activity, increases in erythrocytic nuclear abnormality frequency, and hyperglycemia. However, the changes in plasma ion concentrations, reduction in activity of ion transport enzymes, and histological damage were not mitigated. Therefore, we concluded that L. minor partially attenuates the effects caused by Cd and Ni exposure.


Assuntos
Araceae , Caraciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e000422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476007

RESUMO

The endoparasitic fauna of Acestrorhynchus lacustris from eight marginal lagoons of the upper and middle São Francisco river basin, Brazil, is recorded here for the first time. For this, a total of 106 specimens of A. lacustris were collected. Eighteen helminth species were found. The taxa recorded were phylum Platyhelminthes: one metacercaria of Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) and plerocercoid larvae of unidentified species (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae gen. sp.); phylum Acanthocephala: juvenile of Quadrigyrus sp.; and phylum Nematoda: larvae of Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. Type1, Contracaecum sp. Type2, Hysterothylacium sp., Gnathostoma sp., Spiroxys sp., juvenile and adult specimens of Freitascapillaria sp., Paracapillaria piscicola, Capillariidae gen. sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) hilarii, Procamallanus (S.) inopinatus, Procamallanus (S.) saofranciscencis, Travassosnema travassosi paranaensis, Cystidicoloides fischeri and Spinitectus rodolphiheringi. Proteocephalidae gen. sp., Contracaecum sp. Type1 and Travassosnema t. paranaensis were present in all eight lagoons with high parasitic indexes. Proteocephalidae gen. sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Gnathostoma sp., Freitascapillaria sp., P. piscicola, Capillariidae gen. sp., Procamallanus (S.) hilarii, C. fischeri and S. rodolphiheringi are new records for A. lacustris. The known geographical distribution of Gnathostoma sp., Freitascapillaria sp., P. piscicola, Capillariidae gen. sp., Procamallanus (S.) hilarii and Travassosnema t. paranaensis has now been extended to the São Francisco river basin.


Assuntos
Ascaridoidea , Caraciformes , Helmintos , Sanguessugas , Espirurídios , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Rios
10.
Zootaxa ; 5116(2): 253-266, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391336

RESUMO

A new species of Hyphessobrycon presenting dimorphic males is described from the western Amazon basin in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The new species has been mistakenly identified in the literature with the non-congener Hemigrammus marginatus, with which shares a similar color pattern by presenting dark patches of dark pigmentation on caudal-fin lobes. It can be distinguished from the latter species, as well as from Hemigrammus durbinae, and two similar congeners, Hyphessobrycon diancistrus and Hy. otrynus, all of which sharing the same caudal fin color pattern, by the combination of presenting a dark patch of pigmentation on the dorsal fin, a single large anal-fin hook at the last unbranched anal-fin ray in mature males, and a moderately high body depth (22.432.5 % SL, mean 28.4 %). The new species is more similar to Hyphessobrycon diancistrus, which is putatively its closely related taxon. A putative close relationship with Hyphessobrycon otrynus, and with a non-congener presenting a distinct color pattern but sharing a similar sexual dimorphism on anal-fin hook morphology, Hemigrammus boesemani, is suggested.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Animais , Characidae/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pigmentação , Rios , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20190919, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384963

RESUMO

The gametogenesis and reproduction of S. elegans from the São Francisco River at Três Marias, Minas Gerais, were analyzed in this study. Steindachrina elegans is a species abundant in the São Francisco River basin and an important fish in the food chain. The size at first gonadal maturation (indicated by the total length of the shortest spermatid male and spawned female) was 10.5 cm and 15.0 cm, respectively. Reproduction occurred more frequently from September to April. This period had high water temperature values. A high frequency of females was observed at the mature and spawned stages and height gonadosomatic index (GSI). Meanwhile, in males, the reproductive peak was from November to February. The long spawning period and the histological characteristics of the spawned ovaries that contained oocytes at different stages of development along with post-ovulatory and atretic oocytes indicates that the spawning of S. elegans is of the partial type.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Reprodução , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Gônadas , Masculino , Rios , Estações do Ano
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20201425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442265

RESUMO

Ten endoparasite species found in Pygocentrus piraya, which is a piranha species native to São Francisco river, were collected from 108 fish caught in Três Marias reservoir in 2004 and 2005, namely: Digenea - Austrodiplostomum sp. (metacercariae); Eucestoda - Proteocephalidae gen. sp. (plerocercoids); and Nematoda - Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Cystidicoloides fischeri and Capillostrongyloides sentinosa (adults); Spinitectus rodolphiheringi (juvenile); Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Spiroxys sp. and Goezia sp. (larvae). In helminth fauna, P. (S.) inopinatus has shown higher prevalence and dominance. Fish sex has influenced the prevalence of Hysterothylacium sp., which was higher in female specimens. Longer total length of fish has positively influenced the abundance of C. sentinosa and Hysterothylacium sp.. The rainy season has favored parasitic indices, mainly P. (S.) inopinatus abundance, as well C. sentinosa and Hysterothylacium sp. prevalence and abundance. There were co-occurrences between adult and some larval nematodes. Endemic piranhas, as well as final hosts, are important intermediate and/or paratenic hosts, given the relevant number of larvae (proteocephalideans and nematodes) of heteroxene cycle found in them. Proteocephalidae gen. sp., C. sentinosa, Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Goezia sp. and S. rodolphiheringi are new records parasitizing P. piraya in São Francisco basin.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Characidae , Caraciformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Larva , Rios
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367384

RESUMO

Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) is a large carnivorous fish with high commercial value for which sustainable aquaculture relies on the substitution of expensive dietary animal protein sources in aquafeeds, in particular fish meal (FM), by cheaper plant protein, such as soy protein concentrate (SPC). This study aimed at evaluating feed intake and gene expression of appetite- regulating hormones [orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)] in the intestine, pyloric caeca and hypothalamus of juvenile dourado fed diets containing graded levels of SPC and FM as dietary protein sources for a period of three weeks. Increasing dietary plant protein contents reduced daily feed consumption and the expressions of the anorexigenic hormone CCK in the anterior intestine and in pyloric caeca and PYY in pyloric caeca. No changes were detected in the hypothalamic expression of appetite-regulating hormones, suggesting that gastrointestinal hormones are more involved in the decrease in feeding induced by plant protein diets than central appetite-regulating systems.


Assuntos
Apetite , Caraciformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apetite/genética , Caraciformes/genética , Colecistocinina/genética , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Soja
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e000922, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476008

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess endoparasite diversity and liver alterations in Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju) and Cichlasoma bimaculatum (acará preto) in a quilombola area in Maranhão, Brazil. For this, 21 H. unitaeniatus and 21 C. bimaculatum were caught in a natural environment and transported to a laboratory. After these had been euthanized, endoparasites were collected and identified. Liver alterations were evaluated histological analysis based on the severity of each lesion: stage I, organ functioning not compromised; stage II, more severe lesions that impair normal functioning of the organs; and stage III, very severe and irreversible lesions. Among the fish evaluated, 71.43% H. unitaeniatus and 61.90% C. bimaculatum were parasitized. Contracaecum sp. was found in both species; while acanthocephalans, only in H. unitaeniatus. The alterations were vacuolization, nucleus in the cell periphery, deformation of the cell outline, melanomacrophage center, hyperemia, cytoplasmic degeneration and nuclear vacuolization. Through calculating a histological alteration index, it was found that 26.19% of the specimens presented lesions in stage I; 38.09% lesions in stage II and 9.52% lesions in stage III. It was concluded that there is high prevalence of Contracaecum sp. and that the liver lesions may be adaptive responses by the fish to endoparasitic infection.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Brasil , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia
15.
J Morphol ; 283(6): 815-826, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373392

RESUMO

The cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi belongs to the family Characidae, an economically important and morphologically diverse family of fishes. Information on the olfactory system of this species is scattered and scarce. Among teleost fishes, differences exist in the shape, number, and arrangement of the olfactory lamellae, in the distribution of the sensory and nonsensory epithelium, as well as in the abundance of various receptor cell types. Here, an anatomical and morphological description of the olfactory system was carried out using light microscopic histology, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. P. axelrodi is a ditremous and isosmat species. It has an arrow-shaped olfactory rosette arrangement. The olfactory epithelium is covering the 12-14 lamellae of the olfactory rosette and, using scanning electron microscopy, we observed that the apical surface of the olfactory epithelium carries a dense layer of mucus. Based on the histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural descriptions, all characteristic sensory and nonsensory cell types of the olfactory epithelium of teleost fish were identified. Three types of olfactory receptor neurons were identified: ciliated, microvilli, and crypt cells. The distribution of sensory and nonsensory cell types is like that described in Aphyocharax anisitsi, another species of the Characidae family. A. anisitsi inhabits slow-flowing water bodies with high-density vegetation such as P. axelrodi.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios , Animais , Characidae/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mucosa Olfatória
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e019221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319568

RESUMO

Serrasalmus maculatus is a species of piranha which, despite being abundant in a reservoir environment, has few studies related to its parasitological and diet aspects. Thus, we aimed to document the parasitic fauna and diet of the S. maculatus in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil. In addition, we perform two literature reviews for the Neotropical region, recording the parasitic fauna already associated with S. maculatus and the occurrence of parasite genera identified in this study parasitizing Characiformes from other aquatic systems. Thirty-one hosts were collected with gillnets, from August 2014 to September 2016. Serrasalmus maculatus had a piscivorous feeding habit and a low richness parasitic component community, including two taxa of monogeneans, Anacanthorus lepyrophallus and Mymarothecium sp.; no endohelminths were observed. Data from the literature review, together with the findings of the study, showed that S. maculatus in the Neotropical region harbors 25 helminth taxa, with the monogenean being the most prevalent parasitic group and Brazil is the country with the most reports of the parasitic genera. These findings provide information on the relationships between diet, social behavior, and parasitic fauna of S. maculatus and on the patterns of distribution and infection of the observed parasite rates.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Dieta/veterinária
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 171: 107462, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358689

RESUMO

Characinae is one of the most species-rich subfamilies of Characidae and holds special taxonomic importance because it includes Charax, type-genus of Characidae and Characiformes. Currently, the monophyly and the hypotheses of intergeneric and interspecific relationships of Characinae are based on a few morphological and molecular studies but all with low species coverage. Given their diversity, taxonomic importance, and the lack of a taxon-dense phylogeny, we sought to buttress the systematic understanding of Characinae collecting DNA sequence data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs) of the genome from 98 specimens covering 57 species (61%) plus 17 characiforms as outgroups. We used maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and coalescent-based species tree approaches and the resulting phylogeny with 1,300 UCE loci (586,785 characters) reinforced the monophyly of the subfamily as well as of six genera: Acestrocephalus, Charax, Cynopotamus, Galeocharax, Phenacogaster, and Roeboides. The phylogeny provides a hypothesis of intergeneric and interspecific relationships for the subfamily with Phenacogaster sister to all genera, and Acanthocharax sister to Cynopotamini (Cynopotamus (Acestrocephalus Galeocharax)) and Characini (Charax Roeboides). We propose a new tribe Acanthocharacini to allocate Acanthocharax, two subclades for Phenacogaster, two for Cynopotamus, three for Charax, and reinforced the four subclades for Roeboides previously identified by morphological studies. Additionally, we generated a time-calibrated phylogeny for Characinae that suggested an initial diversification during the Miocene at around 19 million years ago and discussed historical biogeographic events for major subclades. The results obtained here will contribute to the development of further research on the evolutionary processes modulating species diversification in Characinae.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5288, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347184

RESUMO

Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) is a carnivorous fish species widely distributed from northern to southern South America. This taxon is believed to be a good model for the investigation of biogeographic events that shape the ichthyofauna evolution in the Neotropical freshwater systems. However, many studies have revealed that H. malabaricus hides a species complex that hampers its taxonomic identity and limit its practical value for evolutionary and biogeographic studies. In this paper, we used the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) to delimit cryptic species and explore the phylogeography of H. malabaricus sensu stricto. We found genetic evidence for putative new species in the genus Hoplias and showed that H. malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) is a major clade assigned to barcode index number (BIN) BOLD:ABZ3047. This species is structured in six subpopulations differentiated by high Fst values and restricts gene flow. The subpopulations of the São Francisco/East Atlantic/Eastern Northeast Atlantic/Parnaíba/Itapecuru River basins and Tapajós River Basin were the most differentiated and showed demographic fluctuations. The present distributional pattern is most likely explained through a scenario from the Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Animais , Caraciformes/genética , Água Doce , Filogeografia , Rios
19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137772

RESUMO

The demand for products to replace high-cost raw materials, such oil and fish meal, in the manufacture of feed for use in aquaculture, while also guaranteeing the nutritional quality of the diets, is increasing. Silage produced with fish and vegetables residues is a low-cost and efficient protein source. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of tambaqui fingerlings fed four different levels of silage included in commercial feed with 28% crude protein, over two periods: 45 and 90 days. Each treatment was carried out over three replications, with 10 tambaqui in each 100 L experimental tank. At the end of each established period, blood samples were collected from five animals from each repetition to determine the hematological and biochemical variables. Body weight and total length, hepatosomatic and liposomal indices and hematocrit of specimens fed with diets supplemented with silage did not exhibit significant changes in both assessment period. After 45 days of feeding, the hemoglobin concentration increased when tambaqui were fed a diet including 20% silage. The red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin did not change between treatments in either period. The total protein concentrations increased significantly in the plasma of tambaqui fed with diets with the inclusion of 5 and 10% of silage, evaluated after feeding for 45 days. It was found that the groups which had silage included in their diet did not exhibit significant alterations in the evaluated parameters, and the diet was therefore not consider harmful to the health of tambaqui. Therefore, the use of silage as a feed supplement during tambaqui farming is a sustainable alternative for producers, as it leads to a reduction of impacts of fish and vegetables waste disposal.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Silagem/análise , Verduras
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163102

RESUMO

Amino acids (AA) and IGF1 have been demonstrated to play essential roles in protein synthesis and fish muscle growth. The myoblast cell culture is useful for studying muscle regulation, and omics data have contributed enormously to understanding its molecular biology. However, to our knowledge, no study has performed the large-scale sequencing of fish-cultured muscle cells stimulated with pro-growth signals. In this work, we obtained the transcriptome and microRNAome of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)-cultured myotubes treated with AA or IGF1. We identified 1228 and 534 genes differentially expressed by AA and IGF1. An enrichment analysis showed that AA treatment induced chromosomal changes, mitosis, and muscle differentiation, while IGF1 modulated IGF/PI3K signaling, metabolic alteration, and matrix structure. In addition, potential molecular markers were similarly modulated by both treatments. Muscle-miRNAs (miR-1, -133, -206 and -499) were up-regulated, especially in AA samples, and we identified molecular networks with omics integration. Two pairs of genes and miRNAs demonstrated a high-level relationship, and involvement in myogenesis and muscle growth: marcksb and miR-29b in AA, and mmp14b and miR-338-5p in IGF1. Our work helps to elucidate fish muscle physiology and metabolism, highlights potential molecular markers, and creates a perspective for improvements in aquaculture and in in vitro meat production.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Animais , Caraciformes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
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