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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131687, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343919

RESUMO

Jute sticks obtained after the extraction of jute fiber are an excellent biomass feedstock with a significant amount of carbohydrates that makes it an attractive resource for sustainable energy generation. However, the high lignin content in the jute stick hinders the cellulosic component of the cell wall from enzymatic hydrolysis.This work demonstrates the lignin degradation of jute stick biomass by Trametes maxima laccase in the presence of mediator Hydroxybenzotriazole and improvement in its subsequent saccharification. Lignin component in jute stick is reduced by 21.8% in a single reaction treatment with laccase-mediator compared to the untreated jute stick sample used as control. The yield of fermentable sugar is increased by 19.5% that verifies enhanced saccharification after lignin removal. Delignification of jute stick was corroborated through different analytical techniques. The Pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results further confirms abundance of S lignin unit in the jute stick compared to the H and G unit and modification in lignin polymer as a change in the syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio. Hence, this work demonstrates that jute stick can be effectively delignified using biocatalyst-mediator system and utilized as biomass source, thus contributing in circular bio-economy through waste valorization.


Assuntos
Lacase , Açúcares , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Hidrólise , Lignina , Polyporaceae , Trametes
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126716, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333407

RESUMO

With the continuous pressure of water contamination caused by textile industry, loose nanofiltration (LNF) membranes prepared by green materials with an extraordinary water permeability are highly desirable for the recovery and purification of dyes and salts. In this work, low-pressure LNF membranes with ultrahigh permeability were fabricated via one-step interfacial polymerization (IP), in which inexpensive natural carbohydrate-derived sugars with large size and low reactivity were utilized as aqueous monomers to design selective layer. A systematic characterization by chemical analysis and optical microscopy demonstrated that the formed polyester film features not only loosen the structure, but also results in a hydrophilic and negatively charged surface. The optimized sucrose-based membrane (Su0.6/TMC0.1) with an excellent water permeability of 52.4 LMH bar-1 was found to have a high rejection of dyes and a high transmission of salts. In addition, the sugar-based membrane manifested an excellent anti-fouling performance and long-term stability. Furthermore, the non-optimized Gl0.6/TMC0.1 and Ra0.6/TMC0.1 membranes also shown a high water permeability, while maintaining a competitive dye/salt separation performance, which confirmed the universal applicability of the membrane design principle. Therefore, the proposed new strategy for preparing next-generation LNF membranes can contribute towards the textile wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Corantes , Purificação da Água , Carboidratos , Membranas Artificiais , Poliésteres
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126075, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606922

RESUMO

Oligosaccharides are low-molecular-weight carbohydrates with crucial physical, chemical, and physiological properties, which are increasingly important in the fields of food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and biomedicine. Pretreating biomass in a cost-effective way is a significant challenge for oligosaccharides research. Hydrothermal pretreatment is a potentially eco-friendly technology to obtain oligosaccharides by deconstructing biomass. In this work, we compared the differences between hydrothermal pretreatment and the traditional pretreatment method. The fundamentals and classification of hydrothermal pretreatment, as well as the latest studies on hydrothermal preparation of oligosaccharides, were further reviewed and evaluated to provide a theoretical basis for the production and application of oligosaccharides. Some challenges and future trends to develop green and large-scale hydrothermal pretreatment were proposed for the production of oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos , Vapor , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Peso Molecular
4.
Anal Chem ; 93(46): 15262-15270, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752696

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) play critical roles in diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes and are important for a wide range of biotechnology applications. Kinetic measurements offer insight into the activity and substrate specificity of CAZymes, information that is of fundamental interest and supports diverse applications. However, robust and versatile kinetic assays for monitoring the kinetics of intact glycoprotein and glycolipid substrates are lacking. Here, we introduce a simple but quantitative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method for measuring the kinetics of CAZyme reactions involving glycoprotein substrates. The assay, referred to as center-of-mass (CoM) monitoring (CoMMon), relies on continuous (real-time) monitoring of the CoM of an ensemble of glycoprotein substrates and their corresponding CAZyme products. Notably, there is no requirement for calibration curves, internal standards, labeling, or mass spectrum deconvolution. To demonstrate the reliability of CoMMon, we applied the method to the neuraminidase-catalyzed cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) residues from a series of glycoproteins of varying molecular weights and degrees of glycosylation. Reaction progress curves and initial rates determined with CoMMon are in good agreement (initial rates within ≤5%) with results obtained, simultaneously, using an isotopically labeled Neu5Ac internal standard, which enabled the time-dependent concentration of released Neu5Ac to be precisely measured. To illustrate the applicability of CoMMon to glycosyltransferase reactions, the assay was used to measure the kinetics of sialylation of a series of asialo-glycoproteins by a human sialyltransferase. Finally, we show how combining CoMMon and the competitive universal proxy receptor assay enables the relative reactivity of glycoprotein substrates to be quantitatively established.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Cinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 841, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, has at least four ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters dedicated to carbohydrate uptake: LpqY/SugABC, UspABC, Rv2038c-41c, and UgpAEBC. LpqY/SugABC transporter is essential for M. tuberculosis survival in vivo and potentially involved in the recycling of cell wall components. The three-dimensional structures of substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) LpqY, UspC, and UgpB were described, however, questions about how these proteins interact with the cognate transporter are still being explored. Components of these transporters, such as SBPs, show high immunogenicity and could be used for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In this work, we used a phylogenetic and structural bioinformatics approach to compare the four systems, in an attempt to predict functionally important regions. RESULTS: Through the analysis of the putative orthologs of the carbohydrate ABC importers in species of Mycobacterium genus it was shown that Rv2038c-41c and UgpAEBC systems are restricted to pathogenic species. We showed that the components of the four ABC importers are phylogenetically separated into four groups defined by structural differences in regions that modulate the functional activity or the interaction with domain partners. The regulatory region in nucleotide-binding domains, the periplasmic interface in transmembrane domains and the ligand-binding pocket of the substrate-binding proteins define their substrates and segregation in different branches. The interface between transmembrane domains and nucleotide-binding domains show conservation of residues and charge. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of four ABC transporters in M. tuberculosis dedicated to uptake and transport of different carbohydrate sources, and the exclusivity of at least two of them being present only in pathogenic species of Mycobacterium genus, highlights their relevance in virulence and pathogenesis. The significant differences in the SBPs, not present in eukaryotes, and in the regulatory region of NBDs can be explored for the development of inhibitory drugs targeting the bacillus. The possible promiscuity of NBDs also contributes to a less specific and more comprehensive control approach.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Filogenia
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104961, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802511

RESUMO

As a typical glycolytic inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) has been extensively studied in cancer therapy in recent decades. However, few studies focused on 3-BrPA in regulating the growth and development of insects, and the relationship and regulatory mechanism between glycolysis and chitin biosynthesis remain largely unknown. The Hyphantria cunea, named fall webworm, is a notorious defoliator, which caused a huge economic loss to agriculture and forestry. Here, we investigated the effects of 3-BrPA on the growth and development, glycolysis, carbohydrate homeostasis, as well as chitin synthesis in H. cunea larvae. To elucidate the action mechanism of 3-BrPA on H. cunea will provide a new insight for the control of this pest. The results showed that 3-BrPA dramatically restrained the growth and development of H. cunea larvae and resulted in larval lethality. Meanwhile, we confirmed that 3-BrPA caused a significant decrease in carbohydrate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), pyruvic acid (PA), and triglyceride (TG) levels by inhibiting glycolysis in H. cunea larvae. Further studies indicated that 3-BrPA significantly affected the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and trehalase, as well as expressions of the genes related to glycolysis, resulting in carbohydrate homeostasis disorder. Moreover, it was found that 3-BrPA enhanced 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling by upregulating HcCYP306A1 and HcCYP314A1, two critical genes in 20E synthesis pathway, and accelerated chitin synthesis by upregulating transcriptional levels of genes in the chitin synthesis pathway in H. cunea larvae. Taken together, our findings provide a novel insight into the mechanism of glycolytic inhibitor in regulating the growth and development of insects, and lay a foundation for the potential application of glycolytic inhibitors in pest control as well.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Glicólise , Animais , Homeostase , Larva , Piruvatos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5788, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608163

RESUMO

The chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans cause the skin disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians, which is driving a substantial proportion of an entire vertebrate class to extinction. Mitigation of its impact is largely unsuccessful and requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the disease ecology. By identifying skin factors that mediate key events during the early interaction with B. salamandrivorans zoospores, we discovered a marker for host colonization. Amphibian skin associated beta-galactose mediated fungal chemotaxis and adhesion to the skin and initiated a virulent fungal response. Fungal colonization correlated with the skin glycosylation pattern, with cutaneous galactose content effectively predicting variation in host susceptibility to fungal colonization between amphibian species. Ontogenetic galactose patterns correlated with low level and asymptomatic infections in salamander larvae that were carried over through metamorphosis, resulting in juvenile mortality. Pronounced variation of galactose content within some, but not all species, may promote the selection for more colonization resistant host lineages, opening new avenues for disease mitigation.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Batrachochytrium/patogenicidade , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Galactose/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Anfíbios/classificação , Anfíbios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Batrachochytrium/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Quimiotaxia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença , Galactose/química , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pele/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Virulência
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27242, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative carbohydrate loading enhances postoperative recovery and reduces patient discomfort. However, gastric emptying of liquids can be delayed in elderly populations. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the gastric emptying of 400 mL of a carbohydrate drink ingested 2 hours before surgery in elderly patients. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized controlled study, patients aged >65 years were allocated to either fast from midnight (nil per os [NPO] group, n = 29) or drink 400 mL of a carbohydrate drink 2 hours before surgery (carbohydrate group, n = 29). The gastric antrum was assessed using ultrasonography in the supine position, followed by the right lateral decubitus (RLD) position. The gastric antrum was graded as grade 0 (fluid not seen in both positions), grade 1 (fluid only seen in the RLD position), and grade 2 (fluid seen in both positions). The gastric antral cross-sectional area (CSA) and aspirated residual gastric volume were measured. RESULTS: In 58 patients, the incidence of grade 2 stomach was 13.8% in NPO group and 17.2% in carbohydrate group (P = .790). The gastric antral CSA in the supine position was larger in carbohydrate group than in NPO group (4.42 [3.72-5.18] cm2 vs 5.31 [4.35-6.92] cm2, P = .018). The gastric antral CSA in the RLD position was not different in NPO and carbohydrate groups (P = .120). There was no difference in gastric volume (2 [0-7.5] vs 3 [0-13.4], P = .331) in NPO group versus carbohydrate group. CONCLUSION: The incidence of grade 2 stomach was not different between NPO group and carbohydrate group in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Ultrassonografia/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboidratos/fisiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 673, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic risk factors causing a pathological condition that increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of dietary approaches have been examined to halt this rapid trend; however, the effects of modified-Paleo diet and medium-carbohydrate diet on inflammation, adipokines, hepatokines, and the profile of endothelial microparticles in individuals with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated in detail. The present study is designed to examine the effect of modified-Paleo and moderate-carbohydrate diet with two delivery modes: "fixed diet plan" vs "calorie counting" on weight, body composition, serum levels of some hepatokines and adipocytokines, and flow cytometric analysis of endothelial microparticles in adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Eighty metabolic syndrome patients will be recruited in this study. They will be randomly allocated to one of the following 4 groups: (1) receiving a modified-Paleo diet with calorie counting, (2) receiving a modified-Paleo diet with a fixed diet plan, (3) receiving a medium-carbohydrate diet with calorie counting, and (4) receiving a medium-carbohydrate diet with a fixed diet plan for 10 weeks. Weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition will be assessed at the study baseline and at the end of the trial. Serum insulin, asprosin, chemerin, FGF-21, CTRP-1, PYY, ghrelin, plasma EMPs (CD31+/CD42b- and CD144+/CD42b-), lipid profile, glycemic indices, hs-CRP, leptin, vitamin C, creatinine and satiety, hunger, fullness, and desire to eat (via visual analog scales) will be measured at the study baseline and at the end of the trial. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity will be determined using the HOMA-IR and QUICKI equations. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial that will determine the effect of modified-Paleo and moderate-carbohydrate diet on weight, body composition, serum levels of some hepatokines and adipocytokines, and the profile of EMPs in adults with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the effects of different diet delivery modes, including "fixed diet plan" and "calorie counting" will also be analyzed. The results of this trial can provide clinical witnesses on the effectiveness of carbohydrate-restricted diets in ameliorating metabolic status and prevent the development of chronic diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016121925267N4 . Registered on 26 July 2017.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Hormônios Peptídicos , Adipocinas , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos , Quimiocinas , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fibrilina-1 , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664661

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the enzyme activities of an enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus in different pH and the effects of adding increased application rates of this enzymatic complex on the fermentation profile, chemical composition, and in situ ruminal disappearance of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) at the onset of fermentation and 30 d after ensiling. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic complex was obtained through in vitro cultivation of P. ostreatus. In the first experiment, the activities of laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase, endo- and exo-glucanase, xylanase, and mannanase were determined at pH 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the second experiment, five application rates of enzymatic complex were tested in a randomized complete block design (0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 mg of lignocellulosic enzymes/kg of fresh whole-plant corn [WPC], corresponding to 0, 0.587, 1.156, 1.734, and 2.312 g of enzymatic complex/kg of fresh WPC, respectively). There were four replicates per treatment (vacuum-sealed bags) per opening time. Bags were opened 1, 2, 3, and 7 d after ensiling (onset of fermentation period) and 30 d after ensiling to evaluate the fermentation profile, chemical composition, and in situ dry matter and neutral fiber detergent disappearance of WPCS. Laccase had the greatest activity at pH 5 (P < 0.01), whereas manganese peroxidase and LiP had the greatest activity at pH 4 (P < 0.01; P < 0.01). There was no effect of the rate of application of enzymatic complex, at the onset of fermentation, on the fermentation profile (P > 0.21), and chemical composition (P > 0.36). The concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) over the ensiling time at the onset of fermentation, leading to a quadratic increase of lactic acid (P = 0.02) and a linear increase of acetic acid (P = 0.02) throughout fermentation. Consequently, pH quadratically decreased (P < 0.01). Lignin concentration linearly decreased (P = 0.04) with the enzymatic complex application rates at 30 d of storage; however, other nutrients and fermentation profiles did not change (P > 0.11) with the enzymatic complex application rates. Addition of lignocellulolytic enzymatic complex from P. ostreatus cultivation to WPC at ensiling decreased WPCS lignin concentration 30 d after ensiling; however, it was not sufficient to improve in situ disappearance of fiber and dry matter.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Carboidratos , Fibras na Dieta , Fermentação , Silagem/análise
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101447, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601440

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to establish a standardized color detection method to achieve low-cost, rapid, nonintrusive and accurate characterization of the color change of smoked chicken thighs during the smoking process. This study was based on machine vision technology using the Mean algorithm, K-means algorithm and K-means algorithm + image noise reduction algorithm to establish 3 colorimetric cards for the color of sugar-smoked chicken thighs. The accuracy of the 3 colorimetric cards was verified by the K-medoids algorithm and sensory analysis, respectively. Results showed that all 3 colorimetric cards had significant color gradient changes. From the K-medoids algorithm, the accuracy of the colorimetric card produced by the Mean algorithm, K-means algorithm and K-means algorithm + image noise reduction algorithm was 87.2, 95.1, and 96.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, the verification results of the sensory analysis showed that the accuracy of the Mean algorithm, K-means algorithm and K-means algorithm + image noise reduction algorithm colorimetric card was 69.4, 80.9, and 79.2%, respectively. A comparative analysis found that the colorimetric cards produced by the K-means algorithm and K-means algorithm + image noise reduction have excellent accuracy. These 2 colorimetric cards could become a suitable method for rapid, low-cost, and accurate online color monitoring of smoked chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Açúcares , Animais , Carboidratos , Fumar , Coxa da Perna
12.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 208: 112148, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624598

RESUMO

Carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are involved in numerous natural and pathological metabolic processes, and the precise elucidation of their biochemical functions has been supported by smart technologies assembled with lectins, i.e., ubiquitous proteins of nonimmune origin with carbohydrate-specific domains. When lectins are anchored on suitable electrochemical transducers, sensitive and innovative bioanalytical tools (lectin-based biosensors) are produced, with the ability to screen target sugars at molecular levels. In addition to the remarkable electroanalytical sensitivity, these devices associate specificity, precision, stability, besides the possibility of miniaturization and portability, which are special features required for real-time and point-of-care measurements. The mentioned attributes can be improved by combining lectins with biocompatible 0-3D semiconductors derived from carbon, metal nanoparticles, polymers and their nanocomposites, or employing labeled biomolecules. This systematic review aims to substantiate and update information on the progress made with lectin-based biosensors designed for electroanalysis of clinically relevant carbohydrates and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, pathogens and cancer biomarkers), highlighting their main detection principles and performance in highly complex biological milieus. Moreover, particular emphasis is given to the main advantages and limitations of the reported devices, as well as the new trends for the current demands. We believe that this review will support and encourage more cutting-edge research involving lectin-based electrochemical biosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Lectinas , Carboidratos , Glicoconjugados , Glicoproteínas
13.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(10): 4940-4948, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595926

RESUMO

This article describes features, usage, and application of an CSDB/SNFG Structure Editor, a new online tool for quick and intuitive input of carbohydrate and derivative structures using Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG). The Editor is built on a platform of the Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) and relies on its online services via the dedicated web-API. The Editor allows building of oligo- and polymeric glycan structures and supports most features of natural glycans, such as underdetermined structures, alternative branches, repeating subunits, SMILES specification of atypical monomers, and others. The vocabulary of building blocks contains 600+ monomeric residues, including 327 monosaccharides. Support for SMILES allows input and visualization of chemical structures of virtually unlimited complexity. On the other hand, the interface follows the recognized GlycanBuilder style easy to novice users. The export feature includes support for CSDB Linear, GlycoCT, WURCS, SweetDB, and Glycam notations, SMILES codes, MOL/PDB atomic coordinate formats, raster and vector SNFG images, and on-the-fly visualization as 2D structural formulas and 3D molecular models. Integration of the Editor into any web-based glycoinformatics project is straightforward and simple, similarly to any other modern JavaScript application.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Polissacarídeos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Monossacarídeos
14.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(4): e21846, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632624

RESUMO

Gomphocerus sibiricus L., the dominant insect species in the alpine and subalpine grassland, overwinters with diapause at egg stage. In this study, cold tolerance and related cryoprotectants of G. sibiricus eggs were investigated. In particular, the supercooling point (SCP), water content, carbohydrates (trehalose, glucose, fructose, glycogen), polyols (glycerol, inositol, sorbitol), fat, and amino acids contents were evaluated at different developmental stages of G. sibiricus eggs collected under natural conditions. The SCPs of eggs were very low (-32.83 to -22.61°C) at mid-diapause. Water content gradually increased during development. The fructose, glycerol, and sorbitol contents were significantly higher in diapausing eggs than in early embryogenesis stage and post-diapause development stage. Glycogen content was high throughout the whole developmental period. The trehalose, glucose, and inositol contents were low during diapause compared to that in early embryogenesis stage and post-diapause development stage. There were no significant differences in the fat content of eggs among all development stages. The total amino acid contents in eggs in the early embryogenesis and at the start of diapause were higher than that in post-diapause eggs. The contents of Glu, Asp, Leu, Pro and Arg during diapause were significantly higher than those during post-diapause development. Results indicate that G. sibiricus eggs have a high supercooling capacity. Successful overwintering can be attributed to the accumulation of glycerol, fructose, sorbitol, and amino acids (Glu, Asp, Leu, Pro and Arg). These findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of G. sibiricus to cold conditions.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Diapausa de Inseto/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Crioprotetores , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia
15.
Transplant Proc ; 53(9): 2721-2723, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the relationship of the antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) biomarker with the cellular rejection of the heart graft during the first year after transplantation. METHODS: Retrospective study of consecutive heart transplant (HTx) patients for 1.5 years. The total number of patients included in the study was 23 with a total of 103 follow-ups. In all patients, CA125 was determined before HTx and determined post-HTx in every follow-up. These were performed during months 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed in all revisions to assess the degree of graft rejection in the pathologic study. The biopsy results were grouped into 1. absence of rejection and 2. presence of some degree of rejection. RESULTS: The mean pretransplant CA125 value presented a median of 120 U/mL with an interquartile range of 28.8 U/mL. One month after transplantation, the value was reduced by 20% and at 2 months by 81%. In subsequent reviews, plasma values were always between 10 and 20 U/mL. When comparing the values by periods and according to the presence or absence of rejection, no significant differences were found other than a slight elevation at the 6-month checkup (P = .03) but without clinical relevance, because the CA125 value was slightly higher in biopsy results without rejection. CONCLUSION: The rapid reduction of CA125 corroborates its usefulness as a marker of congestion in heart failure. This biomarker is not useful for predicting rejection. However, in cases of very severe rejections that occurred with systemic congestion, it could be raised. It would be necessary to corroborate this hypothesis in a larger study with a higher number of severe rejections.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Carboidratos , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Exp Suppl ; 112: 365-393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687017

RESUMO

Antibodies produced upon infections with pathogenic microorganisms are essential for clearing primary infections and for providing the host with long-lasting immunity. Moreover, antibodies have become the most widely used platform for developing novel therapies against cancer and autoimmunity, requiring an in-depth understanding of how antibodies mediate their activity in vivo and which factors modulate pro- or anti-inflammatory antibody activities. Since the discovery that select residues present in the sugar domain attached to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fragment crystallizable (Fc) region can modulate both, pro- and anti-inflammatory effector functions, a wealth of studies has focused on understanding how IgG glycosylation is regulated and how this knowledge can be used to optimize therapeutic antibody activity. With the introduction of glycoengineered afucosylated antibodies in cancer therapy and the initiation of clinical testing of highly sialylated anti-inflammatory antibodies the proof-of-concept that understanding antibody glycosylation can lead to clinical innovation has been provided. The focus of this review is to summarize recent insights into how antibody glycosylation is regulated in vivo and how select sugar residues impact IgG function.


Assuntos
Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas , Imunoglobulina G , Autoimunidade , Carboidratos , Glicosilação , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682481

RESUMO

The low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet has recently been subject to attention on account of its reported influences on body composition and physical performance. However, the combined effect of LCHF with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to explore the effect of the LCHF diet combined with HIIT on human body composition (i.e., body weight (BM), body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), body fat percentage (BFP), fat-free mass (FFM)) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Online libraries (PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, CNKI, Wan Fang) were used to search initial studies until July 2021, from which 10 out of 2440 studies were included. WMD served as the effect size with a confidence interval value of 95%. The results of meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in BM (WMD = -5.299; 95% CI: -7.223, -3.376, p = 0.000), BMI (WMD = -1.150; 95% CI: -2.225, -0.075, p = 0.036), BFP (WMD = -2.787; 95% CI: -4.738, -0.835, p = 0.005) and a significant increase in VO2max (WMD = 3.311; 95% CI: 1.705, 4.918, p = 0.000), while FM (WMD = -2.221; 95% CI: -4.582, 0.139, p = 0.065) and FFM (WMD = 0.487; 95% CI: -3.512, 4.469, p = 0.814) remained unchanged. In conclusion, the LCHF diet combined with HIIT can reduce weight and fat effectively. This combination is sufficient to prevent muscle mass loss during LCHF, and further enhance VO2max. Further research might be required to clarify the effect of other types of exercise on body composition and physical performance during LCHF.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Humanos , Oxigênio
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(43): 12880-12890, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634902

RESUMO

Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) have recently emerged as natural products with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. Here, we compared the structure of LCCs from ginkgo (GK, gymnosperms), wheat straw (WST, monocotyledons), and aspen white poplar (AW, dicotyledons). We also investigated the biotransformation of LCCs by intestinal microbiota in vitro. We found that human intestinal microbiota could use LCCs as a carbon source for growth, breaking resistant cross-linkages in LCCs to generate a plethora of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and aromatic compounds with putative beneficial effects on human health. The yield of SCFAs reached 1837.8 ± 44.1 µmol/g using AW LCCs as a carbon source. The biomass of intestinal microbiota increased the fastest using GK LCCs. The greatest amounts of phenolics were present at 4 h in a WST LCCs fermentation system. Many phenolic acids with potential bioactivity were obtained after 24 h fermentation using each LCCs, such as ferulic acid.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lignina , Biotransformação , Carboidratos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos , Lignina/metabolismo
19.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(12): 4014-4022, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595548

RESUMO

Spirulina is a filamentous microalga which is considered a promising alternative source of essential nutrients and active biomolecules. High production cost and the space required to install a photobioreactor are two of the greatest challenges in the industrial application of microalga-based products. Thus, this study aimed to improve Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass and phycocyanin content by combining the application of mixotrophic culture and magnetic fields (MF). Zarrouk medium was modified with 1 and 3 g/L liquid molasses and the application of 30 mT for 1·h/d was investigated. Mixotrophic culture with 1 g/L molasses showed the highest biomass concentration (1.62 g/L), carbohydrate content (25.6%), and lipid contents (8.7%) after 15 days. Although the combination of 30 mT and 1 g/L liquid molasses decreased biomass production (1.44 g/L), there was increase in protein yield (76.9%) and protein productivity (73.8 mg/L·d). The proposed method increased phycocyanin production by 145% and its purity from 0.584 in the control culture to 0.627. Data described by this study show that the combination of mixotrophic culture and MF application is a promising alternative to increase microalga protein and phycocyanin production.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Campos Magnéticos , Ficocianina
20.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641284

RESUMO

To elucidate the chemical linkages between lignin and carbohydrates in ginkgo cell walls, 13C-2H-enriched cell wall-dehydrogenation polymers (CW-DHP) were selectively prepared with cambial tissue from Ginkgo biloba L. by feeding D-glucose-[6-2H2], coniferin-[α-13C], and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) inhibitor. The abundant detection of 13C and 2H confirmed that D-glucose-[6-2H2] and coniferin-[α-13C] were involved in the normal metabolism of ginkgo cambial cells that had been effectively labelled with dual isotopes. In the ginkgo CW-DHP, ketal and ether linkages were formed between the C-α of lignin side chains and carbohydrates, as revealed by solid state CP/MAS 13C-NMR differential spectroscopy. Furthermore, the DMSO/TBAH ionic liquids system was used to fractionate the ball-milled CW-DHP into three lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) fractions: glucan-lignin complex (GL), glucomannan-lignin complex (GML), and xylan-lignin complex (XL). The XRD determination indicated that the cellulose type I of the GL was converted into cellulose type II during the separation process. The molecular weight was in the order of Ac-GL > Ac-GML > XL. The 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR differential spectroscopy of 13C-2H-enriched GL fraction indicated that lignin was linked with cellulose C-6 by benzyl ether linkages. It was also found that there were benzyl ether linkages between the lignin side chain C-α and glucomannan C-6 in the 13C-2H-enriched GML fraction. The formation of ketal linkages between the C-α of lignin and xylan was confirmed in the 13C-2H-enriched XL fraction.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Ginkgo biloba/química , Lignina/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Parede Celular/química , Glucanos/química , Glucose/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Traqueófitas/química , Xilanos/química
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