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1.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458146

RESUMO

The potential therapeutic effect of Carica papaya leaf juice has attracted wide interest from the public and scientists in relieving dengue related manifestations. Currently, there is a lack of evaluated evidence on its juice form. Therefore, this scoping review aims to critically appraise the available scientific evidence related to the efficacy of C. papaya leaf juice in dengue. A systematic search was performed using predetermined keywords on two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar). Searched results were identified, screened and appraised to establish the association between C. papaya and alleviating dengue associated conditions. A total of 28 articles (ethnobotanical information: three, in vitro studies: three, ex vivo studies: one, in vivo study: 13, clinical studies: 10) were included for descriptive analysis, which covered study characteristics, juice preparation/formulations, study outcomes, and toxicity findings. Other than larvicidal activity, this review also reveals two medicinal potentials of C. papaya leaf juice on dengue infection, namely anti-thrombocytopenic and immunomodulatory effects. C. papaya leaf juice has the potential to be a new drug candidate against dengue disease safely and effectively.


Assuntos
Carica , Dengue , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457505

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture activities and its presence in the aquatic environment has been broadly recorded. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CPF exposure on oxidative stress, innate immunity, sexual hormones, and DNA integrity of female African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, in addition to the potential use of dietary supplementation of papaya, Carica papaya (CP), extract against CPF toxicity. Apparent healthy female catfish (300 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups with three replicates each. The first group served as the negative control (fed on a basal diet) and the other groups exposed to CPF (8.75 µg/L) with or without CP extract (250 mg/kg body weight) for six weeks. The results revealed that CPF exposure exhibited marked elevations in stress markers (glucose and cortisol), serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone level. Moreover, CPF increased the percentage of hepatic DNA damage. In addition, catfish exposed to CPF experienced significant decline in serum total protein, albumin, follicles stimulating hormone, estradiol hormone levels, AChE, immunoglobulin, and lysozyme activity. CPF induced significantly oxidative stress in hepatic and renal tissues. The dietary supplementation with CP extract at a level of 250 mg/kg body weight succeeded to alleviate the negative effects of CPF on the physiological, immunological, and antioxidant status of female catfish. In addition, CP extract alleviated the endocrine disruption and hepatic DNA damage and counteracted the subchronic CPF toxicity in female African catfish. Finally, the CP extract may be used as a feed additive in the aquatic diet.


Assuntos
Carica , Peixes-Gato , Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Hormônios , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
J Food Sci ; 87(4): 1684-1695, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275402

RESUMO

The high pectin content in papaya (Carica papaya) causes the juice extraction to be difficult and results in a low yield. This study aims to determine the effect of acidified blanching water and pectinase enzyme pretreatments on the yield, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant activities of the papaya juice. For acidified blanching treatment, papaya cubes (3 cm3 ) were blanched in water containing 0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5% w/v citric acid at 95℃ for 2 min. For enzyme treatment, a pectinase enzyme (10, 20, and 30 ppm) was added to the homogenous papaya puree and incubated at 45℃ (200 rpm) for 60 min. The enzyme reaction was stopped by pasteurization at 74℃ for 2 min. The puree was filtered, and the juice was pasteurized at 74℃ for 7 min. All pretreated papaya juice were analyzed for physicochemical properties (color, clarity, viscosity, pH, total soluble solids [TSSs], total carotenoid content, total phenolic content [TPC], and total flavonoid content [TFC]), and antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] assay). Both pretreatments improved the clarity of papaya juice, and was significantly greater after pretreatment with pectinase enzyme. The TPC and antioxidant activities of papaya juice were conserved and maintained by acidified blanching at 1.5% (w/v) citric acid. Increased concentrations of pectinase enzyme significantly reduced the TPC and total carotenoid content. Pretreatment with pectinase enzyme up to 20 ppm does not significantly reduce the TFC and antioxidant activities. Acidified blanching and pectinase enzyme pretreatments have an impact on extraction of papaya fruit juice while retaining the nutritional composition of the juice. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Papaya (Carica papaya) is a fruit with great nutritional values but is highly perishable and prone to postharvest loss. Juice has become a more cost-effective and convenient option for preserving the fruit. However, since papaya is a pectin-rich fruit, the extraction of juice using mechanical pressing is difficult due to the bonding of juice to the pulp in the form of a jellied mass, which results in juice with low yield. Using acidified blanching and pectinase enzyme to clarify the juice not only increases the yield but also retains the nutrient composition of the juice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carica , Antioxidantes/química , Carica/química , Carotenoides , Ácido Cítrico , Flavonoides , Pectinas , Fenóis/análise , Poligalacturonase , Verduras , Água
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(3): 237, 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235049

RESUMO

This study assessed the nutrient enhancement potentials of moringa (Moringa oleifera), neem (Azadirachta indica), and pawpaw (Carica papaya) fortified composts in contaminated soils. The composts were formulated from poultry manure; leaves of moringa, neem, and pawpaw; and sawdust for a period of 8 weeks. Contaminated soil samples were collected from a dumpsite in Abeokuta, Ogun State. The contaminated soils were treated with the stabilized composts for a period of 4 weeks. Castor oil plants were introduced to assess the nutrient quality of the composts. Soil and compost parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio, P, K, Na, Mg, and Ca) were determined using the standard procedures. Data collected were evaluated for simple descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed non-significance (p > 0.05) of C/N ratios that ranged between 12.75 ± 2.43 and 12.96 ± 1.49. The pH values of moringa- and neem-fortified composts were slightly acidic, while the pawpaw-formulated compost was slightly alkaline. The levels of TN and OC were three times higher in moringa- and pawpaw-fortified composts than in the neem compost. Introduction of the composts to the contaminated soils decreased the soil pH but increased the nutrient quality parameters such as TN (33-50%), OC (56-77%), P (7-20%), Na (89-91%), K (12-25%), and Mg (10-13%). The three compost types increased the physiological properties of the castor oil plants. The study indicated the promising potentials of the three composts for nutrient enhancement of soil.


Assuntos
Asimina , Azadirachta , Carica , Compostagem , Moringa oleifera , Moringa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esterco , Nutrientes , Solo/química
5.
J Food Sci ; 87(3): 919-928, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150140

RESUMO

In the most chilling-sensitive fruits and vegetables, usually, the lower the storage temperature, the more serious the symptoms of chilling injury (CI). As one of the special cases, papaya fruits at 1℃ show slighter CI symptoms than those at higher storage temperature. Such abnormal CI phenomenon has not received enough attention and its mechanism is not clear. The present study investigated the difference of CI severity and sugar metabolism in papaya fruits when stored between 1℃ and 6℃. The results showed that CI index in papaya fruits preserved at 1°C was markedly lower than that in fruit at 6°C, which was accompanied by higher content of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In addition, compared to 6°C, 1°C promoted higher activities of sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, and neutral invertase, but lowered acid invertase activity. RT-qPCR analysis showed that 1°C upregulated the CpSPS expression and downregulated the CpAI expression when compared to 6°C. The present results indicate that higher chilling tolerance in papaya fruit at 1°C could be attributed to more accumulation of sucrose and reducing sugars in relation to more advantageous sugar metabolism. These results provided a basis for explaining the abnormal behavior of papaya fruits in response to varying low temperatures. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: For most chilling-sensitive fruits and vegetables, in the range of temperatures that induce chilling injury (CI), the lower storage temperature may lead to more severe CI. However, as one of the special cases, papaya fruits at 1℃ show slighter CI symptoms than those at higher storage temperature. The reason for this abnormal CI symptom in papaya fruits is that 1°C storage can regulated enzyme activities and changes in gene expression related to sugar metabolism, which could result in more accumulation of sucrose and slower degradation of hexose and contribute to alleviation of CI. Our results provided a basis for explaining the abnormal behavior of papaya fruit in response to varying low temperatures.


Assuntos
Carica , Frutas , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163902

RESUMO

By-products from fruits and are of great interest for their potential use in the food industry due to their high content of bioactive compounds. Herein, we examined the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of carotenoid and carotenoid esters from papaya pulp and peel using soybean oil and sunflower oil as alternative green solvents. Response surface methodology (RSM) was established to optimize the UAE process. Three independent variables, ultrasonic amplitude (20-60%), time (10-60 min), and co-solvent percentage (ethanol) (5-20%, v/v), were applied. The highest total carotenoid content in the UAE extracts was obtained from papaya pulp extracts (58.7 ± 1.6 and 56.0 ± 1.5 µg carotenoids/g oil) using soybean oil and sunflower oil, respectively (60% amplitude/ 10 min/ 20% ethanol). On the other hand, the highest carotenoid content (52.0 ± 0.9 µg carotenoids/g oil) was obtained from papaya peel using soybean oil applying the UAE process (20% amplitude/ 77 min/ 20% ethanol); a minor content of 39.3 ± 0.5 µg carotenoids/g oil was obtained from papaya peel using sunflower oil at 60% amplitude/ 60 min/ 5% ethanol. Lycopene was the most abundant carotenoid among all individual carotenoids observed in papaya oil extracts, obtaining the highest yields of this carotenoid when papaya pulp and peel were extracted using soybean oil (94% and 81%, respectively) and sunflower oil (95% and 82%, respectively). Great extraction of xanthophyll esters was detected using 20% of ethanol in the vegetable oil extraction solvent (v/v). High correlations (>0.85) was obtained between total carotenoid content and color determination in the UAE oil extracts. UAE vegetable oil extracts enriched with carotenoids from papaya by-products could be useful to formulate new food ingredients based on emulsions with interesting potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Carica , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Óleos Vegetais , Verduras
7.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 21: 15347354211068417, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984951

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is a critical condition in which platelet counts are abnormally reduced following the administration of chemotherapeutic compounds. CIT poses a treatment conundrum to clinicians given the increased risk of spontaneous bleeding, obstacles to surgical management of tumors, and exclusion from clinical trials. Treatment of CIT involves the removal of the offending agent combined with platelet infusion or thrombopoietin agonist treatment. However, due to the autoimmune and infection risks associated with infusions, this treatment is only reserved for patients with critically low platelet counts. One potential solution for patients in the mid to low platelet count range is Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE). In this case, we report the novel use of CPLE as a method of bolstering platelet counts in a patient presenting with CIT. The patient was initiated on CPLE therapy consisting of 1 tablespoon twice daily with meals. Following CPLE treatment, the patient's platelet counts rebounded from less than 10,000/µL to 113,000/µL. This clinical vignette supports the use of CPLE in the clinical context of CIT when thrombopoietin agonists are not a viable option. The potential benefits of CPLE as a method for increasing platelet count deserve further exploration, especially as a treatment option for refractory patients or those ill-suited for other traditional thrombocytopenia therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carica , Trombocitopenia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombopoetina/efeitos adversos , Verduras
8.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 8, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pistil is an essential part of flowers that functions in the differentiation of the sexes and reproduction in plants. The stigma on the pistil can accept pollen to allow fertilization and seed development. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a dioecious plant, where female flowers exhibit normal pistil, while the male flowers exhibit aborted pistil at a late stage of pistil development. RESULTS: The developmental stages of papaya pistil were analyzed after first dividing it into slices representing the primordium stage 1 (S1), the pre-meiotic stages S2, post-meiotic stage S3, and the mitotic stage S4. The SS scoring algorithm analysis of genes preferentially expressed at different stages revealed differentially expressed genes between male and female flowers. A transcription factor regulatory network for each stage based on the genes that are differentially expressed between male and female flowers was constructed. Some transcription factors related to pistil development were revealed based on the analysis of regulatory networks such as CpAGL11, CpHEC2, and CpSUPL. Based on the specific expression of genes, constructed a gene regulatory subnetwork with CpAGL11-CpSUPL-CpHEC2 functioning as the core. Analysis of the functionally enriched terms in this network reveals several differentially expressed genes related to auxin/ brassinosteroid signal transduction in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway. At the same time, significant differences in the expression of auxin and brassinosteroid synthesis-related genes between male and female flowers at different developmental stages were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The pistil abortion of papaya might be caused by the lack of expression or decreased expression of some transcription factors and hormone-related genes, affecting hormone signal transduction or hormone biosynthesis. Analysis of aborted and normally developing pistil in papaya provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of pistil development and sex differentiation in dioecious papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Carica/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Pólen
9.
Plant Dis ; 106(2): 685-690, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601954

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate epidemiological aspects of papaya virus E (PpVE), a cytorhabdovirus commonly found in papaya (Carica papaya L.) plantings in Ecuador. Besides papaya, PpVE was found in three Fabaceae weeds, including Rhynchosia minima, Centrosema plumieri, and Macroptilium lathyroides, the latter being the species with the highest virus prevalence. Greenhouse experiments showed that in M. lathyroides, single infections of PpVE induce only mild leaf mosaic, whereas in mixed infections with cowpea severe mosaic virus, PpVE contributes to severe mosaic. In papaya, PpVE did not induce noticeable symptoms in single or mixed infections with papaya ringspot virus. Transmission experiments confirmed that whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) transmit PpVE in a semipersistent, nonpropagative manner.


Assuntos
Carica , Hemípteros , Rhabdoviridae , Animais , Folhas de Planta , Virulência
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 67(2): 735-740, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613621

RESUMO

Mummified remains pose an issue for forensic scientists as identification of the deceased can be difficult due to extreme shriveling of dermal tissue and a resulting lack of quality fingerprint features. The typical protocols used to address this problem include corrosive chemicals that may further damage the already susceptible tissues. An alternative approach is found in the juice of two fruit species known to contain proteolytically active enzymes that tenderize soft tissues, thereby promoting water uptake. In this study, we saturated mummified fingers in papaya and pineapple juice treatments, followed by syringe-facilitated finger volume distension. After juice saturation, the data showed statistically significant increases in mass and volume of the samples, (papaya: relative mass p < 0.02833, relative volume p < 0.008466; pineapple: relative mass p < 0.01426, relative volume p < 0.04182). The post-treatment tissues were then rehydrated through a hydraulic mechanism that exerted the required turgor for effective fingerprint capture. This novel protocol utilizes fruit-based reagents to rehydrate mummified fingers without risk of corrosive damage, allowing for the restoration of accurate fingerprints and the positive identification of decedents. The value of this protocol lies in its simple implementation, affordability, instrument availability, and time effectiveness.


Assuntos
Ananas , Carica , Bebidas , Hidratação , Medicina Legal/métodos , Frutas
11.
J Proteomics ; 252: 104434, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818586

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms that endow a somatic cell with the ability to differentiate into a somatic embryo, which could result in numerous biotechnological applications, is still a challenge. The objective of this work was to identify some of the molecular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the acquisition of embryogenic competence during somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L. We performed a broad characterization of embryogenic (EC) and nonembryogenic calli (NEC) of using global and mitochondrial proteomic approaches, histomorphology, histochemistry, respiratory activity, and endogenous hormonal and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents. EC and NEC presented remarkable differences in anatomical and histochemical characteristics, with EC showing a higher reactivity for the presence of proteins and neutral polysaccharides. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial metabolism affects the embryogenic competence of C. papaya callus. The EC presented higher participation of alternative oxidase (AOX) enzymes, higher total cell respiration and presented a stronger accumulation of mitochondrial stress response proteins. Differential accumulation of auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) family proteins in EC was related to a decrease in the content of free 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). EC also showed higher endogenous H2O2 contents. H2O2 is a promising molecule for further investigation in differentiation protocols for C. papaya somatic embryos. SIGNIFICANCE: To further advance the understanding of somatic embryogenesis, we performed a broad characterization of embryogenic and nonembryogenic callus, through global and mitochondrial proteomic approaches, histomorphology, histochemistry, respiratory activity, and endogenous hormonal and hydrogen peroxide contents. Based on these results, we propose a working model for the competence of papaya callus. This model suggests that GH3 proteins play an important role in the regulation of auxins. In addition, embryogenic callus showed a greater abundance of stress response proteins and folding proteins. Embryogenic callus respiration occurs predominantly via AOX, and the inhibition of its activity is capable of inhibiting callus differentiation. Although the embryogenic callus presented greater total respiration and a greater abundance of oxidative phosphorylation proteins, they had less COX participation and less coupling efficiency, indicating less ATP production.


Assuntos
Carica , Proteômica , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Proteômica/métodos
12.
Phytopathology ; 112(3): 708-719, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384243

RESUMO

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe damage to papaya (Carica papaya L.) and is the primary limiting factor for papaya production worldwide. A nitrous acid-induced mild strain, PRSV HA 5-1, derived from Hawaii strain HA, has been applied to control PRSV by cross-protection for decades. However, the problem of strain-specific protection hampers its application in Taiwan and other geographic regions outside Hawaii. Here, sequence comparison of the genomic sequence of HA 5-1 with that of HA revealed 69 nucleotide changes, resulting in 31 aa changes, of which 16 aa are structurally different. The multiple mutations of HA 5-1 are considered to result from nitrous acid induction because 86% of nucleotide changes are transition mutations. The stable HA 5-1 was used as a backbone to generate recombinants carrying individual 3' fragments of Vietnam severe strain TG5, including NIa, NIb, and CP3' regions, individually or in combination. Our results indicated that the best heterologous fragment for the recombinant is the region of CP3', with which symptom attenuation of the recombinant is like that of HA 5-1. This mild recombinant HA51/TG5-CP3' retained high levels of protection against the homologous HA in papaya plants and significantly increased the protection against the heterologous TG-5. Similarly, HA 5-1 recombinants carrying individual CP3' fragments from Thailand SMK, Taiwan YK, and Vietnam ST2 severe strains also significantly increase protection against the corresponding heterologous strains in papaya plants. Thus, our recombinant approach for mild strain generation is a fast and effective way to minimize the problem of strain-specific protection.


Assuntos
Carica , Potyvirus , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Potyvirus/genética , Taiwan
14.
Gene ; 813: 146106, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953936

RESUMO

Stellacyanin (SC) is a type I (blue) copper protein, which plays a crucial role in plant growth and stress response. However, the comprehensive analysis and functional research of SCs in the woody plant is still lacking. Here, a total of 74 SCs were collected and identified from Arabidopsis, papaya, grape, rice and poplar. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the gene structure, protein structure and evolutionary relationship of 74 genes, especially 19 SCs in Populus trichocarpa. Based on the RNA-seq data, expression pattern of SCs in poplar under cold, high temperature, drought and salt stress were further analyzed. Subsequently, a key candidate gene PtSC18 that strongly responded to drought stress was screened. Subcellular localization experiment exhibited that PtSC18 was localized in the nucleus and plasma membrane. Overexpression of PtSC18 enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis by improving water retention and reducing oxidative damage. Measurements of physiological indicators, including chlorophyll, H2O2, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and catalase enzyme activities and electrical conductivity, all supported this conclusion. More importantly, PtSC18 enhanced the expression of some stress-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Overall, our results lay a foundation for understanding the structure and function of PtSCs and provide useful gene resources for breeding through genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metaloproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Carica/genética , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Transcriptoma , Vitis/genética
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2392: 199-220, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773625

RESUMO

For diagnosis of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, primers are usually raised against the sequence encoding capsid proteins, since structural proteins are more conserved. This chapter focuses on the design of primers for a group of novel viruses lacking a capsid, known as papaya Umbra-like viruses (unassigned genus) associated with Papaya Sticky Disease, which represent a threat to papaya production. Based on sequence alignments of a region encoding the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase, universal primers to detect all the known viruses from four countries are proposed. The Forward universal primer can be used in combination with clade- and subclade-specific primers for rapid virus identification. We walk the reader through downloading sequences from nucleotide databases, doing sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree construction to identify conserved and variable regions as valid primer targets; we also show how to design and analyze the primers.


Assuntos
Carica , Vírus de Plantas , Umbridae , Animais , Capsídeo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Carica/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírus de RNA
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 696-706, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganism for biological control of fruit diseases is an eco-friendly alternative to the use of chemical fungicides. RESULTS: This is the first study evaluating the electrospraying process to encapsulate the biocontrol yeast Meyerozyma caribbica. The effect of encapsulating material [Wey protein concentrate (WPC), Fibersol® and Trehalose], its concentration and storage temperature on the cell viability of M. caribbica, and in vitro and in vivo control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was evaluated. The processing with commercial resistant maltodextrin (Fibersol®) 30% (w/v) as encapsulating material showed the highest initial cell viability (95.97 ± 1.01%). The storage at 4 ± 1 °C showed lower losses of viability compared to 25 ± 1 °C. Finally, the encapsulated yeast with Fibersol 30% w/v showed inhibitory activity against anthracnose in the in vitro and in vivo tests, similar to yeast fresh cells. CONCLUSION: Electrospraying was a highly efficient process due to the high cell viability, and consequently, a low quantity of capsules is required for the postharvest treatment of fruits. Additionally, the yeast retained its antagonistic power during storage. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Carica/microbiologia , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Mangifera/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/química , Antibiose , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Saccharomycetales/fisiologia
17.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103930, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809956

RESUMO

The growth behavior of Listeria monocytogenes low population (1-4 cells/sample) on fresh-cut mango, melon, papaya and fruit mix stored at 4, 8, 12 and 16 °C was evaluated over 10 days. Mango showed the lowest counts for L. monocytogenes during 10 days regardless of storage temperature (<1.7 log cfu.g-1). Melon supported high bacterial growth over 10 days, reaching 5 log cfu.g-1 at 16 °C. Both the fruit and storage temperature influenced the Listeria low population growth potential (δ). Cumulative frequency distribution of L. monocytogenes showed that after 10 days, 100% of fresh-cut fruits and fruit mix stored at 4 °C remained ≤2 log cfu.g-1, while at 12 and 16 °C 100% of melon, papaya and fruit mix samples exceeded this limit. At 8 °C, 100% of mango and fruit mix samples remained below this limit after 10 days, whereas 100% of melon and papaya reached it after 7 days. Results indicate 4 °C as the ideal to store safely fresh-cut mango, melon, papaya and fruit mix for 10 days. Besides, 8 °C can also be an option, but not for melon and papaya. Findings highlight the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive and grow in fresh-cut fruits even at a very low initial population levels.


Assuntos
Carica , Cucurbitaceae , Listeria monocytogenes , Mangifera , Temperatura , Carica/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cucurbitaceae/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mangifera/microbiologia
18.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111854, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437850

RESUMO

Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) are prepared from a natural resource Carica Papaya Leaves, by sand bath method. The as-synthesized CDs optical and structural properties were characterized by UltraViolet-Visible, FT- IR, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Also the size, shape, and particle size distribution was studied using Transmission electron microscopy technique. These CDs were examined for biomedical applications like free radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdate assay, and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using membrane stabilization protocol. The CDs exhibited excellent biological activities at lower concentrations and showed notable half-maximal effective concentration (EC50). The EC50 of free radical scavenging activity (27.6 µg/mL), antioxidant activity (23.00 µg/mL), and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (15.52 µg/mL) signifies that CDs can be potential therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Carica , Pontos Quânticos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carbono , Corantes Fluorescentes , Folhas de Planta
19.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 9934107, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether feeding CircuCare to rats improves blood circulation, metabolism, immune regulation, endocrine activity, and oxidative stress. METHODS: 28 eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were evenly randomized into control and experimental groups. The control group was fed with ordinary drinking water, while the experimental group was fed with CircuCare at a daily dose of 93.75 mg per 300 g of body weight over eight weeks. Both groups were subjected to a swimming test, and blood samples were taken to observe any variations in various biochemical parameters before and after the test. Key Findings. The experimental group's mean swimming exhaustion duration was 53.2% longer and had a significantly higher lactic acid removal ratio. Their mean prostaglandin E2 level and mean glucose, cortisol, and glutathione level (30 minutes after swimming test) were also significantly higher. No undesirable impacts from CircuCare relating to general blood biochemistry values and bone mineral density were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The present results show that CircuCare can be safely used to increase stamina and exercise capability, expedite the metabolism of lactic acid, accelerate muscle repair, and promote the antioxidant activity of cells in rats.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Carica/química , Biologia Computacional , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glândulas Endócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Endócrinas/fisiologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Esforço Físico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 302, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are the central pathogenic events in liver diseases. In this study, the protective and therapeutic role of Carica Papaya Linn. seeds extract (SE) was evaluated against the hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. METHODS: The air-dried papaya seeds were powdered and extracted with distilled water. The phytochemical ingredients, minerals, and antioxidant potentials were studied. For determination of the biological role of SE against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, five groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared (8 rats per each): C: control; SE: rats were administered with SE alone; CCl4: rats were injected subcutaneously with CCl4; SE-CCl4 group: rats were administered with SE orally for 2 weeks before and 8 weeks during CCl4 injection; SE-CCl4-SE group: Rats were administered with SE and CCl4 as mentioned in SE-CCl4 group with a prolonged administration with SE for 4 weeks after the stopping of CCl4 injection. Then, the markers of OS [lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], inflammation [nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6], fibrosis [transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß], apoptosis [tumor suppressor gene (p53)], liver and kidney functions beside liver histopathology were determined. RESULTS: The phytochemical analyses revealed that SE contains different concentrations of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, and minerals so it has potent antioxidant activities. Therefore, the treatment with SE pre, during, and/or after CCl4 administration attenuated the OS induced by CCl4 where the LP was reduced, but the antioxidants (GSH, SOD, GST, and GPx) were increased. Additionally, these treatments reduced the inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis induced by CCl4, since the levels of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-ß, and p53 were declined. Accordingly, liver and kidney functions were improved. These results were confirmed by the histopathological results. CONCLUSIONS: SE has protective and treatment roles against hepatotoxicity caused by CCl4 administration through the reduction of OS, inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis induced by CCl4 and its metabolites in the liver tissues. Administration of SE for healthy rats for 12 weeks had no adverse effects. Thus, SE can be utilized in pharmacological tools as anti-hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carica , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/análise , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Testes de Função Renal , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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