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1.
Food Microbiol ; 106: 104035, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690439

RESUMO

Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter spp and Salmonella spp. These two bacterial genera are commonly linked with cases of human gastrointestinal disease, thus mitigating their presence in the poultry meat supply chain is paramount. Here, the efficacy of two sanitizers, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), was tested using whole chicken carcasses obtained either prior to the inside/outside wash or the post-immersion spin chill steps of processing. Two concentrations of PAA (100 and 200 ppm) and ASC (450 and 900 ppm) were tested, and both significantly reduced total viable bacteria and Campylobacter counts per carcass. Both sanitizers also reduced the prevalence of Salmonella on whole carcasses from both processing steps. Log reduction of both the total viable and Campylobacter counts were, however, temperature and processing stage dependent. The efficacy of both PAA and ASC were also compared with sodium hypochlorite. No significant difference between the three sanitizers was observed for the reduction of TVC, Campylobacter or Salmonella using carcasses obtained at either processing step. These results demonstrate that PAA or ASC could be implemented as a replacement or used in addition to sodium hypochlorite to effectively reduce bacteria on whole carcasses.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Ácido Peracético , Animais , Bactérias , Galinhas/microbiologia , Cloretos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Salmonella , Hipoclorito de Sódio
2.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111103, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650996

RESUMO

Spoilage dynamics of two beef burger batches from different beef origins were followed from their shared processing run until the use-by date and beyond. Amplicon based sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities were compared with microbial counts and volatilome profile in order to determine whether and at which extent their perishability was related to the batch origin. Microbiological counts did not differ between batch A and B, whereas Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profiles were only distinguishable after the use-by date. Metataxonomic analysis showed that both batches shared the same initial fungal and bacterial community, which however represented a transient signature of the processing run. Indeed, it was rapidly replaced by batch-autochthonous species of fungi and bacteria. Different temporal succession patterns of psychotropic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were observed between the batches from the fourth day of vacuum storage. In particular, the sequential dominance of Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc piscium in batch B was correlated with a more heterogeneous volatilome and greater production of VOCs linked to off-odours, such as the acetoin. The metataxonomic survey was able to discriminate between the two batches of hamburgers in relation to their origin and regardless of the initially shared processing-derived contamination.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Vácuo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675365

RESUMO

Slaughterhouses are a key source of bacterial contamination in poultry meat and products, which is a major health and economic concern for several public authorities. This study aimed to quantify the non-compliance of bacterial contamination on chicken meat sampled from slaughterhouses and identify risk factors associated with the contamination. A questionnaire survey of 569 chicken slaughterhouses was undertaken and 1,707 meat samples were collected to determine the level of bacterial contamination. The proportion of the non-compliance associated with aerobic plate count [APC] (24.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%), Enterococcus spp. (24.7%), coliforms (13.5%), Escherichia coli (33.3%), and Salmonella spp. (33.4%) based on the livestock authorities' criteria was determined. Our results highlighted that the scalding process without scalding water temperature control or improper scalding increased the risk of APC (odds ratio, OR = 4.84, 95% CI: 2.72-8.61), S. aureus (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.29-5.55), Enterococcus spp. (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 2.01-5.69), coliforms (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.47-6.15), and E. coli (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.58-4.56) contamination on meat samples. Meat from eviscerated carcasses was more likely to be non-compliance due to contamination by E. coli (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.14-3.38). Furthermore, open or semi-closed system slaughterhouses (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.23-2.60) and lack of equipment for specific slaughtering areas (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.04-2.61) increased the likelihood of Salmonella spp. occurrence. This is the first study of factors influencing the non-compliance of meat samples across Thailand. Authorities can use the study findings to enhance food safety strategies at the national level.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Galinhas , Animais , Bactérias , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella , Staphylococcus aureus , Tailândia
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220400, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703046

RESUMO

Food poisoning caused by Campylobacter (campylobacteriosis) is the most prevalent bacterial disease associated with the consumption of poultry, beef, lamb and pork meat and unpasteurized dairy products. A variety of livestock industry, food chain and public health interventions have been implemented or proposed to reduce disease prevalence, some of which entail costs for producers and retailers. This paper describes a project that set out to summarize the natural science evidence base relevant to campylobacteriosis control in as policy-neutral terms as possible. A series of evidence statements are listed and categorized according to the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Bovinos , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 211: 140-149, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561855

RESUMO

In this research, the common microorganisms in chilled meat were used as the targeted antibacterial objects. Chitosan, pullulan, and carvacrol were chosen to prepare the edible antibacterial film. The effects of different concentrations of carvacrol on the microstructure, physical properties and antibacterial properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of chitosan/pullulan film (CS/PU) was unsatisfactory, when carvacrol was added, the antibacterial activity of the chitosan/pullulan/carvacrol film (CS/PU/CAR) improved significantly (p < 0.05), and the water vapor permeability (WVP) of the CS/PU/CAR decreased significantly (p < 0.05). When the carvacrol concentration was higher than 1.25% (w/v), the tensile strength and percentage elongation at break of the CS/PU/CAR increased significantly (p < 0.05), and the CS/PU/CAR exhibited satisfying antibacterial activity against the common bacteria in chilled meat such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Enterobacter cloacae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the CS/PU/CAR film was applied to the preservation of chilled goat meat and extended the shelf life of goat meat to more than 15 days. These results suggested that the targeted CS/PU/CAR film can be used as biodegradable films for the active packaging of chilled meat.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Cimenos , Escherichia coli , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Glucanos , Carne/microbiologia , Resistência à Tração
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 191, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase production in Enterobacterales isolated from retail sheep meat in Zagazig, Egypt. METHODS: One hundred random samples of sheep meat were collected from different retail butcher shops (n = 5) in the city of Zagazig, Egypt. Bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and screened for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion; further genotypic characterization of ß-lactamase-encoding genes was performed with Real-Time PCR. E. coli strains were phylotyped with the Clermont triplex PCR method. RESULTS: Of the total of 101 bacterial isolates recovered from retail sheep meat samples, 93 were E. coli, six were Enterobacter cloacae and two were Proteus mirabilis. As many as 17% of these 100 samples showed ESBL phenotypes, all were E. coli. The blaCTX-M genes were detected in seven isolates (six were blaCTX-M-15 and one was blaCTX-M-14), three isolates harboured blaTEM (all were blaTEM-one), and two carried genes of the blaSHV family (both were blaSHV-12). Eight E. coli isolates expressed ESBL phenotype but no blaTEM, blaSHV or blaCTX-M genes were detected by PCR. ESBL- positive E. coli isolates were nearly equally distributed over the commensal groups A/B1 and the virulent group D. CONCLUSION: Nearly one in five sheep meat samples was contaminated with ESBL-E. coli. This further corroborates the potential role played by contaminated meat in the increasing resistance rates that have been reported worldwide.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
Am J Vet Res ; 83(6)2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Escherichia coli contamination and E coli virulence gene signatures consistent with known E coli pathotypes in commercially available conventional diets and raw-meat-based diets (RMBDs). SAMPLE: 40 diets in total (19 conventionally cooked kibble or canned diets and 21 RMBDs) obtained from retail stores or online distributors. PROCEDURES: Each diet was cultured for E coli contamination in 3 separate container locations using standard microbiological techniques. Further characterization of E coli isolates was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based pathotype and virulence gene analysis. RESULTS: Conventional diets were negative in all culture based testing. In RMBDs, bacterial contamination was similar to previous reports in the veterinary literature, with 66% (14/21) of the RMBDs having positive cultures for E coli. Among the 191 confirmed E coli isolates from these diets, 31.9% (61/191) were positive for virulence genes. Categorized by pathotype, isolates presumptively belonging to the neonatal meningitis E coli pathotype (15.7% [30/191]) were the most common, followed by enterohemorrhagic E coli (10.5% [20/191]), enteropathogenic E coli (5.8% [11/191]), uropathogenic E coli (2.1% [4/191]), and diffusely adherent E coli (1.6% [3/191]). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results of this study reaffirmed the bacteriologic risks previously associated with RMBDs. Furthermore, potential zoonotic concerns associated with identified pathotypes in these diets may have significant consequences for owners in the animals' home environment. Potential risk associated with bacterial contamination should be addressed in animals fed RMBDs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Animais , Bactérias , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
8.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 9(2): 339-354, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Industrial food animal production accounts for most animal-source protein consumed in the USA. These operations rely on an array of external inputs, which can include antimicrobials of medical importance. The use of these drugs in this context has been the subject of public health debate for decades because their widespread use contributes to the selection for and proliferation of drug-resistant bacteria and their genetic determinants. Here, we describe legislative and regulatory efforts, at different levels of governance in the USA, to curtail food animal consumption of medically important antimicrobials. RECENT FINDINGS: The features and relative success of the US efforts are examined alongside those of selected member states (Denmark and the Netherlands) of the European Union. Evaluation of efforts at all levels of US governance was complicated by shortcomings in prescribed data collection; nevertheless, available information suggests deficiencies in policy implementation and enforcement compromise the effectiveness of interventions pursued to date. The political will, robust systems for collecting and integrating data on antimicrobial consumption and use, and cross-sectoral collaboration that have been integral to the success of efforts in Denmark and The Netherlands have been notably absent in the USA, especially at the federal level.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Políticas , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(3): 507-515, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404857

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In several developing countries the slaughter of meat producing animals is still practiced in traditional slaughterhouses. In the Mansoura slaughterhouse, animals are subjected to various stressors and treated with cruelty, in addition to unhygienic treatment and handling of animal carcasses. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the meat quality from cattle, buffalo, and sheep carcasses processed in an old-fashioned slaughterhouse from Mansoura city, Egypt, in the context of pre-slaughter stress. METHODOLOGY: The bleeding efficiency and the ultimate pH (pHu) of carcasses were tested, along with the effect of post-slaughter handling practice on the microbiological properties of meat. RESULTS: From the 351 examined animals, the ultimate pH (pHu) was less than 5.8 in 81 cases (23.1%) and higher than 6.0 in 165 cases (47%). Furthermore, 45 (12.8%), 270 (76.9%), and 36 (10.3%) of the tested carcasses were well-, moderate- and imperfectly-bled, respectively. Cultivation using the wet-dry triple swab technique sampled from the outer surfaces of cattle, buffalo, and sheep carcasses revealed that about 47.9% of the tested carcasses were contaminated, with total viable count levels exceeding 7 log10 cfu/cm2, and 42.7% were contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae, with levels > 3 log10 cfu/cm2. The molds and yeasts from the tested carcasses had lower counts (< 2 log10 cfu/cm2). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated neglect in terms of sanitary measures during slaughtering and dressing of carcasses, with subsequent higher microbial contamination and impaired meat quality. Therefore, the traditional slaughtering facilities should be modernized to increase their meat producing efficiency, subsequently leading to exportation possibilities.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Egito , Enterobacteriaceae , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Ovinos
10.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 168(4)2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451951

RESUMO

The control of bacterial contaminants on meat is a key area of interest in the food industry. Bacteria are exposed to a variety of stresses during broiler processing which challenge bacterial structures and metabolic pathways causing death or sublethal injury. To counter these stresses, bacteria possess robust response systems that can induce shifts in the transcriptome and proteome to enable survival. Effective adaptive responses, such as biofilm formation, shock protein production and metabolic flexibility, require rapid induction and implementation at a cellular and community level to facilitate bacterial survival in adverse conditions. This review aims to provide an overview of the scientific literature pertaining to the regulation of complex adaptive processes used by bacteria to survive the processing environment, with particular focus on species that impact the quality and safety of poultry products like Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas spp.


Assuntos
Aves Domésticas , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
11.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 167, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) being one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens worldwide poses a serious threat to public safety. Prevention of zoonotic infectious disease and controlling the risk of transmission of S. Enteriditidis critically requires the evolution of rapid and sensitive detection methods. The detection methods based on nucleic acid and conventional antibodies are fraught with limitations. Many of these limitations of the conventional antibodies can be circumvented using natural nanobodies which are endowed with characteristics, such as high affinity, thermal stability, easy production, especially higher diversity. This study aimed to select the special nanobodies against S. Enteriditidis for developing an improved nanobody-horseradish peroxidase-based sandwich ELISA to detect S. Enteritidis in the practical sample. The nanobody-horseradish peroxidase fusions can help in eliminating the use of secondary antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase, which can reduce the time of the experiment. Moreover, the novel sandwich ELISA developed in this study can be used to detect S. Enteriditidis specifically and rapidly with improved sensitivity. RESULTS: This study screened four nanobodies from an immunized nanobody library, after four rounds of screening, using the phage display technology. Subsequently, the screened nanobodies were successfully expressed with the prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, respectively. A sandwich ELISA employing the SE-Nb9 and horseradish peroxidase-Nb1 pair to capture and to detect S. Enteritidis, respectively, was developed and found to possess a detection limit of 5 × 104 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. In the established immunoassay, the 8 h-enrichment enabled the detection of up to approximately 10 CFU/mL of S. Enteriditidis in milk samples. Furthermore, we investigated the colonization distribution of S. Enteriditidis in infected chicken using the established assay, showing that the S. Enteriditidis could subsist in almost all parts of the intestinal tract. These results were in agreement with the results obtained from the real-time PCR and plate culture. The liver was specifically identified to be colonized with quite a several S. Enteriditidis, indicating the risk of S. Enteriditidis infection outside of intestinal tract. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed a sandwich ELISA that used the SE-Nb9 as capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-Nb1 to detect S. Enteriditidis in the spike milk sample and to analyze the colonization distribution of S. Enteriditidis in the infected chicken. These results demonstrated that the developed assay is to be applicable for detecting S. Enteriditidis in the spiked milk in the rapid, specific, and sensitive way. Meanwhile, the developed assay can analyze the colonization distribution of S. Enteriditidis in the challenged chicken to indicate it as a promising tool for monitoring S. Enteriditidis in poultry products. Importantly, the SE-Nb1-vHRP as detection antibody can directly bind S. Enteritidis captured by SE-Nb9, reducing the use of commercial secondary antibodies and shortening the detection time. In short, the developed sandwich ELISA ushers great prospects for monitoring S. Enteritidis in food safety control and further commercial production.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Leite , Salmonella enteritidis , Animais , Galinhas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Carne/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 368: 109612, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278797

RESUMO

The control of bacterial contaminants on chicken meat is a key area of interest in the broiler industry. Microbes that pose a significant food safety risk on chicken include Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. In addition, microbes including Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactic Acid Bacteria must be controlled to ensure product quality and maintain shelf-life. Poultry meat processing challenges including cold and chemical exposure are employed to control the microbiota of the end-product, as well as to maintain environment hygiene. Exposure to these stresses can also induce adaptive shifts in the transcriptome and proteome of foodborne bacteria. This review will explore the complex interactions at play in the poultry processing environment and explain how bacteria exposed to such stresses behave in this environmental niche through the production of heat and cold-shock proteins, the expression of efflux pumps, sporulation, and the formation of mono- and mixed-species biofilms within the production environment.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Galinhas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas
13.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 103975, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287804

RESUMO

Multiple foodborne routes of Salmonella infection have been observed; however, the majority of the literature to date has been dominated by research into the most frequently observed reservoirs, such as chicken, beef, and pork. While less commonly observed, outbreaks of Salmonella within sheep meat still occur, requiring extensive investigation by food safety inspectors. Risk assessment models inform policy makers and investigators of the risks posed by pathogens at each stage of the food chain, and help suggest at which stages in the food chain outbreaks are likely induced. This work is the first risk assessment into the prevalence of Salmonella throughout the sheep meat food chain, from farm to fork. A Bayesian evidence-synthesis model is used, informed by data gathered from 27 individual studies - an exhaustive search of the existing literature, to express and enumerate the current understanding of Salmonella prevalence in the sheep meat food chain in the form of probabilities of colonisation throughout the food chain. The resulting posterior estimate projects that 9 (0-29 95% HDI) UK individuals are likely to fall ill with salmonellosis due to sheep meat every year. A variance-based sensitivity analysis reveals that the abattoir module is the stage of greatest bacterial proliferation, highlighting it as the most probable source of outbreaks, though not to the exclusion of other factors.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Carne/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Salmonella , Ovinos
14.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 103998, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287817

RESUMO

This study aims to discuss the microbial ecology of the broiler gut environment, Campylobacter prevalence across the broiler production chain with a follow-up focus on a possible mitigation strategy, based on the use of bacteriophages. Scientific literature published from the last two decades was reviewed and data were collected to establish the ranges of Campylobacter loads from different samples. Results showed that the pathogen load in the sample is likely to increase from the different stages of the production chain. Contamination of water and feed represents the most notable source of contamination during the primary production, while cross-contamination of broiler carcasses, skin, and meat occurs during the slaughter, dressing, and processing via machinery, work surfaces, water, and air partially due to the leaking of contaminated feces from visceral rupture. Knowledge gaps were identified and included: a lack of studies detecting Campylobacter in broilers in most of the European countries over the last decade and a low number of studies determining the bacterial load in crates used to transport broilers to the slaughterhouse. Determining the prevalence of Campylobacter in the broiler industry will enable us to set critical control points to produce broiler flocks and meat products with a low risk of Campylobacter contamination.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Galinhas , Matadouros , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Prevalência
15.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 104001, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287820

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to characterize postbiotics, and to evaluate their antibacterial effects in-vitro and on chicken drumsticks. Postbiotics [Pediococcus. acidilactici (PA), Latilactobacillus sakei/Staphylococcus xylosus (LS)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and their total phenolic contents were found as 2952.78 ± 0.4 and 1819.44 ± 0.39 mg GAE/L, respectively (P < 0.05). A total of 19 different phenolic and flavonoids were determined in the postbiotics. The results of the study revealed that 5% and 10% postbiotics + EDTA decreased the number of L. monocytogenes nearly 5.0 log10 in 6 h in TSB. S. Typhimurium count in the chicken drumstick decontaminated with 10% PA was found as 2.1 log10 lower than the control group on day 0. L. monocytogenes counts in the chicken drumstick decontaminated with 10% Postbiotics+1% LA groups were found to be 1.1 log10 lower than the control group (P < 0.05). The lowest total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts in the chicken drumsticks were found in the 10% Postbiotics+1% LA samples, and postbiotics did not change the color properties of the drumstick samples on day 0 (P > 0.05). In conclusion, postbiotics and their combinations with natural preservatives may be an alternative approach to reduce the food-borne pathogens and to extend the shelf-life of poultry meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Lactobacillales , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia
16.
Food Chem ; 385: 132650, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306239

RESUMO

Starch (S) films containing gellan gum (90:10) and polyester (P) blend films (PLA:PHBV, 75:25) with and without ferulic, p-coumaric or protocatechuic acid at 2% (w/w) were obtained by melt-blending and compression moulding for the purposes of obtaining SP bilayers by thermo-compressing both monolayers together. These were characterised as to their mechanical and barrier properties and as to their performance as packaging materials for pork meat slices. The incorporation of phenolic acids promoted the water vapour and oxygen barrier capacity of bilayers while reducing their stiffness and resistance to break, mainly in the case of protocatechuic acid. Phenolic acids significantly improved the antioxidant capacity of the bilayer films, reducing the lipid oxidation of packaged meat during storage. Phenolic acid loaded bilayers also reduced the microbial counts of meat, mainly for lactic acid bacteria. These effects positively affected the development of the sample pH and colour parameters throughout storage. Active starch-polyester bilayer films exhibited great potential as a means of extending the shelf-life and improving the quality preservation of pork meat.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos , Hidroxibenzoatos , Carne/microbiologia , Poliésteres/química , Amido/química , Suínos
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(5): 101793, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325832

RESUMO

This study investigated the bactericidal effects of plasma-activated acetic acid (PAAA) on Salmonella Typhimurium and its impact on the physicochemical traits of chicken meat. Twenty milliliters of 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid (AA) was treated with plasma (2.2 kHz and 8.4 kVpp) for 30 min. The chicken skins, breasts, and drumsticks, inoculated with S. Typhimurium, were immersed in AA or PAAA and incubated for 10 min. The S. Typhimurium on the breasts and drumsticks were significantly susceptible to treatment with AA and PAAA, compared to the control group (deionized water treatment), and the population of bacterial cells in PAAA-treated chicken breasts and drumsticks decreased by 0.98 and 1.19 log CFU/g, respectively, compared with AA. The values for pH and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of PAAA-treated samples decreased significantly compared to the control group. The lightness (L*) values of the chicken breasts after AA and PAAA treatments increased compared to the control group, whereas the value for yellowness (b*) decreased. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and the results for volatile compounds in chicken meat revealed similar patterns, with no significant differences between AA and PAAA treatments. In conclusion, we found that PAAA was more effective than AA and synergistic PAAA treatment of chicken caused to the reduction of S. Typhimurium and improve the meat quality. Therefore, PAAA could be utilized as a promising decontaminant for the chicken meat industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Salmonella typhimurium , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 484, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanisation in Sub-Saharan African cities such as Dakar, Senegal, leads to proliferation of informal braised meat restaurants known as "dibiteries". Dibiteries do not often comply with minimal hygiene and food safety standards. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and cost of a good hygiene practice intervention, identify factors that incentivize hygiene improvement and how that impacts on dibiteries' income. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out in Dakar dibiteries. The 120 random samples of braised meat were collected in three phases: (i) one-month pre-intervention, (ii) 2 months post-intervention, (iii) 10 months post-intervention. The trial comprised four groups of 10 dibiteries each: (a) (control) received no intervention, (b) a standardized training module, (c) a hygiene kit, (d) a training module and hygiene kit. Laboratory analysis of samples determined the total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF), thermotolerant coliforms (TC) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA). A questionnaire-based survey and focus group discussion were used to identify pre-intervention hygiene practices, and socioeconomic determinants of hygiene management in dibiteries post-intervention, respectively. RESULTS: Samples were found to be contaminated with TAMF, TC and SA. In phase 1, 27 and 13% of the samples contained TC and SA, respectively. In phase 2, no significant improvement of contamination rates was seen. In phase 3, microbiological quality of samples was significantly improved, with only 11.5% showing contamination with any of the bacterial species analysed (p < 0.1). Compared to the control group, only samples from dibiteries in group (b) had significantly reduced bacterial load in phase 3. The cost of intervention and hygiene improvement was estimated at 67 FCFA ($ 0.12) and 41 FCFA ($ 0.07) / day respectively and did not significantly impact on dibiterie profitability. Incentives to sustainably implement good hygiene practices were mainly linked to access to secure long-term workspaces. CONCLUSION: This intervention may have worked, but globally the results are mixed and not quite significant. However, continuous training in good hygiene practice and access to secure and sustainable infrastructure for dibiterie restaurants are the incentives necessary to achieve sustainable investments and behavioural change. We recommend further intervention refinement and testing other factors for promoting the adoption of good hygiene practices in the dibiteries in relation to consumers health risk.


Assuntos
Higiene , Motivação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Senegal
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 369: 109616, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306255

RESUMO

In order for the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) to make an equivalence determination for a foreign meat, poultry or egg products inspection procedure that differs from FSIS inspection procedures (an Individual Sanitary Measure or ISM), a country must demonstrate objectively that its food safety inspection system provides the same level of public health protection as the FSIS inspection system. To evaluate microbiological testing data that such countries may submit to this end, we present a possible risk metric to inform FSIS's assessment of whether products produced under an alternative inspection system in another country pose no greater consumer risk of foodborne illness than products produced under FSIS inspection. This metric requires evaluation of prevalence estimates of pathogen occurrence in products for the foreign country and the U.S. and determining what constitutes an unacceptable deviance of another country's prevalence from the U.S. prevalence, i.e., the margin of equivalence. We define the margin of equivalence as a multiple of the standard error of the U.S. prevalence estimate. Minimizing the margin of equivalence ensures the maximum public health protection for U.S. consumers, but an optimum choice must also avoid undue burden for quantitative data from alternative inspection systems in the foreign country. Across a wide range of U.S. prevalence levels and sample sizes, we determine margin of equivalence values that provide high confidence in conclusions as to whether or not the country's product poses no greater risk of foodborne illness from microbiological pathogens. These margins of equivalence can be used to inform FSIS's equivalence determination for an ISM request from a foreign country. Illustrative examples are used to support this definition of margin of equivalence. This approach is consistent with the World Trade Organization's concept of risk equivalence and is transparent and practical to apply in situations when FSIS makes an equivalence determination for an ISM requested by a foreign country.


Assuntos
Inspeção de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Comércio , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Carne/microbiologia , Estados Unidos
20.
Microb Genom ; 8(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166653

RESUMO

Members of the genus Clostridium are frequently associated with meat spoilage. The ability for low numbers of spores of certain Clostridium species to germinate in cold-stored vacuum-packed meat can result in blown pack spoilage. However, little is known about the germination process of these clostridia, despite this characteristic being important for their ability to cause spoilage. This study sought to determine the genomic conditions for germination of 37 representative Clostridium strains from seven species (C. estertheticum, C. tagluense, C. frigoris, C. gasigenes, C. putrefaciens, C. aligidicarnis and C. frigdicarnis) by comparison with previously characterized germination genes from C. perfringens, C. sporogenes and C. botulinum. All the genomes analysed contained at least one gerX operon. Seven different gerX operon configuration types were identified across genomes from C. estertheticum, C. tagluense and C. gasigenes. Differences arose between the C. gasigenes genomes and those belonging to C. tagluense/C. estertheticum in the number and type of genes coding for cortex lytic enzymes, suggesting the germination pathway of C. gasigenes is different. However, the core components of the germination pathway were conserved in all the Clostridium genomes analysed, suggesting that these species undergo the same major steps as Bacillus subtilis for germination to occur.


Assuntos
Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/genética , Clostridium/classificação , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , DNA Bacteriano , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano
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