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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876

RESUMO

Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.


Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carpas , Indústria Têxtil , Rios , Ácidos Graxos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

RESUMO

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Carpas , Paquistão , Bactérias , Lagoas , Incidência
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765595

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.(AU)


A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cobre , Manganês , Níquel , Zinco
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765586

RESUMO

The experimental research was carried out on the juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The impact from supplemental feeds consisting of variable concentrations of chelate compounds, biogenic trace elements and probiotic lactobacillus-based product Bacillus subtilis VKPM B-2335 was evaluated. Optical and qualitative parameters of the lactobacillus base were studied in order to identify the major group of substances potentially able to influence the end result. The purpose of this research was to identify changes in the structure of the zymogen granules and their dimensions at which supplemental feeds produce a stimulating effect on the synthesis of zymogens in exogenous cells of the secretory part of pancreas. At the outcome of the study, for the first time, it was possible to prove that the integrated action of chelates and lactobacillus-based probiotics complemented each other. Metal chelate compounds contributed to enlargement of the zymogen granules, if compared to the control values. The bacterial products accelerated production of the zymogen granules in acinar cells diffusely located in carp hepatopancreas.(AU)


A pesquisa experimental foi realizada em carpas juvenis (Cyprinus carpio L.). O impacto de suplementos alimentares consistindo em concentrações variáveis de compostos quelatos, oligoelementos biogênicos e produto probiótico baseado em lactobacilos Bacillus subtilis VKPM B-2335 foi avaliado. Parâmetros ópticos e qualitativos da base de lactobacilos foram estudados a fim de identificar o maior grupo de substâncias potencialmente capazes de influenciar o resultado final. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi identificar mudanças na estrutura dos grânulos de zimogênio e suas dimensões nas quais alimentos suplementares produzem um efeito estimulante na síntese de zimogênios em células exógenas da parte secretora do pâncreas. No resultado do estudo, pela primeira vez, foi possível comprovar que a ação integrada dos quelatos e dos probióticos à base de lactobacilos se complementava. Compostos quelatos metálicos contribuíram para o aumento dos grânulos de zimogênio, se comparados aos valores de controle. Os produtos bacterianos aceleraram a produção dos grânulos de zimogênio nas células acinares localizadas difusamente no hepatopâncreas da carpa.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Pâncreas , Vesículas Secretórias , Precursores Enzimáticos , Probióticos/efeitos adversos
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765523

RESUMO

Aeromonas hydrophila is a cause of infectious disease outbreaks in carp species cultured in South Asian countries including Pakistan. This bacterium has gained resistance to a wide range of antibiotics and robust preventive measures are necessary to control its spread. No prior use of fish vaccines has been reported in Pakistan. The present study aims to develop and evaluate inactivated vaccines against local strain of A. hydrophila in Pakistan with alum-precipitate as adjuvant. The immunogenic potential of vaccine was evaluated in two Indian major carps (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) and a Chinese carp (Grass carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were vaccinated intraperitoneally followed by a challenge through immersion. Fish with an average age of 4-5 months were randomly distributed in three vaccinated groups with three vaccine concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml and a control group. Fixed dose of 0.1ml was applied to each fish on 1st day and a booster dose at 15 days post-vaccination (DPV). Blood samples were collected on 14, 28, 35, 48 and 60 DPV to determine antibody titers in blood serum using compliment fixation test (CFT). Fish were challenged at 60 DPV with infectious A. hydrophila with 108 CFU/ml through immersion. Significantly higher levels of antibody titers were observed from 28 DPV in all vaccinated groups as compared to those in the control group. In challenge experiment the average RPS (relative percent survivability) was 71% for groups vaccinated with 109 and 1010 CFU/ml and 86% for 108 CFU/ml. Vaccine with 108 CFU/ml induced highest immune response followed by 109 and 1010 CFU/ml. The immune response of L. rohita and C. idella was better than that of C. mrigala. In general, normal histopathology was [...].(AU)


Aeromonas hydrophila é uma causa de surtos de doenças infecciosas em espécies de carpas cultivadas em países do sul da Ásia, incluindo o Paquistão. Essa bactéria ganhou resistência a uma ampla gama de antibióticos, e medidas preventivas robustas são necessárias para controlar sua disseminação. Nenhum uso anterior de vacinas para peixes foi relatado no Paquistão. O presente estudo tem como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar vacinas inativadas contra cepa local de A. hydrophila no Paquistão com precipitado de alúmen como adjuvante. O potencial imunogênico da vacina foi avaliado em duas carpas principais indianas (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) e uma carpa chinesa (Grass Carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Os peixes foram vacinados por via intraperitoneal, seguido de um desafio por imersão. Peixes com idade média de 4-5 meses foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos vacinados com três concentrações de vacina de 108, 109 e 1010 unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) / ml e um grupo de controle. Foi aplicada dose fixa de 0,1ml em cada peixe no 1º dia e dose de reforço 15 dias pós-vacinação (DPV). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em 14, 28, 35, 48 e 60 DPV para determinar os títulos de anticorpos no soro sanguíneo usando o teste de fixação de elogio (CFT). Os peixes foram desafiados a 60 DPV com infecciosa A. hydrophila com 108 CFU / ml por imersão. Níveis significativamente mais elevados de títulos de anticorpos foram observados em 28 DPV em todos os grupos vacinados, em comparação com aqueles no grupo de controle. Na experiência de desafio, o RPS médio (sobrevivência percentual relativa) foi de 71% para os grupos vacinados com 109 e 1010 CFU / ml e 86% para 108 CFU / ml. A vacina com 108 UFC / ml induziu a maior resposta imune seguida por 109 e 1010 UFC / ml. A resposta imune de L. rohita e C. idella foi melhor do que a de C. mrigala. Em geral, histopatologia normal foi observada em diferentes [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Vacinas/análise , Vacinas/uso terapêutico
7.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765476

RESUMO

Biofloc technology is much highlighted these days because of its tremendous effects on aquaculture. Microbes were enriched on cheapest organic carbon source i. e., powdered banana peels and were incorporated in different aquaria rearing grass carp fingerlings under different C/N treatments (10:1, 15:1 and 20:1) and 10% water daily water exchange. The initial growth of fingerlings was recorded. The experiment was settled in triplicates for 60 days and run parallel to control group provided with commercial feed and daily water exchange. Its effect was evaluated by measuring the growth of fingerlings and water parameters of each aquarium. The average % gain in weight and length of fingerlings was obtained significantly highest (28.12 ± 0.30g and 17.29 ± 0.46cm respectively) in aquaria containing pure powdered banana peels with 10% water exchange and C/N ratio was adjusted at 20: 1 (T3) than other treatments and control. Ammonia and other water parameters were also under control in T3 than other experimental and control groups. By all counts, it was concluded that the highest C/N ratio in biofloc system had the potential to increment C. idella growth rate by reducing toxicity and could be used as fish meal substitute.(AU)


A tecnologia Biofloc é muito destacada hoje em dia por causa de seus tremendos efeitos na aquicultura. Os micróbios foram enriquecidos com a fonte de carbono orgânico mais barata, i. e., cascas de banana em pó, e foram incorporadas em diferentes aquários de criação de alevinos de carpa-capim sob diferentes tratamentos C/N (10: 1, 15: 1 e 20: 1) e 10% de troca diária de água. O crescimento inicial dos alevinos foi registrado. O experimento foi resolvido em triplicatas por 60 dias e executado paralelamente ao grupo controle fornecido com ração comercial e troca diária de água. Seu efeito foi avaliado medindo o crescimento dos alevinos e os parâmetros da água de cada aquário. O% de ganho médio em peso e comprimento dos alevinos foi obtido significativamente mais alto (28,12 ± 0,30g e 17,29 ± 0,46 cm respectivamente) em aquários contendo cascas de banana em pó puro com 10% de troca de água e a relação C/N foi ajustada em 20: 1 (T3) do que outros tratamentos e controle. A amônia e outros parâmetros da água também estavam sob controle no T3 mais do que nos outros grupos experimentais e de controle. Por todas as contagens, concluiu-se que a maior razão C/N no sistema de bioflocos tem o potencial de incrementar a taxa de crescimento de C. idella reduzindo a toxicidade e pode ser usada como substituto da farinha de peixe.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aquicultura/métodos
8.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765413

RESUMO

Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-¹ and 2.5%, respectively.(AU)


A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-¹ e 2,5%, respectivamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/administração & dosagem , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Brassica rapa , Dieta/veterinária
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245199, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355853

RESUMO

Abstract The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


Resumo A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Paquistão , Água , Lagoas , Pesqueiros
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249913, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339352

RESUMO

Abstract Aeromonas hydrophila is a cause of infectious disease outbreaks in carp species cultured in South Asian countries including Pakistan. This bacterium has gained resistance to a wide range of antibiotics and robust preventive measures are necessary to control its spread. No prior use of fish vaccines has been reported in Pakistan. The present study aims to develop and evaluate inactivated vaccines against local strain of A. hydrophila in Pakistan with alum-precipitate as adjuvant. The immunogenic potential of vaccine was evaluated in two Indian major carps (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) and a Chinese carp (Grass carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were vaccinated intraperitoneally followed by a challenge through immersion. Fish with an average age of 4-5 months were randomly distributed in three vaccinated groups with three vaccine concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml and a control group. Fixed dose of 0.1ml was applied to each fish on 1st day and a booster dose at 15 days post-vaccination (DPV). Blood samples were collected on 14, 28, 35, 48 and 60 DPV to determine antibody titers in blood serum using compliment fixation test (CFT). Fish were challenged at 60 DPV with infectious A. hydrophila with 108 CFU/ml through immersion. Significantly higher levels of antibody titers were observed from 28 DPV in all vaccinated groups as compared to those in the control group. In challenge experiment the average RPS (relative percent survivability) was 71% for groups vaccinated with 109 and 1010 CFU/ml and 86% for 108 CFU/ml. Vaccine with 108 CFU/ml induced highest immune response followed by 109 and 1010 CFU/ml. The immune response of L. rohita and C. idella was better than that of C. mrigala. In general, normal histopathology was observed in different organs of vaccinated fish whereas minor deteriorative changes were found in fish vaccinated with higher concentrations of the vaccine.


Resumo Aeromonas hydrophila é uma causa de surtos de doenças infecciosas em espécies de carpas cultivadas em países do sul da Ásia, incluindo o Paquistão. Essa bactéria ganhou resistência a uma ampla gama de antibióticos, e medidas preventivas robustas são necessárias para controlar sua disseminação. Nenhum uso anterior de vacinas para peixes foi relatado no Paquistão. O presente estudo tem como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar vacinas inativadas contra cepa local de A. hydrophila no Paquistão com precipitado de alúmen como adjuvante. O potencial imunogênico da vacina foi avaliado em duas carpas principais indianas (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) e uma carpa chinesa (Grass Carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Os peixes foram vacinados por via intraperitoneal, seguido de um desafio por imersão. Peixes com idade média de 4-5 meses foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos vacinados com três concentrações de vacina de 108, 109 e 1010 unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) / ml e um grupo de controle. Foi aplicada dose fixa de 0,1ml em cada peixe no 1º dia e dose de reforço 15 dias pós-vacinação (DPV). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em 14, 28, 35, 48 e 60 DPV para determinar os títulos de anticorpos no soro sanguíneo usando o teste de fixação de elogio (CFT). Os peixes foram desafiados a 60 DPV com infecciosa A. hydrophila com 108 CFU / ml por imersão. Níveis significativamente mais elevados de títulos de anticorpos foram observados em 28 DPV em todos os grupos vacinados, em comparação com aqueles no grupo de controle. Na experiência de desafio, o RPS médio (sobrevivência percentual relativa) foi de 71% para os grupos vacinados com 109 e 1010 CFU / ml e 86% para 108 CFU / ml. A vacina com 108 UFC / ml induziu a maior resposta imune seguida por 109 e 1010 UFC / ml. A resposta imune de L. rohita e C. idella foi melhor do que a de C. mrigala. Em geral, histopatologia normal foi observada em diferentes órgãos de peixes vacinados, enquanto pequenas alterações deteriorantes foram encontradas no grupo de controle e nos peixes vacinados com concentrações mais altas da vacina.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Bacterianas , Aeromonas hydrophila , Compostos de Alúmen , Imersão
11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 2093822, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528506

RESUMO

Currently, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are continuously and chronically polluted by cocktails of countless chemical compounds. The susceptibility to infections is tremendously increasing in a variety of organisms due to exposure to environmental pollutants. Pendimethalin, an herbicide, is continuously used in agriculture to remove unwanted broadleaf weeds across the globe. Therefore, this study investigates the mechanisms of toxicity of pendimethalin in freshwater fish bighead carp upon exposure to low and environmentally relevant concentrations. For this purpose, 48 fish without any clinical abnormalities were kept in a glass aquarium in different experimental groups (T0, T1, T2, and T3). These groups were treated with pendimethalin at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. Four fish were randomly picked from each experimental group and killed at 72, 96, and 120 hours of the trial to study hematobiochemical parameters and visceral tissues including the brain, liver, heart, gills, and kidneys for histopathology. Herbicide-treated fish indicated various physical and behavioral abnormalities including hypersecretion of mucus, erratic swimming, operculum movement, air gulping, tremors of fins, loss of equilibrium, and increased surface breathing. Histopathologically, gills tissues of treated fish indicated atrophied lamellae, uplifting of secondary lamellae, necrosis of primary and secondary lamellar epithelial cells, telogenesis, congestion, and lamellar fusion. Histopathological examination of liver tissues of treated fish showed mild to moderate congestion, necrosis of hepatocytes, and atrophy of hepatocytes while kidneys revealed degeneration of renal tubules, glomerular atrophy, ceroid, and necrosis of renal tubules. The erythrocyte counts, monocyte and lymphocyte counts, and hemoglobin values were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in pendimethalin-treated fish. Results on serum biochemistry showed that the biomarkers of kidneys, heart, and liver were significantly higher in fish of treated groups. In addition, values of different biochemical reactions like reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total proteins, and quantity of different antioxidant enzymes including reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly different when compared to untreated fish. Moreover, the percentile of different nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells and frequency of DNA damage increased significantly in treated fish. It can be concluded from the findings that pendimethalin causes its toxic effects via disruption of physiological and hematobiochemical reactions of fish.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina , Carpas , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Animais , Atrofia , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Mutagênicos , Necrose/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Virulence ; 13(1): 794-807, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499101

RESUMO

The immunogenicity of Aha1, an OMP of Aeromonas hydrophila mediating the adhesion of bacteria onto the mucosal surface of hosts has been established. In this study, recombinant vectors, pPG1 and pPG2, carrying a 1366 bp DNA fragment that was responsible for encoding the 49 kDa Aha1 from A. hydrophila were constructed, respectively, then electroporated into a probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei CC16 separately to generate two types of recombinants, L. casei-pPG1-Aha1 (Lc-pPG1-Aha1) and L. casei-pPG2-Aha1 (Lc-pPG2-Aha1). Subsequently, these were orally administered into common carps to examine their immunogenicity. The expression and localization of the expressed Aha1 protein relative to the carrier L. casei was validated via Western blotting, flow cytometry, and immune fluorescence separately. The recombinant vaccines produced were shown high efficacies, stimulated higher level of antibodies and AKP, ACP, SOD, LZM, C3, C4 in serum in hosts. Immune-related gene expressions of cytokines including IL-10, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IFN-γ in the livers, spleens, HK, and intestines were up-regulated significantly. Besides, a more potent phagocytosis response was observed in immunized fish, and higher survival rates were presented in common carps immunized with Lc-pPG1-Aha1 (60%) and Lc-pPG2-Aha1 (50%) after re-infection with virulent strain A. hydrophila. Moreover, the recombinant L. casei were shown a stronger propensity for survivability in the intestine in immunized fish. Taken together, the recombinant L. casei strains might be promising candidates for oral vaccination against A. hydrophila infections in common carps.


Assuntos
Carpas , Lactobacillus casei , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Lactobacillus casei/genética , Vacinação
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 372, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430694

RESUMO

Various wastes, especially heavy metals, which are introduced to water sources in an uncontrolled manner, accumulate in aquatic organisms in the food web. Through the consumption of fish and invertebrates, those contaminants reach humans. In response to rapid industrialization, the accumulation of heavy metals in fish adversely impacts human health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of some heavy metals (Chromium, Cadmium, Mercury, Lead, Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Arsenic) among 11 fish species inhabiting in Iznik Lake Basin (Turkey) that are threatened by anthropogenic pollution. Results showed significant differences among species with the accumulation of heavy metals (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Chromium, zinc, arsenic, and lead presented the highest contents in Capoeta tinca caught from Çakirca Stream. The contents of lead, copper, and zinc were higher than the guidelines of various authorities. The potential human health risk assessment was conducted by provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). In Rutilus rutilus and Cyprinus carpio, the estimated weekly intake (EWI) for mercury was higher than the PTWI. The findings of this study are of great importance in terms of understanding the effect of fish consumption on human health in the heavy metal polluted area.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Arsênio/análise , Cromo , Cobre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos , Lagos , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Turquia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco/análise
14.
J Immunol ; 208(9): 2196-2206, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418468

RESUMO

In the viral infection process, host gene function is usually reported as either defending the host or assaulting the virus. In this study, we demonstrated that zebrafish ceramide kinase-like (CERKL) mediates protection against viral infection via two distinct mechanisms: stabilization of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) through impairing K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) P protein by dampening K63-linked ubiquitination, resulting in an improvement of the host immune response and a decline in viral activity in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. On SVCV infection, ifnφ1 expression was increased or blunted by CERKL overexpression or knockdown, respectively. Subsequently, we found that CERKL localized in the cytoplasm, where it interacted with TBK1 and enhanced its stability by impeding the K48-linked polyubiquitination; meanwhile, the antiviral capacity of TBK1 was significantly potentiated by CERKL. In contrast, CERKL also interacted with and degraded SVCV P protein to disrupt its function in viral proliferation. Further mechanism analysis revealed K63-linked deubiquitination is the primary means of CERKL-mediated SVCV P protein degradation. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism of fish defense against viral infection: the single gene cerkl is both a shield for the host and a spear against the virus, which strengthens resistance.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae , Animais , Vírus de DNA , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool) , Rhabdoviridae , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Virais , Viremia , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/química , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475994

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals in the human body can give rise to adverse health effects, the severity of which depends upon their dosage and duration of exposure. In this study, yearlings of two different species of edible fish, i.e., Tor putitora (Mahseer) and Ctenopharyngodon Idella (grass carp), were exposed to different concentrations of lead nitrate in a controlled environment of aquarium for three different lengths of duration (14, 28, and 60 days). The bioaccumulation of lead in different organs, including gills, skin, muscles, liver, intestine, and swim bladder of the fish, was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Generally, the highest lead concentration was observed in the gills and lowest in the muscles for both species at each experimental dosage and duration. In 14-days exposure, the relative pattern of bioaccumulation in different organs was observed as gill > liver > skin > intestine > swim bladder > muscle for both fish species. Similarly, the pattern of bioaccumulation observed in 28-days exposure was as: gill > liver > intestine > skin > swim bladder > muscle in both species. Whereas, pattern in 60-days exposure was observed as gill > liver > intestine > swim bladder > muscle > skin. The data shows that grass carp had stored higher concentrations of lead than Mahseer, which may be attributed to the fact that they are omnivorous. Furthermore, the lowest bioaccumulation was recorded in the muscles until the 56th day of the exposure, after which the concentration steadily increased in the muscles. The observed pattern highlights the importance of exposure's duration to lead; chronic exposure could result in its bioaccumulation at toxic concentrations in the muscles, which is particularly of concern because the fish muscles are heavily consumed as food worldwide.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458570

RESUMO

PCR-based DNA amplification has been one of the major methods in aquaculture research for decades, although its use outside the modern laboratory environment is limited due to the relatively complex methods and high costs. To this end, we investigated a swabbing and disc protocol for the collection of DNA samples from fish which could extract DNA from fish skin mucus by a non-invasion technique costing only $0.02 (USD) and requiring less than 30 seconds. The disc method that we chose could use the cheap filter paper to extract DNA from above 104 crucian carp blood cells, which is comparable to the commercial kit. By using skin mucus swabbing and the disc method, we can obtain amplification-ready DNA from mucus to distinguish different species from our smallest fish (medaka, ~2.5 cm and crucian carp, ~7 cm) to our biggest fish (tilapia, ~15 cm). Furthermore, the viral pathogen Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) of crucian carp was detected using our method, which would make performing molecular diagnostic assays achievable in limited-resource settings including aquafarms and aqua stores outside the laboratory environment.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Herpesviridae , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Carpa Dourada , Herpesviridae/genética , Muco , Pele
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 246: 106153, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381412

RESUMO

Overuse of acetochlor pollutes soil and rivers, causing threats to the ecosystem. Studies found that acetochlor exposure could damage multiple organs and tissues in fish and mammal. Tea polyphenols (TP), a natural antioxidant that extracted from tea, has been widely used in food and feed additions. However, the mechanism by which acetochlor causes tissue damage is unclear, and its mitigating agent has yet to be developed. Therefore, we established acetochlor exposure and TP mitigation models by treating Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cells with 20 µM acetochlor and/or 2.5 µg/mL TP for 24 h, and detected the programmed cell death and its related pathways. The results showed that acetochlor exposure modified antioxidant enzyme activities, induced oxidative stress, resulted in the decline of MMP and ATP levels, enhanced glycolysis and lactate accumulation, and triggered apoptosis and necroptosis in CIK cells. However, TP could inhibit CYP450s expression, activate Nrf2 pathway, enhance antioxidant capacity, further effectively alleviate acetochlor-induced CIK cell death. Overall, the present study proved that acetochlor exposure triggered mitochondrial damage and lactate accumulation-mediated apoptosis and necroptosis through CYP450s/ROS/MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, TP could alleviate effectively cell death through relieving oxidative stress and lightening Warburg-like effect.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Carpas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Rim , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Necroptose , Estresse Oxidativo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Chá/metabolismo , Toluidinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111128, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400411

RESUMO

Microbial metabolism is crucial for the flavor development of traditional Suanyu. A total of 21 characteristic volatile compounds of Suanyu were identified according to GC-MS combined with GC-O analysis. HCA results indicated that the whole fermentation process could be divided into three stages: raw material (fresh), initial fermentation (0-2 week) and the late fermentation (2-4 week). Moreover, nine flavor markers in different fermentation stages were revealed using the OPLS-DA model and VIP values. Furthermore, metagenomic sequencing was used to analyze the possible formation pathways of the characteristic flavor compounds and identify the key microorganisms related to flavor formation at the gene level. The top 10 bacterial genera associated with flavor formation were Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Kocuria, Lactobacillus, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Lactococcus and Pediococcus, accounting for large parts of flavor formation of fermented Suanyu. This study is helpful to elucidate the different metabolic roles of microorganisms in flavor formation during fermentation.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Bactérias , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Metagenômica
19.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111071, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400449

RESUMO

Among legumes, broad bean (Vicia faba L.) has received particular attention due to its nutraceutical, functional and economic importance. The plant-derived microRNAs (miRNAs), as novel dietary functional components, are found to regulate the expression of endogenous mRNAs in vertebrates. To understand the role of broad bean miRNAs in the regulation of muscle texture, we investigated the miRNA-mRNA network in the established crisp grass carp model fed with broad bean. We identified various miRNAs that potentially improved muscle texture; miR-101b-3p activated Wnt signaling and satellite cell proliferation; miR-126-3p, miR-29a and miR-148b promoted hyperplasia by targeting muscle structure genes (tln2, TPM1, etc.); miR-152-5p and miR-185 regulated collagen expression via Smads signaling pathways; and miR-146a and miR-371-3p increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) by suppressing cat and prdx6. Among these changes, at least the Wnt signal activation was driven by broad bean-derived miR-101b-3p. This paper was conducted to investigate the cross-kingdom regulatory effects of broad bean miRNA on muscle structure and provide basic data for the development and application of broad bean.


Assuntos
Carpas , Fabaceae , MicroRNAs , Vicia faba , Animais , Carpas/genética , Fabaceae/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 848958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401526

RESUMO

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is highly infectious and lethal to grass carp, causing huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry annually. Currently, vaccination is the most effective method against viral infections. Among the various vaccination methods, the oral vaccination is an ideal way in aquaculture. However, low protective efficiency is the major problem for oral vaccination owing to some reasons, such as antigen degradation and low immunogenicity. In our study, we screened the antigenic epitopes of GCRV-II and prepared an oral microencapsulated vaccine using sodium alginate (SA) as a carrier and flagellin B (FlaB) as an adjuvant, and evaluated its protective effects against GCRV-II infection in grass carp. The full length and three potential antigenic epitope regions of GCRV-II VP56 gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione affinity column respectively. The optimal antigen (VP56-3) was screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adjuvant FlaB was also expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni2+ affinity column. Subsequently, we prepared the oral vaccines using sodium alginate as a carrier. The vaccine (SA-VP56-3/FlaB) forms microsphere (1.24 ± 0.22 µm), examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering assay. SA-VP56-3/FlaB vaccine has excellent stability, slow-release, and low toxicity by dynamic light scattering assay, release dynamic assay, in vivo fluorescence imaging system, hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity. Then we vaccinated grass carp orally with SA-VP56-3/FlaB and measured immune-related parameters (serum neutralizing antibody titer, serum enzyme activity (TSOD, LZM, C3), immune-related genes ((IgM, IFN1, MHC-II, CD8 in head kidney and spleen), IgZ in hindgut)). The results showed that SA-VP56-3/FlaB significantly induced strong immune responses, compared to other groups. The highest survival rate achieved in SA-VP56-3/FlaB microencapsulated vaccine (56%) in 2 weeks post GCRV challenge, while 10% for the control group. Meanwhile, the tissue virus load in survival grass carp is lowest in SA-VP56-3/FlaB group. These results indicated that SA-VP56-3/FlaB could be a candidate oral vaccine against GCRV-II infection in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Reoviridae , Reoviridae , Vacinas Virais , Alginatos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Escherichia coli
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