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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 130851, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530348

RESUMO

Health conscious and environmentally aware consumers are purchasing more organically produced foods. They prefer organic fruits and leafy vegetables as these are much less likely to have been exposed to contaminants such as pesticides. The detection of fraudulent activity in this area is difficult to undertake, because many chemical plant protection treatments degrade very quickly or can be washed off to remove evidence of their existence. It was found that when combining DART-MS with a compact, inexpensive and robust single quadrupole mass spectrometer, it was possible to differentiate organic from conventional leeks with 93.8% to 100% accuracy. ICP-MS results showed similar performance, with an ability to differentiate conventional from organic leeks with 92.5% to 98.1% accuracy. This study has paved the way for the certification of vegetables as being organically produced. The next step is to create data libraries to support the roll out of the methodologies described.


Assuntos
Cebolas , Verduras , Frutas , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Espectral
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 803, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Welsh onion constitutes an important crop due to its benefits in traditional medicine. Nitrogen is an important nutrient for plant growth and yield; however, little is known about its influence on the mechanisms of Welsh onion regulation genes. In this study, we introduced a gene expression and amino acid analysis of Welsh onion treated with different concentrations of nitrogen (N0, N1, and N2 at 0 kg/ha, 130 kg/ha, and 260 kg/ha, respectively). RESULTS: Approximately 1,665 genes were differentially regulated with different concentrations of nitrogen. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the genes involved in metabolic processes, protein biosynthesis, and transportation of amino acids were highly represented. KEGG analysis indicated that the pathways were related to amino acid metabolism, cysteine, beta-alanine, arginine, proline, and glutathione. Differential gene expression in response to varying nitrogen concentrations resulted in different amino acid content. A close relationship between gene expression and the content of amino acids was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This work examined the effects of nitrogen on gene expression and amino acid synthesis and provides important evidence on the efficient use of nitrogen in Welsh onion.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Cebolas , Aminoácidos , Ontologia Genética , Cebolas/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
4.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684804

RESUMO

This paper presents a new method for the simultaneous speciation analysis of arsenic (As(III)-arsenite, As(V)-arsenate, DMA-dimethylarsinic acid, MMA-methylarsonic acid, and AsB-arsenobetaine) and selenium (Se(IV)-selenite, Se(VI)-selenate, Se-Methionine, and Se-Cystine), which was applied to a variety of seafood and onion samples. The determination of the forms of arsenic and selenium was undertaken using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) analytical technique. The separation of both organic and inorganic forms of arsenic and selenium was performed using two analytical columns: an anion exchange column, Dionex IonPac AS22, containing an alkanol quaternary ammonium ion, and a double bed cation-anion exchange guard column, Dionex Ion Pac CG5A, containing, as a first layer, fully sulfonated latex for cation exchange and a fully aminated layer for anion exchange as the second layer. The ammonium nitrate, at pH = 9.0, was used as a mobile phase. The method presented here allowed us to separate the As and Se species within 10 min with a suitable resolution. The applicability was presented with different sample matrix types: seafood and onion.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cebolas/química , Cebolas/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/toxicidade , Selênio/análise , Animais , Intoxicação por Arsênico , Arsenicais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Organosselênicos/análise , Compostos Organosselênicos/toxicidade , Compostos de Selênio/análise , Compostos de Selênio/toxicidade
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684406

RESUMO

Corn flour-based porridge like dough, ugali, is the staple food of low-income population in sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of vitamin A, carotenoids, and dietary fibers brings about serious health issues to this population. In this study, vegetables including bok choy, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, Chinese onion stalk (C_onion), mushroom, are added during the cooking of ugali, as nutritional supplements. The freeze-dried powder of each vegetable was used for its long storage, stable nutrients, and similar particle size. Sub-Saharan African assessors were trained and sensory evaluated the six different vegetable fortified ugali with the plain, unfortified as the control on five attributes. The plain ugali was indistinguishable with the C_onion stalk fortified in color, with the carrot and C_onion stalk fortified in odor, with all vegetables (except broccoli and mushroom) fortified ugali in taste, with carrot and C_onion stalk fortified in granularity, and with cabbage, carrot, C_onion stalk fortified in viscosity. Preference ranking analysis showed that the C_onion stalk fortified ugali is even more favorably preferred than the plain, unfortified ugali, probably due to the umami components in C_onion that serve as the taste enhancer. This study indicates that Chinese onion stalk is a potential vegetable supplement to population in the sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos Fortificados , Verduras , Zea mays , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cebolas , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201772, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550203

RESUMO

Piperine and capsaicin are important molecules with biological and pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the cytogenotoxic and protective effect of piperine and capsaicin on Allium cepa cells. A. cepa roots were exposed to negative (2% Dimethylsulfoxide) and positive (Methylmethanesulfonate, MMS, 10 µg/mL) controls, and four concentrations (25-200 µM) of piperine or capsaicin (alone) or associated before, simultaneously or after with the MMS. Only the lowest concentration of piperine (25 µM) showed a protective effect because it was not genotoxic. Piperine and capsaicin were cytotoxic (50, 100 and 200 µM). Piperine (50 to 200 µM) caused a significant increase in the total average of chromosomal alterations of in A. cepa cells. For capsaicin, the genotoxic effect was dose-dependent with a significant increase for all concentrations, highlighting the significant presence of micronuclei and nuclear buds for the two isolates. In general, bioactive compounds reduced the total average of chromosomal alterations against damage caused by MMS, mainly micronuclei and/or nuclear buds. Therefore, the two molecules were cytotoxic and genotoxic at the highest concentrations, and did not have cytoprotective action, and the lowest concentration of piperine demonstrated important chemopreventive activity.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Cebolas , Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis/toxicidade , Capsaicina/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Piperidinas , Raízes de Plantas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia
7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544132

RESUMO

Onion is an important vegetable crop with an estimated genome size of 16 Gb. We describe the de novo assembly and ab initio annotation of the genome of a doubled haploid onion line DHCU066619, which resulted in a final assembly of 14.9 Gb with an N50 of 464 Kb. Of this, 2.4 Gb was ordered into eight pseudomolecules using four genetic linkage maps. The remainder of the genome is available in 89.6 K scaffolds. Only 72.4% of the genome could be identified as repetitive sequences and consist, to a large extent, of (retro) transposons. In addition, an estimated 20% of the putative (retro) transposons had accumulated a large number of mutations, hampering their identification, but facilitating their assembly. These elements are probably already quite old. The ab initio gene prediction indicated 540,925 putative gene models, which is far more than expected, possibly due to the presence of pseudogenes. Of these models, 47,066 showed RNASeq support. No gene rich regions were found, genes are uniformly distributed over the genome. Analysis of synteny with Allium sativum (garlic) showed collinearity but also major rearrangements between both species. This assembly is the first high-quality genome sequence available for the study of onion and will be a valuable resource for further research.


Assuntos
Cebolas , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Tamanho do Genoma , Cebolas/genética
8.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(3): 575-583, July-Sept. 2021. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762638

RESUMO

Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularly known as assa-peixe, is a medicinal plant that has been widely used by Brazilian Cerrado population for treatment of diseases without a detailed evaluation of their effectiveness, toxicity, and proper dosage. Thus, more studies investigating the safety of V. polyanthes aqueous extract before the use are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using the Artemia salina and Allium cepa assays. For the A. salina assay, three groups of 10 larvae were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/ml. For the A. cepa assay, 5 onion bulbs were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml, and then submitted to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. As result it was identified a toxicity and cytotoxicity of V. polyanthes dependent on the extract concentration. The A. salina assay suggests that the concentration of 24 mg/ml of the V. polyanthes extract is able to kill 50% of naupllis; while the A. cepa assay suggests that V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract is toxic at concentrations higher than 20 mg/ml; however the cytotoxic effect in A. cepa root cells was observed at 40 mg/ml of the extract. It is important to say that the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract concentration commonly used in popular medicine is 20 mg/ml. Thus, the popular concentration used is very close to toxicity limit in A. salina model (24 mg/ml) and is the concentration which showed toxic effect in A. cepa root cells (20 mg/ml). No genotoxic activity of V. polyantes leaves aqueous extract was observed in the conditions used in this study. Because of the antiproliferative action and no genotoxic activity, V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract may present compounds with potential use for human medicine. However more detailed studies need to be performed to confirm this potential.(AU)


Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularmente conhecida como assa-peixe, é uma planta medicinal amplamente utilizada pela população brasileira do Cerrado para o tratamento doenças, sem uma avaliação detalhada de sua eficácia, toxicidade e dosagem adequada. Dessa forma, são necessários estudos para investigar a segurança do uso do extrato aquoso de V. polyanthes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicidade, citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes utilizando os ensaios de Artemia salina e Allium cepa. Para o ensaio de A. salina, três grupos de 10 larvas foram expostos ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 mg/ml. Para o ensaio de A. cepa, 5 bulbos de cebola foram expostas ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 10, 20 e 40 mg/ml, e então submetidos a análise macroscópica e microscópica. O ensaio de A. salina sugere que a concentração de 24 mg/ml do extrato de V. polyanthes é capaz de matar 50% dos náuplios; enquanto o ensaio de A. cepa sugere que o extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes é tóxico em concentrações superiores a 20 mg/ml. O efeito citotóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa foi observado apenas na concentração de 40 mg/ml. É importante dizer que a concentração de extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes comumente usada na medicina popular é de 20 mg/ml. Assim, a concentração popular utilizada está muito próxima do limite de toxicidade no modelo de A. salina (24 mg/ml) e é a mesma concentração que apresentou efeito tóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa (20 mg/ml). Não foi observada atividade genotóxica do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyantes nas condições utilizadas neste trabalho. Por causa da ação antiproliferativa e ausência de atividade genotóxica, o extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes pode ser uma boa fonte natural de compostos antitumorais e pode apresentar potencial para uso na medicina. No entanto, estudos mais detalhados precisam ser realizados para confirmar esse potencial.(AU)


Assuntos
Vernonia/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas , Cebolas , Artemia
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361748

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects that the type of impregnating solution and drying method (freeze drying (FD) and vacuum drying (VD) at 45 °C and convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C) had on the physicochemical and quality properties of courgettes. Courgette slices were vacuum-impregnated (6 kPa) in freshly squeezed onion, kale, and onion and kale (50:50) juices with 3% NaCl solution (N). The application of vacuum impregnation (VI) with impregnating solutions from freshly squeezed onions and kale had a beneficial effect on the bioactive values of courgette. The highest contents of quercetin (41.84 µg/g d.m.) and carotenoids (276.04 µg/g d.m.) were found in courgette impregnated with onion juice after freeze drying. The highest values of lutein and zeaxanthin (216.42 µg/g d.m.) were recorded for courgette impregnated with kale juice and convective dried. By analysing the kinetics of convective drying, the best matching of the logistic model was found. Increasing the drying process temperature from 50 to 70 °C reduced the drying time from 15% to 36%, depending on the type of impregnating solution used. Water activity < 0.6 was recorded for courgette dried by freezing, vacuum, and convection at 60 and 70 °C. Conclusions: The vacuum impregnation process and the impregnation solutions from freshly squeezed vegetables can be used to develop new snacks with high levels of bioactive compounds. The FD method is the most appropriate considering both the bioactive compounds content and the obtained colour and water activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dessecação/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização/métodos , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/análise , Dessecação/instrumentação , Liofilização/instrumentação , Humanos , Cinética , Luteína/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Cebolas/química , Quercetina/análise , Lanches , Vácuo , Zeaxantinas/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444108

RESUMO

Antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viral infections are among the emerging contaminants considered for ecological risk assessment. These compounds have been reported to be widely distributed in water bodies and other aquatic environments, while data concerning the risk they may pose to unintended non-target species in a different ecosystem (environment) is scanty. In South Africa and other developing countries, lamivudine is one of the common antiretrovirals applied. Despite this, little is known about its environmental impacts as an emerging contaminant. The present study employed a battery of ecotoxicity bioassays to assess the environmental threat lamivudine poses to aquatic fauna and flora. Daphnia magna (filter feeders), the Ames bacterial mutagenicity test, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) germination test, and the Allium cepa root tip assay were conducted, testing lamivudine at two concentrations (10 and 100 µg/L), with environmental relevance. The Daphnia magna toxicity test revealed a statistically significant response (p << 0.05) with a mortality rate of 85% on exposure to 100 µg/L lamivudine in freshwater, which increased to 100% at 48-h exposure. At lower concentrations of 10 µg/L lamivudine, 90% and 55% survival rates were observed at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. No potential mutagenic effects were observed from the Ames test at both concentrations of lamivudine. Allium cepa bioassays revealed a noticeable adverse impact on the root lengths on exposure to 100 µg/L lamivudine. This impact was further investigated through microscopic examination, revealing some chromosomal aberration in the exposed Allium cepa root tips. The Lactuca sativa bioassay showed a slight adverse impact on both the germination rate of the seeds and their respective hypocotyl lengths compared to the control. Overall, this indicates that lamivudine poses an ecological health risk at different trophic levels, to both flora and fauna, at concentrations previously found in the environment.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Daphnia , Humanos , Lamivudina/toxicidade , Cebolas , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Anal Methods ; 13(32): 3592-3604, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308461

RESUMO

A dispersive solid-phase microextraction method based on magnetic carbon nano-onions (MCNOs) was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of some pesticides from water and vegetable samples. For more cleanup and preconcentration, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was employed after performing the first step. In this method, firstly, MCNOs were prepared and then used for adsorption of the analytes from the sample solution. After that, the adsorbed analytes were eluted with an appropriate water-miscible organic solvent and used as a dispersive solvent in the following DLLME procedure. The extracted analytes were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Various factors affecting the method efficiency such as sorbent weight, salt effect, pH, temperature, and type and volume of eluent and extraction solvent were optimized. This method showed wide linear ranges with a coefficient of determination ≥ 0.994, and low limits of detection (0.001-0.005 ng mL-1) and quantification (0.003-0.019 ng mL-1) under optimal conditions. Also, a good precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 8.6%) for five replicates and a satisfactory accuracy (mean relative recoveries between 82 and 99%) were obtained. It can be considered as an efficient and environment friendly method for the extraction of analytes from vegetable and fruit juices and water samples.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Carbono , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Cebolas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Verduras , Água
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(18): e0091521, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260305

RESUMO

Rice is an important source of food for more than half of the world's population. Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) is a disease of rice characterized by grain discoloration or sheath rot caused mainly by Burkholderia glumae. B. glumae synthesizes toxoflavin, an essential virulence factor that is required for symptoms of the disease. The products of the tox operons, ToxABCDE and ToxFGHI, are responsible for the synthesis and the proton motive force (PMF)-dependent secretion of toxoflavin, respectively. The DedA family is a highly conserved membrane protein family found in most bacterial genomes that likely function as membrane transporters. Our previous work has demonstrated that absence of certain DedA family members results in pleiotropic effects, impacting multiple pathways that are energized by PMF. We have demonstrated that a member of the DedA family from Burkholderia thailandensis, named DbcA, is required for the extreme polymyxin resistance observed in this organism. B. glumae encodes a homolog of DbcA with 73% amino acid identity to Burkholderia thailandensis DbcA. Here, we created and characterized a B. glumae ΔdbcA strain. In addition to polymyxin sensitivity, the B. glumae ΔdbcA strain is compromised for virulence in several BPB infection models and secretes only low amounts of toxoflavin (∼15% of wild-type levels). Changes in membrane potential in the B. glumae ΔdbcA strain were reproduced in the wild-type strain by the addition of subinhibitory concentrations of sodium bicarbonate, previously demonstrated to cause disruption of PMF. Sodium bicarbonate inhibited B. glumae virulence in rice, suggesting a possible non-toxic chemical intervention for bacterial panicle blight. IMPORTANCE Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) is a disease of rice characterized by grain discoloration or sheath rot caused mainly by Burkholderia glumae. The DedA family is a highly conserved membrane protein family found in most bacterial genomes that likely function as membrane transporters. Here, we constructed a B. glumae mutant with a deletion in a DedA family member named dbcA and report a loss of virulence in models of BPB. Physiological analysis of the mutant shows that the proton motive force is disrupted, leading to reduction of secretion of the essential virulence factor toxoflavin. The mutant phenotypes are reproduced in the virulent wild-type strain without an effect on growth using sodium bicarbonate, a nontoxic buffer that has been reported to disrupt the PMF. The results presented here suggest that bicarbonate may be an effective antivirulence agent capable of controlling BPB without imposing an undue burden on the environment.


Assuntos
Burkholderia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Força Próton-Motriz , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Burkholderia/efeitos dos fármacos , Burkholderia/genética , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Burkholderia/patogenicidade , Carbonil Cianeto m-Clorofenil Hidrazona/farmacologia , Cebolas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Triazinas/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299471

RESUMO

Phenylphenalenones, metabolites found in Schiekia timida (Haemodoraceae), are a class of specialized metabolites with many biological activities, being phytoalexins in banana plants. In the constant search to solve the problem of glyphosate and to avoid resistance to commercial herbicides, this work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic effect of the methanolic extract of S. timida seeds. The chemical composition of the seed extract was directly investigated by NMR and UPLC-QToF MS and the pre- and post-emergence phytotoxic effect on a eudicotyledonous model (Lactuca sativa) and a monocotyledonous model (Allium cepa) was evaluated through germination and seedling growth tests. Three concentrations of the extract (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg/mL) were prepared, and four replicates for each of them were analyzed. Three major phenylphenalenones were identified by NMR spectroscopy: 4-hydroxy-anigorufone, methoxyanigorufone, and anigorufone, two of those reported for the first time in S. timida. The presence of seven other phenylphenalenones was suggested by the LC-MS analyses. The phenylphenalenone mixture did not affect the germination rate, but impaired radicle and hypocotyl growth on both models. The effect in the monocotyledonous model was statistically similar to glyphosate in the lowest concentration (0.25 mg/mL). Therefore, although more research on this topic is required to probe this first report, this investigation suggests for the first time that phenylphenalenone compounds may be post-emergence herbicides.


Assuntos
Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Musa/química , Cebolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenalenos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Germinação , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade
14.
Endocrine ; 74(3): 616-624, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The protective effect of onion against thyroid hypofunction has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between onion consumption and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual onion intake and SCH among adult population from an iodine-replete area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (6515 men and 5290 women) was performed in Tianjin, China. Frequency of onion consumption was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. SCH was diagnosed with TSH > 4.78 mIU/L. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of onion intake with SCH. RESULTS: The prevalence of SCH was 2.56% in men and 7.18% in women, respectively. In women, the fully adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] of having SCH across increasing frequency of onion intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.99 (0.73, 1.34) for 1-3 times/week, 0.74 (0.53, 1.03) for 4-6 times/week, and 0.67 (0.47, 0.97) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.01). However, we observed no significant association between onion intake and SCH in men. Stratified analyses suggested a potential effect modification by age: the odds ratios (95% CI) across extreme quartiles was 0.37 (0.17, 0.80) in <40 women and 1.11 (0.51, 2.47) in >60 women. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent consumption of onion is inversely associated with SCH in adult women from an iodine-replete area. Further studies are needed to explore the casual relationship. TRIAL REGISTRATION WEBSITE: https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000031137.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hipotireoidismo , Cebolas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Iodo , Masculino , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 151-169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270028

RESUMO

Onion (A. cepa L.) is an outcrossing biennial species with a very large genome. Development of genetically uniform (inbred) lines highly desired by onion breeders is a difficult process due to high level of heterozygosity. Inbred onion development may take up to five generations (~10 years) by classical selfing technique. Onion shows severe inbreeding depression, which further complicates production of lines with stabilized important agronomic traits. When applied successfully, haploidization technology can be useful in the development of fully homozygous onion lines in 2 years. Although production of haploid and doubled haploid (DH) onions via gynogenesis was reported more than three decades ago, successful production and utilization of DHs in onion breeding is still far behind of expectations of breeders. The main obstacles in front of the success include high variation in the response of donor materials to gynogenesis induction and difficulties faced in the process of obtaining DHs from haploid plants. We use a DH production procedure enabling us to develop DH plants from a wide range of onion donor materials. This procedure is based on production of haploid plants via single step culture of unopened flower buds, detection of haploid plants among gynogenic regenerants, and converting these plants to fecund DHs using a combination of ploidy manipulation techniques. The bulbs of DHs are produced in about 1 year after the initiation of induction cultures and selfed seeds are produced from fecund DH plants when they flower in the second year.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Gametogênese Vegetal , Cebolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cebolas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Haploidia , Técnicas In Vitro , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 526, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322773

RESUMO

Industrial effluents contain hazardous substances that can be a serious threat to the agriculture and human health. In the present study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of agricultural soil from the industrial area of Dera Bassi (Punjab, India) have been evaluated. Assays such as defects in DNA repair in K-12 mutants of Escherichia coli and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa were used to estimate the acute toxicity and chromosomal mutagenesis, respectively. Atomic absorption spectrometry and GC-MS analysis revealed contamination of the soil with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds, respectively. Dichloromethane extract of site I soil sample caused maximum damage to 40 µL mL-1 DNA repair defective mutants and showed 38 and 49% survival in lexA and recA mutants, respectively, which was least among all the sites. In A. cepa test, an inverse relationship between soil extract concentration and the mitotic index was observed. Exposure of growing roots of A. cepa to soil extracts induced chromosomal abnormalities and alterations in mitotic phases in root tip cells. The study concludes that agricultural sites near the industrial area were contaminated with genotoxic and mutagenic compounds. Hence, adequate measures should be taken to reduce the toxicity of industrial effluents discharged onto the agricultural fields.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Agricultura , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Índia , Cebolas/genética , Raízes de Plantas
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 62868-62876, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218367

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and dangerous heavy metal with genotoxic properties. Echinacea purpurea L. is a well-known therapeutic plant with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties. In this study, multi-protective role of Echinacea purpurea L. extract against toxicity caused by mercury(II) chloride (HgCI2) on Allium cepa L. investigated in a multifaceted way. As a consequence of 100 mgL-1 HgCI2 administration, root elongation, weight increase, germination rate, and mitotic index were reduced, whereas micronucleus frequency, chromosomal abnormalities frequency, meristematic cell injuries severity, malondialdehyde level, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity were increased. On the other hand, co-administration of increasing doses of E. purpurea extract (265 mgL-1 and 530 mgL-1) and HgCI2 gradually alleviated all observed toxic effects of HgCI2. Protective role of E. purpurea extract against HgCI2-toxicity on A. cepa were clearly demonstrated in this study. The results of this study will lead to future researches investigating use of E. purpurea extract against genotoxic contaminants.


Assuntos
Echinacea , Mercúrio , Cloretos , Cebolas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Água
18.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(5): 2236-2240, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289041

RESUMO

Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) is one of onion's most damaging insect pests and has a history of developing resistance across insecticide classes. The susceptibility of T. tabaci populations to insecticides can be determined using laboratory bioassays. Three types of bioassays have been documented in the literature specifically for use with T. tabaci: vial assay (contact only), feeding assay (ingestion only), and leaf-dip assay (contact + ingestion). The objectives of this study were to 1) compare insecticide susceptibility levels of a T. tabaci population using these three assays and 2) determine which bioassay's results were most similar to those generated from exposing thrips to whole plants treated with insecticide. All experiments were conducted using a colony of T. tabaci known to be susceptible to insecticides and all were evaluated for their susceptibility to spinetoram (Radiant SC). Results indicated that 1) each bioassay generated a unique concentration-mortality relationship and LC50 value (0.01, 0.03 and 1.6 ppm for leaf-dip, vial, and feeding assays, respectively), and 2) all bioassays overestimated the susceptibility of the population relative to the whole-plant assay (LC50 = 5.3 ppm). Attributes of these bioassays are discussed relative to their future use in insecticide resistance monitoring programs for T. tabaci.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , Animais , Bioensaio , Macrolídeos , Cebolas
19.
Environ Res ; 201: 111551, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192556

RESUMO

The color effluent discharged by alcohol distilleries comprises very high pollution loads due to the plethora of refractory chemicals even after anaerobic treatment and causing adverse effects to the environment. The present study aimed to examine the phytotoxic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic potential of the identified refractory organic and inorganic pollutants discharged in bio-methanated distillery effluent (BMDE). Physico-chemical analyses revealed that BMDE retains high BOD, COD, TDS along with heavy metals like Fe (572.64 mg L-1), Mn (4.269 mg L-1), Cd (1.631 mg L-1), Zn (2.547 mg L-1), Pb (1.262 mg L-1), (Cr 1.257 mg L-1), and Ni (0.781 mg L-1) beyond the permissible limits for effluent discharge. GC-MS analysis revelaed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, TMS ester; octadecanoic acid, TMS ester; 2,3 bis[(TMS)oxy]propyl ester; stigmasterol TMS ether; ß-sitosterol TMS ester; hexacosanoic acid; and tetradecanoic acid, TMS ester as major refractory organic pollutants, which are listed as potential endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) as per USEPA. Furthermore, phytotoxicity assessment with Phaseolus aureus L. showed the toxic nature of BMDE as it inhibited various seedling growth parameters, seed germination, and suppression of α-amylase activity in seed germination experiment. Moreover, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of the discharged BMDE evidenced in root-tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. where chromosomal aberration such as disturbed metaphase, c-mitosis, laggard chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, prolonged prophase, polyploid cells, and apoptotic bodies etc. were observed. Thus, this study's results suggested that BMDE discharged without adequate treatment poses potential risk to environment and may cause a variety of serious health threats in living beings upon exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Phaseolus , Dano ao DNA , Cebolas , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126255, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157465

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are important carbohydrates in plants. Cadmium (Cd) toxicity limits growth and development in several plant species. Whether FOS metabolism is affected by Cd and the molecular mechanisms of tolerance of the effects of Cd toxicity in plants remain enigmatic. In the present study, FOS metabolism was analyzed under Cd stress in onion (Allium cepa L.). Results showed that Cd stress can inhibit FOS accumulation in onion, followed by the upregulation of a putative onion γ-glutamylcysteine ligase gene AcGCL. Heterologous expression of the AcGCL protein in Escherichia coli revealed that this recombinant enzyme has GCL activity. Furthermore, overexpressing AcGCL significantly increased glutathione (GSH) accumulation in young onion roots under Cd treatment, accompanied by increased phytochelatin (PC) amount, and increased transcript expression of GSH synthetase (GS), and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) genes. Notably, compared with control, overexpressing AcGCL ameliorated Cd phytotoxicity on onion FOS metabolism, which correlated with increased FOS synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that the function of AcGCL as a γ-glutamylcysteine ligase can alleviate Cd inhibited FOS metabolism by modulating GSH levels in onion.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Glutationa , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dipeptídeos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Oligossacarídeos , Cebolas/genética
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