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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 160, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different trapping devices and attractants are used in the mosquito surveillance programs currently running in Europe. Most of these devices target vector species belonging to the genera Culex or Aedes, and no studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of different trapping devices for the specific targeting of Anopheles mosquito species, which are potential vectors of malaria in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap in knowledge by comparing the performance of trapping methods that are commonly used in European mosquito surveillance programs for Culex and Aedes for the specific collection of adults of species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex. METHODS: The following combinations of traps and attractants were used: (i) BG-Sentinel 2 (BG trap) baited with a BG-Lure cartridge (BG + lure), (ii) BG trap baited with a BG-Lure cartridge and CO2 (BG + lure + CO2), (iii) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-like trap (CDC trap) baited with CO2 (CDC + CO2), (iv) CDC trap used with light and baited with BG-Lure and CO2 (CDC light + lure + CO2). These combinations were compared in the field using a 4 × 4 Latin square study design. The trial was conducted in two sites in northeastern Italy in 2019. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and a sub-sample of An. maculipennis complex specimens were identified to species level by molecular analysis. RESULTS: Forty-eight collections were performed on 12 different trapping days at each site, and a total of 1721 An. maculipennis complex specimens were captured. The molecular analysis of a sub-sample comprising 254 specimens identified both Anopheles messeae/Anopheles daciae (n = 103) and Anopheles maculipennis sensu stricto (n = 8) at site 1, while at site 2 only An. messeae/An. daciae (n = 143) was found. The four trapping devices differed with respect to the number of An. messeae/An. daciae captured. More mosquitoes were caught by the BG trap when it was used with additional lures (i.e. BG + lure + CO2) than without the attractant, CO2 [ratioBG+lure vs BG+lure+CO2 = 0.206, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.101-0.420, P < 0.0001], while no significant differences were observed between CDC + CO2 and CDC light + lure + CO2 (P = 0.321). The addition of CO2 to BG + lure increased the ability of this combination to capture An. messeae/An. daciae by a factor of 4.85, and it also trapped more mosquitoes of other, non-target species (Culex pipiens, ratioBG+lure vs BG+lure+CO2 = 0.119, 95% CI 0.056-0.250, P < 0.0001; Ochlerotatus caspius, ratioBG+lure vs BG+lure+CO2 = 0.035, 95% CI 0.015-0.080, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that both the BG-Sentinel and CDC trap can be used to effectively sample An. messeae/An. daciae, but that the combination of the BG-Sentinel trap with the BG-Lure and CO2 was the most effective means of achieving this. BG + lure + CO2 is considered the best combination for the routine monitoring of host-seeking An. maculipennis complex species such as An. messeae/An. daciae. The BG-Sentinel and CDC traps have value as alternative methods to human landing catches and manual aspiration for the standardized monitoring of Anopheles species in Europe.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Malária , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Estados Unidos
4.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(2): 199-207, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538753

RESUMO

Objective To assess the psychological status of staff at the centers for disease control and prevention(CDC) in Sichuan during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and explore the influencing factors. Methods The staff at Sichuan provincial,municipal,and county(district)-level CDC were selected by convenience sampling.Their basic information,work status,training status,work difficulties,and support from the work group were collected from the self-filled questionnaires online.The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire were respectively employed to measure the anxiety and depression of the staff.The stepwise Logistic regression was carried out to analyze the influencing factors of anxiety and depression in CDC staff. Results Among the 653 staff,58.35% and 50.06% presented anxiety and depression,respectively.The regression results showed that age(OR=0.95,95%CI=0.92-0.97) and mental support from the work group(OR=0.61,95%CI=0.45-0.82) were the protective factors while physical fatigue(OR=1.82,95%CI=1.20-2.74),work pressure(OR=1.61,95%CI=1.21-2.12),and insufficient protective equipment(OR=1.92,95%CI=1.06-3.49) were the risk factors for depression of CDC staff.Age(OR=0.97,95%CI=0.94-0.99),length of sleep per day(OR=0.74,95%CI=0.56-0.96),and participation in technical training(OR=0.33,95%CI=0.12-0.95) were the protective factors while mental fatigue(OR=1.68,95%CI=1.18-2.41),work pressure(OR=2.94,95%CI=2.08-4.17),and unclear incentive system for overtime(OR=1.99,95%CI=1.23-3.23) were the risk factors for the anxiety of CDC staff. Conclusion The anxiety and depression status of CDC staff during the COVID-19 outbreak were worrying,which were mainly affected by age,sleep,supply of protective equipment,incentive system,fatigue,and work pressure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 404, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contracted with laboratories to sequence the SARS-CoV-2 genome from positive samples across the United States to enable public health officials to investigate the impact of variants on disease severity as well as the effectiveness of vaccines and treatment. Herein we present the initial results correlating RT-PCR quality control metrics with sample collection and sequencing methods from full SARS-CoV-2 viral genomic sequencing of 24,441 positive patient samples between April and June 2021. METHODS: RT-PCR confirmed (N Gene Ct value < 30) positive patient samples, with nucleic acid extracted from saliva, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were selected for viral whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. Sequencing was performed using Illumina COVIDSeq™ protocol on either the NextSeq550 or NovaSeq6000 systems. Informatic variant calling, and lineage analysis were performed using DRAGEN COVID Lineage applications on Illumina's Basespace cloud analytical system. All sequence data and variant calls were uploaded to NCBI and GISAID. RESULTS: An association was observed between higher sequencing coverage, quality, and samples with a lower Ct value, with < 27 being optimal, across both sequencing platforms and sample collection methods. Both nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva samples were found to be optimal samples of choice for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance sequencing studies, both in terms of strain identification and sequencing depth of coverage, with NovaSeq 6000 providing higher coverage than the NextSeq 550. The most frequent variants identified were the B.1.617.2 Delta (India) and P.1 Gamma (Brazil) variants in the samples sequenced between April 2021 and June 2021. At the time of submission, the most common variant > 99% of positives sequenced was Omicron. CONCLUSION: These initial analyses highlight the importance of sequencing platform, sample collection methods, and RT-PCR Ct values in guiding surveillance efforts. These surveillance studies evaluating genetic changes of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified as critical by the CDC that can affect many aspects of public health including transmission, disease severity, diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Genômica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S112-S126, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416965

RESUMO

To prepare for the development of the 2021 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, the CDC convened a committee of expert consultants in June 2019 to discuss recent abstracts and published literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of sexually transmitted infections.This paper summarizes the key questions, evidence, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in adolescents and adults that were reviewed and discussed for consideration in developing the guidelines. The evidence reviewed mostly focused on efficacy of doxycycline and azithromycin for urogenital, rectal, and oropharyngeal CT infection, CT risk factors in women, performance of CT nucleic acid amplification tests on self-collected meatal specimens in men, and performance of newer CT point-of-care tests.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S127-S133, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416969

RESUMO

A panel of experts generated 5 "key questions" in the management of adult syphilis. A systematic literature review was conducted and tables of evidence were constructed to answer these questions. Available data suggest no clinical benefit to >1 dose of benzathine penicillin G for early syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. While penicillin remains the drug of choice to treat syphilis, doxycycline to treat early and late latent syphilis is an acceptable alternate option if penicillin cannot be used. There are very limited data regarding the impact of additional antibiotic doses on serologic responses in serofast patients and no data on the impact of additional antibiotic courses on long-term clinical outcomes. In patients with isolated ocular or otic signs and symptoms, reactive syphilis serologic results, and confirmed ocular/otic abnormalities at examination, a diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is not necessary, because up to 40% and 90% of patients, respectively, would have no CSF abnormalities. Based on the results of 2 studies, repeated CSF examinations are not necessary for HIV-uninfected patients or HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy who exhibit appropriate serologic and clinical responses after treatment for neurosyphilis. Finally, several important gaps were identified and should be a priority for future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Neurossífilis , Sífilis , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Penicilina G Benzatina/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S152-S161, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416973

RESUMO

Trichomonas vaginalis is likely the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of trichomoniasis, as African Americans are >4 times more likely to be infected than persons of other races. Since publication of the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, additional data have bolstered the importance of T. vaginalis infection sequelae in women, including increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, cervical cancer, preterm birth, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Less is known about the clinical significance of infection in men. Newly available diagnostic methods, including point-of-care assays and multiple nucleic acid amplification tests, can be performed on a variety of genital specimens in women and men, including urine, allowing more accurate and convenient testing and screening of those at risk for infection. Repeat and persistent infections are common in women; thus, rescreening at 3 months after treatment is recommended. In vitro antibiotic resistance to 5-nitroimidazole in T. vaginalis remains low (4.3%) but should be monitored. High rates of T. vaginalis among sexual partners of infected persons suggest a role for expedited partner treatment. A randomized controlled trial in HIV-uninfected women demonstrated that multidose metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 7 days reduced the proportion of women with Trichomonas infection at 1 month test of cure compared with women receiving single-dose therapy (2 g). The 2-g single-dose oral metronidazole regimen remains the preferred treatment in men.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Nascimento Prematuro , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Tricomoníase , Vaginite por Trichomonas , Trichomonas vaginalis , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Tricomoníase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058762, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the status quo and the influencing factors of fatigue and professional identity among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workers in China during the pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. SETTING: CDC workers employed by the Liaoning CDC system were enrolled (administrative staffs were excluded). PARTICIPANTS: 1020 CDC workers. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue scores and professional identity scores. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Postcompetency scores, respect scores, occupational stress scores, resilience scores and self-efficacy scores. RESULTS: The average scores of fatigue and professional identity were 8.23, 38.88, respectively. Factors including perceived public respect (ß=-0.129, p<0.01), resilience (ß=-0.104, p<0.05) and self-efficacy (ß=-0.22, p<0.01) were negatively associated with fatigue. Educational background (bachelor vs junior college or below) (ß=0.105, p<0.01), (master or above vs junior college or below) (ß=0.092, p<0.05), workplace (county vs district) (ß=0.067, p<0.05), (city vs district) (ß=0.085, p<0.05), fighting the COVID-19 on the front line (ß=0.059, p<0.05) and occupational stress (ß=0.166, p<0.01) were positively correlated with fatigue. Educational background (bachelor vs junior college or below) (ß=-0.097, p<0.01), (master or above vs junior college or below) (ß=-0.114, p<0.01), workplace (city vs district) (ß=-0.114, p<0.01), fighting the COVID-19 on the front line (ß=-0.047, p<0.05) and occupational stress (ß=-0.105, p<0.01) were negatively associated with professional identity. Factors including postcompetency (ß=0.362, p<0.01), perceived public respect (general vs low) (ß=0.219, p<0.01), (high vs low) (ß=0.288, p<0.01), resilience (ß=0.097, p<0.05) and self-efficacy (ß=0.113, p<0.01) were positively connected with professional identity. CONCLUSION: The fatigue among the CDC workers was at a higher level. The level of professional identity was high, and administrators should take measures to alleviate fatigue and maintain professional identity. In addition, methods aiming to attenuate occupational stress, and improve resilience and self-efficacy should be immediately put into action.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estresse Ocupacional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S162-S168, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common cause of vulvovaginal itching and discharge. This article discusses the latest CDC STI Treatment Guidelines for VVC. METHODS: A literature search of relevant topics was performed, and a team of experts was convened to discuss (1) diagnosis/testing modalities; treatment of (2) uncomplicated VVC , (3) complicated VVC, and (4) VVC caused by non-albicans yeast; (5) alternative treatment regimens; (6) susceptibility testing of yeast; Special Populations: (7) pregnancy and (8) HIV and VVC. RESULTS: Yeast culture remains the gold standard for diagnoses. Newer molecular assays have been developed for the diagnosis of VVC and perform well. Azole antifungals remain the treatment of choice for uncomplicated VVC. Two new drugs, TOL-463 and recently FDA-approved ibrexafungerp, appeared promising in clinical trials. For recurrent VVC, oteseconazole, not yet commercially available, may represent a new option. For non-albicans yeast infections in symptomatic patients, boric acid appears useful. No evidence supports the use of alternative treatments, including probiotics. Fluconazole during pregnancy may be associated with spontaneous abortion and craniofacial and heart defects. In women with HIV infection, lower CD4+ T-cell counts are associated with increased rates of VVC, and VVC is associated with increased viral shedding. Treatment measures in women with HIV infection are identical to those women without HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: There has been significant new knowledge generated about VVC since the 2015 CDC Guidelines which have led to changing recommendations.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Infecções por HIV , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida albicans , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Gravidez , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Estados Unidos
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S144-S151, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416968

RESUMO

In preparation for the 2021 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sexually transmitted infections (STIs) treatment guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group in 2019 to examine recent literature addressing updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of STIs. This article summarizes recent data in each of these key topic areas as they pertain to bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common cause of vaginal discharge. The evidence reviewed primarily focused on updates in the global epidemiology of BV, risk factors for BV, data supportive of sexual transmission of BV-associated bacteria, BV molecular diagnostic tests, and novel treatment regimens. Additionally, recent literature on alcohol abstinence in the setting of 5-nitroimidazole use was reviewed.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Vaginose Bacteriana , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S134-S143, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416970

RESUMO

Genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or type 2, is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI). Given that HSV is an incurable infection, there are important concerns about appropriate use of diagnostic tools, management of infection, prevention of transmission to sexual partners, and appropriate counseling. In preparation for updating the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STI treatment guidelines, key questions for management of genital herpes infection were developed with a panel of experts. To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was performed, with tables of evidence including articles that would change guidance assembled. These data were used to inform recommendations in the 2021 CDC STI treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Herpes Genital , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Herpes Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Genital/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S95-S111, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all first-line recommended therapies, making gonococcal antimicrobial resistance a major public health concern given limited antibiotic options currently and an even smaller antimicrobial development pipeline. Since the release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines, azithromycin, part of the 2015 dual-drug treatment regimen, has had a rapid rise in resistance. The 2020 CDC Gonorrhea Treatment Recommendations and the 2021 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) Treatment Guidelines were developed weighing the priorities of treating the individual, protecting the population, and preventing antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Gonorrhea subject matter experts (SME) generated 8 key questions and conducted a literature review of updated data from 2013 to 2019 on gonorrhea antimicrobial resistance, treatment failures, clinical trials, and other key topics. More than 2200 abstracts were assessed, and 248 clinically relevant articles were thoroughly reviewed. SMEs also evaluated N gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). EVIDENCE: Although there have been reports of ceftriaxone treatment failures internationally, GISP data suggest that ceftriaxone minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) have remained stable in the United States, with < 0.1% exhibiting an "alert value" MIC (> 0.25 mcg/mL). However, GISP documented a rapid rise in the proportion of isolates with an elevated MIC (≥ 2.0 mcg/mL) to azithromycin-nearly 5% in 2018. At the same time, new pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data are available, and there is greater recognition of the need for antimicrobial stewardship. SUMMARY: The 2021 CDC STI Treatment Guidelines now recommend 500mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly once for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea at all anatomic sites. If coinfection with chlamydia has not been excluded, cotreatment with doxycycline 100mg twice daily for 7 days should be added. Few alternative therapies exist for persons with cephalosporin allergies; there are no recommended alternative therapies for N gonorrhoeae infection of the throat.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azitromicina , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(Supplement_2): S179-S192, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416975

RESUMO

In June 2019 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened an advisory group to assist in development of the 2021 CDC sexually transmitted infections (STI) guidelines. The advisory group on anal cancer screening and prevention met to formulate key questions in this field. The group examined published literature and abstracts to assess evidence and give recommendations for development of the CDC guidelines. This article summarizes key questions, evidence, recommendations, and areas for further research for the screening, diagnosis, and prevention of anal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
17.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 6(2): e84-e87, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389272

RESUMO

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Clear Communication Index (CCI) was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (BR). It was necessary to analyze the reliability and validity of the BR-CDC-CCI for its use in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument in its Brazilian version. Four specialists in health education used the BR-CDC-CCI to evaluate a population-level health education material. Primary health care professionals (n = 105) evaluated the same health material using the BRCDC-CCI, and 30 professionals performed the retest 15 to 20 days after the first assessment. Cohen Kappa and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were developed. Inter-rater agreement ranged from moderate to almost perfect, with 90% of the items almost perfect. The percentage of agreement ranged from 8.6% to 98.1%. For the analyzed questions, the area on the ROC curve was 0.9412 (confidence interval [CI] 95%; [0.8259, 1.000]). The BR-CDC-CCI had sufficient validity and reliability for its use in the evaluation of educational/informational materials in health in the Brazilian context. In view of the good results from this psychometric assessment, we anticipated the BR-CDC-CCI could contribute to improvements in Brazilian professionals' skills in developing health communication materials, thereby improving the quality of education and, possibly health outcomes. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2022;6(2):e84-e87.].


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Idioma , Brasil , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 185, 2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on pediatric ventilator-associated events (PedVAE) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, since the CDC mandated state reporting of these events in January 2019. This study sought to describe PedVAE rates and characteristics in the NICU population. METHODS: Single-center case-control study of infants requiring mechanical ventilation in a 39-bed level IV NICU between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020. Baseline infant demographic, respiratory support and antibiotic use data was obtained and comparisons were performed between patients with potential PedVAEs and those without events. RESULT: Two hundred and nine infants were mechanically ventilated. Two of the 126 patients ventilated for ≥4 days met CDC criteria for PedVAEs with a total of 3 events, and 32 (25%) received antibiotics with escalation of respiratory support, primarily for tracheitis. CONCLUSION: NICU-specific data on PedVAE is limited. Only 2 infants in the study period met the current CDC criteria for PedVAE with a rate of 0.9 events per 1000 ventilator days. The current CDC PedVAE definition might be inadequate to identify actionable VAEs to inform prevention efforts in the NICU population, and alternate indices could better characterize these events.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Antibacterianos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
20.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 38(1): 24-28, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276727

RESUMO

Several portable, rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-Ion) cell phone power banks were compared with standard 6-V gel lead-acid batteries as alternative power sources for operating mosquito surveillance equipment. In laboratory trials, ToughTested® (TT)16000 and 24000, Goal Zero Venture™ 70, and Griffin Survivor® units either met or exceeded that of sealed 6-V batteries when operating the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps (with incandescent light on) for an average of 24 h. No significant difference was found when continually operating traps powered by either the TT16000 or Goal Zero Venture 70 units compared with 6-V batteries (at approximately 57 h). The TT24000 unit was the only Li-Ion power bank that exceeded this threshold at an average of approximately 73 h. In field studies, there was no significant difference in species diversity or abundance of mosquitoes among the above 4 power sources when operating CDC light traps for 24 h compared with 6-V batteries. Our results indicate that portable Li-Ion cell phone power banks ≥10,050 mAh may be suitable replacements for 6-V gel lead-acid batteries when operating these light traps, especially if weight and size constraints influence the extent of mosquito surveillance during deployments.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Estados Unidos
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