Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46.047
Filtrar
Mais filtros








Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 173, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570480

RESUMO

The cerebellum, through its connectivity with the cerebral cortex, plays an integral role in regulating cognitive and affective processes, and its dysregulation can result in neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD)-related behavioural deficits. Identifying cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) profiles in children with NDDs can provide insight into common connectivity profiles and their correlation to NDD-related behaviours. 479 participants from the Province of Ontario Neurodevelopmental Disorders (POND) network (typically developing = 93, Autism Spectrum Disorder = 172, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder = 161, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder = 53, mean age = 12.2) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and behaviour testing (Social Communication Questionnaire, Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and Child Behaviour Checklist - Attentional Problems Subscale). FC components maximally correlated to behaviour were identified using canonical correlation analysis. Results were then validated by repeating the investigation in 556 participants from an independent NDD cohort provided from a separate consortium (Healthy Brain Network (HBN)). Replication of canonical components was quantified by correlating the feature vectors between the two cohorts. The two cerebellar-cerebral FC components that replicated to the greatest extent were correlated to, respectively, obsessive-compulsive behaviour (behaviour feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.97; FC feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.68) and social communication deficit contrasted against attention deficit behaviour (behaviour feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.99; FC feature vectors, rPOND-HBN = -0.78). The statistically stable (|z| > 1.96) features of the FC feature vectors, measured via bootstrap re-sampling, predominantly comprised of correlations between cerebellar attentional and control network regions and cerebral attentional, default mode, and control network regions. In both cohorts, spectral clustering on FC loading values resulted in subject clusters mixed across diagnostic categories, but no cluster was significantly enriched for any given diagnosis as measured via chi-squared test (p > 0.05). Overall, two behaviour-correlated components of cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity were observed in two independent cohorts. This suggests the existence of generalizable cerebellar network differences that span across NDD diagnostic boundaries.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Humanos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Cerebelo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Neurosurg ; 140(4): 1160-1168, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lateral aspect of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure frequently harbors vascular pathology and is a common surgical corridor used to access the pons tegmentum, as well as the cerebellum and its superior and middle peduncles. The quadrangular lobule of the cerebellum (QLC) represents an obstacle to reach these structures. The authors sought to analyze and compare exposure of the cerebellar interpeduncular region (CIPR) before and after QLC resection and provide a case series to evaluate its clinical applicability. METHODS: Forty-two sides of human brainstems were prepared with Klingler's method and dissected. The exposure area before and after resection of the QLC was measured and statistically studied. A case series of 59 patients who underwent QLC resection for the treatment of CIPR lesions was presented and clinical outcomes were evaluated at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: The anteroposterior surgical corridor of the CIPR increased by 10.3 mm after resection of the QLC. The mean exposure areas were 42 mm2 before resection of the QLC and 159.6 mm2 after resection. In this series, ataxia, extrapyramidal syndrome, and akinetic mutism were found after surgery. However, all these cases resolved within 1 year of follow-up. Modified Rankin Scale score improved by 1 grade, on average. CONCLUSIONS: QLC resection significantly increased the exposure area, mainly in the anteroposterior axis. This surgical strategy appears to be safe and may help the neurosurgeon when operating on the lateral aspect of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Humanos , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Tronco Encefálico/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Craniotomia/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8168, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589482

RESUMO

Injury, tumors, ischemia, and lesions in the cerebellum show the involvement of this region in human speech. The association of the cerebellum with learned birdsong has only been identified recently. Cerebellar dysfunction in young songbirds causes learning disabilities, but its role in adult songbirds has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) in adult birdsong. We created bilateral excitotoxic lesions in the DCN of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and recorded their songs for up to 4 months. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry, we validated the lesion efficacy. We found that the song duration significantly increased from 14 weeks post-op; the increase in duration was caused by a greater number of introductory notes as well as a greater number of syllables sung after the introductory notes. On the other hand, the motif duration decreased from 8 weeks after DCN lesions were induced, which was due to faster singing of syllables, not changes in inter-syllable interval length. DCN lesions also caused a decrease in the fundamental frequency of syllables. In summary, we showed that DCN lesions influence the temporal and acoustic features of birdsong. These results suggest that the cerebellum influences singing in adult songbirds.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Aves Canoras , Animais , Masculino , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação , Aprendizagem , Vocalização Animal
4.
Adv Neurobiol ; 36: 173-189, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468032

RESUMO

This chapter begins by showing the difference between fractal geometry and fractal analysis. The text shows the difference between mathematical and natural fractals and how they are best defined by explaining the concept of fractal analysis. Furthermore, the text presents the most famous technique of fractal analysis: the box-counting method. Defining this method and showing the methodology that leads to the precise value of the fractal (i.e., the box) dimension is done by demonstrating the images of human dentate neurons. A more detailed explanation of the methodology was presented in the previous version of this chapter.This version promotes the notion of monofractal analysis and shows how three types of the same neuronal images can quantify four image properties. The results showed that monofractal parameters successfully quantified four image properties in three nuclei of the cerebellum. Finally, the author discusses the results of this chapter and previously published conclusions. The results show how the monofractal parameters discriminate images of neurons from the three nuclei of the human cerebrum. These outcomes are discussed along with the results of previous studies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neurônios , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fractais , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Adv Neurobiol ; 36: 329-363, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468041

RESUMO

The fractal dimension is a morphometric measure that has been used to investigate the changes of brain shape complexity in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. This chapter reviews fractal dimension studies in aging and neurodegenerative disorders in the literature. Research has shown that the fractal dimension of the left cerebral hemisphere increases until adolescence and then decreases with aging, while the fractal dimension of the right hemisphere continues to increase until adulthood. Studies in neurodegenerative diseases demonstrated a decline in the fractal dimension of the gray matter and white matter in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinocerebellar ataxia. In multiple sclerosis, the white matter fractal dimension decreases, but conversely, the fractal dimension of the gray matter increases at specific stages of disease. There is also a decline in the gray matter fractal dimension in frontotemporal dementia and multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type and in the white matter fractal dimension in epilepsy and stroke. Region-specific changes in fractal dimension have also been found in Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Associations were found between the fractal dimension and clinical scores, showing the potential of the fractal dimension as a marker to monitor brain shape changes in normal or pathological processes and predict cognitive or motor function.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Adulto , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fractais , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Envelhecimento , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia
6.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474866

RESUMO

The neural mechanisms underlying susceptibility to eating more in response to large portions (i.e., the portion size effect) remain unclear. Thus, the present study examined how neural responses to portion size relate to changes in weight and energy consumed as portions increase. Associations were examined across brain regions traditionally implicated in appetite control (i.e., an appetitive network) as well as the cerebellum, which has recently been implicated in appetite-related processes. Children without obesity (i.e., BMI-for-age-and-sex percentile < 90; N = 63; 55% female) viewed images of larger and smaller portions of food during fMRI and, in separate sessions, ate four meals that varied in portion size. Individual-level linear and quadratic associations between intake (kcal, grams) and portion size (i.e., portion size slopes) were estimated. The response to portion size in cerebellar lobules IV-VI was associated with the quadratic portion size slope estimated from gram intake; a greater response to images depicting smaller compared to larger portions was associated with steeper increases in intake with increasing portion sizes. Within the appetitive network, neural responses were not associated with portion size slopes. A decreased cerebellar response to larger amounts of food may increase children's susceptibility to overeating when excessively large portions are served.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Tamanho da Porção , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Refeições , Cerebelo
7.
Elife ; 132024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451856

RESUMO

Determining the sites and directions of plasticity underlying changes in neural activity and behavior is critical for understanding mechanisms of learning. Identifying such plasticity from neural recording data can be challenging due to feedback pathways that impede reasoning about cause and effect. We studied interactions between feedback, neural activity, and plasticity in the context of a closed-loop motor learning task for which there is disagreement about the loci and directions of plasticity: vestibulo-ocular reflex learning. We constructed a set of circuit models that differed in the strength of their recurrent feedback, from no feedback to very strong feedback. Despite these differences, each model successfully fit a large set of neural and behavioral data. However, the patterns of plasticity predicted by the models fundamentally differed, with the direction of plasticity at a key site changing from depression to potentiation as feedback strength increased. Guided by our analysis, we suggest how such models can be experimentally disambiguated. Our results address a long-standing debate regarding cerebellum-dependent motor learning, suggesting a reconciliation in which learning-related changes in the strength of synaptic inputs to Purkinje cells are compatible with seemingly oppositely directed changes in Purkinje cell spiking activity. More broadly, these results demonstrate how changes in neural activity over learning can appear to contradict the sign of the underlying plasticity when either internal feedback or feedback through the environment is present.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Células de Purkinje , Aprendizagem , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular , Retroalimentação , Plasticidade Neuronal
8.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474350

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) caused by developmental ethanol exposure lead to cerebellar impairments, including motor problems, decreased cerebellar weight, and cell death. Alterations in the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells, and central nervous system immune cells, microglia, have been reported in animal models of FASD. To determine how developmental ethanol exposure affects adult cerebellar microglia and Purkinje cells, we used a human third-trimester binge exposure model in which mice received ethanol or saline from postnatal (P) days 4-9. In adolescence, cerebellar cranial windows were implanted and mice were aged to young adulthood for examination of microglia and Purkinje cells in vivo with two-photon imaging or in fixed tissue. Ethanol had no effect on microglia density, morphology, dynamics, or injury response. However, Purkinje cell linear frequency was reduced by ethanol. Microglia-Purkinje cell interactions in the Purkinje Cell Layer were altered in females compared to males. Overall, developmental ethanol exposure had few effects on cerebellar microglia in young adulthood and Purkinje cells appeared to be more susceptible to its effects.


Assuntos
Etanol , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Gravidez , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso , Etanol/farmacologia , Células de Purkinje , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
9.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 147, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lesions of the posterior fossa (brainstem and cerebellum) are challenging in diagnosis and treatment due to the fact that they are often located eloquently and total resection is rarely possible. Therefore, frame-based stereotactic biopsies are commonly used to asservate tissue for neuropathological diagnosis and further treatment determination. The aim of our study was to assess the safety and diagnostic success rate of frame-based stereotactic biopsies for lesions in the posterior fossa via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach. METHODS: We performed a retrospective database analysis of all frame-based stereotactic biopsy cases at our institution since 2007. The aim was to identify all surgical cases for infratentorial lesion biopsies via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach. We collected clinical data regarding outcomes, complications, diagnostic success, radiological appearances, and stereotactic trajectories. RESULTS: A total of n = 79 cases of stereotactic biopsies for posterior fossa lesions via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach (41 female and 38 male) utilizing the Zamorano-Duchovny stereotactic system were identified. The mean age at the time of surgery was 42.5 years (± 23.3; range, 1-87 years). All patients were operated with intraoperative stereotactic imaging (n = 62 MRI, n = 17 CT). The absolute diagnostic success rate was 87.3%. The most common diagnoses were glioma, lymphoma, and inflammatory disease. The overall complication rate was 8.7% (seven cases). All patients with complications showed new neurological deficits; of those, three were permanent. Hemorrhage was detected in five of the cases having complications. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.6%, and 1-year survival rate was 70%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that frame-based stereotactic biopsies with the Zamorano-Duchovny stereotactic system via the suboccipital-transcerebellar approach are safe and reliable for infratentorial lesions bearing a high diagnostic yield and an acceptable complication rate. Further research should focus on the planning of safe trajectories and a careful case selection with the goal of minimizing complications and maximizing diagnostic success.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tronco Encefálico/cirurgia , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Biópsia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2351, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499518

RESUMO

In the past, the cerebellum has been best known for its crucial role in motor function. However, increasingly more findings highlight the importance of cerebellar contributions in cognitive functions and neurodevelopment. Using a total of 7240 neuroimaging scans from 4862 individuals, we describe and provide detailed, openly available models of cerebellar development in childhood and adolescence (age range: 6-17 years), an important time period for brain development and onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. Next to a traditionally used anatomical parcellation of the cerebellum, we generated growth models based on a recently proposed functional parcellation. In both, we find an anterior-posterior growth gradient mirroring the age-related improvements of underlying behavior and function, which is analogous to cerebral maturation patterns and offers evidence for directly related cerebello-cortical developmental trajectories. Finally, we illustrate how the current approach can be used to detect cerebellar abnormalities in clinical samples.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Cognição , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Neuroimagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
12.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol ; 50(2): e12970, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504418

RESUMO

PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (PHTS) comprises different hereditary conditions caused by germline PTEN mutations, predisposing to the development of multiple hamartomas in many body tissues and also increasing the risk of some types of cancer. Cerebellar involvement in PHTS patients has been long known due to the development of a pathognomonic cerebellar hamartoma (known as dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum or Lhermitte-Duclos disease). Recently, a crucial role of the cerebellum has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders, now recognised as a phenotype expressed in a variable percentage of PHTS children. In addition, rare PTEN variants are indeed identified in medulloblastoma as well, even if they are less frequent than other germline gene mutations. The importance of PTEN and its downstream signalling enzymatic pathways, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, has been studied at different levels in both human clinical settings and animal models, not only leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of different disorders but, most importantly, to identify potential targets for specific therapies. In particular, PTEN integrity makes an important contribution to the normal development of tissue architecture in the nervous system, including the cerebellum. Thus, in patients with PTEN germline mutations, the cerebellum is an affected organ that is increasingly recognised in different disorders, whereas, in animal models, cerebellar Pten loss causes a variety of functional and histological alterations. In this review, we summarise the range of cerebellar involvement observed in PHTS and its relationships with germline PTEN mutations, along with the phenotypes expressed by murine models with PTEN deficiency in cerebellar tissue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo , Criança , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Cerebelo/patologia , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/patologia , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Células Germinativas/patologia , Mutação
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6641, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503802

RESUMO

Cerebellar computations are necessary for fine behavioural control and may rely on internal models for estimation of behaviourally relevant states. Here, we propose that the central cerebellar function is to estimate how states interact with each other, and to use these estimates to coordinates extra-cerebellar neuronal dynamics underpinning a range of interconnected behaviours. To support this claim, we describe a cerebellar model for state estimation that includes state interactions, and link this model with the neuronal architecture and dynamics observed empirically. This is formalised using the free energy principle, which provides a dual perspective on a system in terms of both the dynamics of its physical-in this case neuronal-states, and the inferential process they entail. As a demonstration of this proposal, we simulate cerebellar-dependent synchronisation of whisking and respiration, which are known to be tightly coupled in rodents, as well as limb and tail coordination during locomotion. In summary, we propose that the ubiquitous involvement of the cerebellum in behaviour arises from its central role in precisely coupling behavioural domains.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Locomoção , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
14.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 19(1)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537123

RESUMO

The cerebellum causally supports social processing by generating internal models of social events based on statistical learning of behavioral regularities. However, whether the cerebellum is only involved in forming or also in using internal models for the prediction of forthcoming actions is still unclear. We used cerebellar transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS) to modulate the performance of healthy adults in using previously learned expectations in an action prediction task. In a first learning phase of this task, participants were exposed to different levels of associations between specific actions and contextual elements, to induce the formation of either strongly or moderately informative expectations. In a following testing phase, which assessed the use of these expectations for predicting ambiguous (i.e. temporally occluded) actions, we delivered ctDCS. Results showed that anodic, compared to sham, ctDCS boosted the prediction of actions embedded in moderately, but not strongly, informative contexts. Since ctDCS was delivered during the testing phase, that is after expectations were established, our findings suggest that the cerebellum is causally involved in using internal models (and not just in generating them). This encourages the exploration of the clinical effects of ctDCS to compensate poor use of predictive internal models for social perception.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
15.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536959

RESUMO

The cell-type-specific expression of ligand/receptor and cell-adhesion molecules is a fundamental mechanism through which neurons regulate connectivity. Here, we determine a functional relevance of the long-established mutually exclusive expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit and the trans-membrane protein Kit Ligand by discrete populations of neurons in the mammalian brain. Kit is enriched in molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) of the cerebellar cortex (i.e., stellate and basket cells), while cerebellar Kit Ligand is selectively expressed by a target of their inhibition, Purkinje cells (PCs). By in vivo genetic manipulation spanning embryonic development through adulthood, we demonstrate that PC Kit Ligand and MLI Kit are required for, and capable of driving changes in, the inhibition of PCs. Collectively, these works in mice demonstrate that the Kit Ligand/Kit receptor dyad sustains mammalian central synapse function and suggest a rationale for the affiliation of Kit mutation with neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Células de Purkinje , Fator de Células-Tronco , Camundongos , Animais , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Fator de Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebelar/metabolismo , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
16.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) encompass a group of rare diseases with hereditary and genetic causes as well as acquired causes such as brain injuries or metabolic abnormalities. The phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS2) is a multifunctional protein with nuclear gene expression. The first cases of the recurrent c.625G>A pathogenic variant of PACS2 gene were reported in 2018 by Olson et al. Since then, several case reports and case series have been published. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the PUBMED and SCOPUS databases using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Our search parameters included DEE66 with a pathogenic PACS2 gene p.Glu209Lys mutation published cases to which we added our own clinical experience regarding this pathology. RESULTS: A total of 11 articles and 29 patients were included in this review, to which we added our own experience for a total of 30 patients. There was not a significant difference between sexes regarding the incidence of this pathology (M/F: 16/14). The most common neurological and psychiatric symptoms presented by the patients were: early onset epileptic seizures, delayed global development (including motor and speech delays), behavioral disturbances, limited intellectual capacity, nystagmus, hypotonia, and a wide-based gait. Facial dysmorphism and other organs' involvement were also frequently reported. Brain MRIs evidenced anomalies of the posterior cerebellar fossa, foliar distortion of the cerebellum, vermis hypoplasia, white matter reduction, and lateral ventricles enlargement. Genetic testing is more frequent in children. Only 4 cases have been reported in adults to date. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to maintain a high suspicion of new pathogenic gene variants in adult patients presenting with a characteristic clinical picture correlated with radiologic changes. The neurologist must gradually recognize the distinct evolving phenotype of DEE66 in adult patients, and genetic testing must become a scenario with which the neurologist attending adult patients should be familiar. Accurate diagnosis is required for adequate treatment, genetic counseling, and an improved long-term prognosis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Cerebelo , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542274

RESUMO

In adult fish, neurogenesis occurs in many areas of the brain, including the cerebellum, with the ratio of newly formed cells relative to the total number of brain cells being several orders of magnitude greater than in mammals. Our study aimed to compare the expressions of aromatase B (AroB), glutamine synthetase (GS), and cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) in the cerebellum of intact juvenile chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta. To identify the dynamics that determine the involvement of AroB, GS, and CBS in the cellular mechanisms of regeneration, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the expressions of these molecular markers during a long-term primary traumatic brain injury (TBI) and after a repeated acute TBI to the cerebellum of O. keta juveniles. As a result, in intact juveniles, weak or moderate expressions of AroB, GS, and CBS were detected in four cell types, including cells of the neuroepithelial type, migrating, and differentiated cells (graphic abstract, A). At 90 days post injury, local hypercellular areas were found in the molecular layer containing moderately labeled AroB+, GS+, and CBS+ cells of the neuroepithelial type and larger AroB+, GS+, and CBS+ cells (possibly analogous to the reactive glia of mammals); patterns of cells migration and neovascularization were also observed. A repeated TBI caused the number of AroB+, GS+, and CBS+ cells to further increase; an increased intensity of immunolabeling was recorded from all cell types (graphic abstract, C). Thus, the results of this study provide a better understanding of adult neurogenesis in teleost fishes, which is expected to clarify the issue of the reactivation of adult neurogenesis in mammalian species.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus keta , Animais , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Cistationina , Aromatase , Cistationina beta-Sintase , Cerebelo , Mamíferos
18.
J Int Med Res ; 52(3): 3000605241235848, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513145

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment in focal cerebellar disorders has been widely recognized and is described as cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS). However, the relationship between CCAS and crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (CCD) has rarely been discussed. The present report describes the uncommon phenomenon of CCD in two cases with isolated cerebellar infarction, and discuss its contribution to cognitive impairment. Cognitive performance was examined using the CCAS scale and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. Moreover, the relative distribution of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow was measured using three-dimensional arterial spin labeling imaging. Case 1 showed deficits in general cognition and had impaired language, episodic memory, and executive function. Case 2 showed deficits in general cognition at baseline, and cognitive deterioration of visuospatial abilities, language, episodic memory, and executive function was observed at the 3-month follow-up. Both cases met the diagnosis criteria of CCAS. Reduced cerebral blood flow was observed in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the cerebellar infarction at baseline in Case 1, and at the 3-month follow-up in Case 2. The present report describes cognitive decline after isolated cerebellar infarction in combination with contralateral cerebral hypoperfusion, as measured using quantitative arterial spin labeling. One possible mechanism involves the functional depression of cerebello-cerebral pathways.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Doenças Cerebelares , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Infarto
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2519, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514616

RESUMO

Consensus is rapidly building to support a role for the cerebellum beyond motor function, but its contributions to non-motor learning remain poorly understood. Here, we provide behavioral, anatomical and computational evidence to demonstrate a causal role for the primate posterior lateral cerebellum in learning new visuomotor associations. Reversible inactivation of the posterior lateral cerebellum of male monkeys impeded the learning of new visuomotor associations, but had no effect on movement parameters, or on well-practiced performance of the same task. Using retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus, we identified a distinct cerebro-cerebellar network linking Purkinje cells in the posterior lateral cerebellum with a region of the prefrontal cortex that is critical in learning visuomotor associations. Together, these results demonstrate a causal role for the primate posterior lateral cerebellum in non-motor, reinforcement learning.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Aprendizagem , Animais , Masculino , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Primatas
20.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 103, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) plays a crucial role in cerebellar blood supply, and AICA aneurysms are relatively rare, comprising less than 1-1.5% of all brain aneurysms. Understanding their clinical scenarios, management approaches, and outcomes is essential. This systematic review analyzes data from 86 studies to comprehensively explore AICA aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The process of obtaining relevant research, which includes patients with AICA aneurysms, was carried out using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. This review exclusively included extensive papers written in English. The search included the MeSH phrases "Anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm" and "AICA aneurysm." Microsurgical and endovascular treatments were compared using statistical analysis, exploring demographics, risk factors, treatment modalities, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The review includes 85 case reports and one retrospective study, totaling 140 patients. The study reveals a diverse patient profile with a slight female predominance (65%), a mean age of 50.7 years, and an 82.86% prevalence of no identified risk factors. Ruptured aneurysms accounted for 55%, with microsurgery and endovascular procedures accounting for 70.71% and 27.86%, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.86%, and no significant differences were found in rebleed, recurrence, or mortality rates between treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Microsurgical and endovascular interventions demonstrate comparable effectiveness, with microsurgery showing superiority in specific situations. Therefore, tailoring treatment is crucial to individual patient needs. Subgroup analyses highlight demographic-specific trends, guiding clinicians in managing this rare pathology.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Humanos , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Artéria Basilar , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA