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1.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 343-352, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925593

RESUMO

Based on morphological and molecular data, a new species of tapeworm, Bothriocephalus kupermani n. sp., is described from pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (type host), and green sunfish, L. cyanellus Rafinesque, 1819 (Actinopterygii: Centrarchidae) in the United States. The new species differs from its North American congeners mainly in the shape of its scolex, which is almost rectangular in dorsoventral and lateral views (nearly parallel margins in the bothrial region), with shallow, wide bothria, and by an extensive field of vitelline follicles that are also variably present, albeit more sparsely, medially in the cortex of the ovarian and uterine areas. This tapeworm appears to be typically associated with Lepomis sunfishes. Examination of museum specimens of Bothriocephalus species from Lepomis spp. indicates that the tapeworm also parasitizes bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, and that previous records of Bothriocephalus cuspidatus and Bothriocephalus claviceps in these fishes are of the new species, B. kupermani.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Perciformes , Animais , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Peixes , América do Norte , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia
2.
Trop Biomed ; 39(2): 170-178, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838086

RESUMO

Cestode infections is widely reported in rodents, however species identification remains problematic due to the genetic or interspecies variation. Therefore, this study was aimed to verify the Cyclophyllidean parasites recovered from wild rats captured from different forest types using molecular based methods. Maximum-likelihood (ML) and neighbour-joining (NJ) trees were constructed inferred from 18 small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (18SrDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit one gene (COX1) sequences of cestode worms recovered from 124 individuals from four rat species. Sequences obtained from both Hymenolepis diminuta and Hydatigera parva represents the first records in Malaysia. All the sequences were successfully amplified with product with total length of 205 and 1202 base pairs (bp), respectively. Three cestode species from the Family Hymenolepididae (Hymenolepis diminuta) and Family Taeniidae (Hydatigera parva; Hydatigera taeniaeformis) were successfully characterized using phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networking. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. diminuta, Hydatigera parva (Hy. parva) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Hy. taeniaeformis) formed its own monophyletic clade in 18SrDNA analyses. Results also showed that Hy. taeniaeformis shared the same haplotype group with Hy. taeniaeformis from China (COX1) and linked with Hy. taeniaeformis from Japan (18SrDNA) while the Malaysian H. diminuta clearly formed a separate haplotype and networked with other regions. The Malaysian Hy. parva isolation, on the other hand, appeared to be genetically distinct from the European Hy. parva (Spain) strain, but closely linked to the local isolates. Molecular methods employed successfully improved in the detection of complex species in this group. The findings showed that molecular data can be useful to deeply study intra-specific variation in other cestode worms.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Malásia , Filogenia , Ratos
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 204, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raillietina species belong to the family Davaineidae, which parasitizes in a wide variety of mammals and birds, causing stunted growth, lethargy, emaciation, and digestive tract obstruction. However, only a limited number of Raillietina species have been identified in wild animals. METHODS: We analyzed and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a worm from the intestine of a wild pangolin using Illumina sequencing of whole genomic DNA. RESULTS: These findings showed the presence of two mtDNA sequences in Raillietina sp., designated as mt1 and mt2, with the lengths of 14,331 bp and 14,341 bp, respectively. Both the mts genomes of Raillietina sp. comprised 36 genes, containing 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs. Gene arrangements of both mt genomes of Raillietina sp. were similar to those of most flatworms, except for taeniids, which shift positions between tRNAL1 and tRNAS2 genes. Twenty of 22 tRNA secondary structures of Raillietina sp. had a typical cloverleaf structure similar to Raillietina tetragona. Sequence differences between the mt1 and mt2 genomes were 4.4%, and this difference arises from the mtDNA heteroplasmic mutations. Moreover, heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations were detected in PCGs, tRNAs, rRNAs, NCRs, and intergenes, but the highest proportion of heteroplasmy of 79.0% was detected in PCGs, indicating the occurrence of mtDNA heteroplasmy in Raillietina sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mtDNA heteroplasmy in tapeworm parasites. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA, ITS2, and 12 PCG sequences demonstrated that the worm was clustered with other Raillietina species in the Davaneidae family. CONCLUSIONS: We found a novel Raillietina species in wild pangolin with the existence of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy. Thus, these findings provide insights into the heterogeneity of the mt genome in parasitic cestodes, and mt genome data contributes to the understanding of pangolin-parasitic cestodes in terms of their molecular biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and taxonomy.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Pangolins , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9969, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705658

RESUMO

Sharks play a key role in the functioning of marine ecosystems and maintenance of trophic web balance, including life cycles of parasites co-occurring in their habitats. We investigated the structure of parasite communities of three sympatric shark species (Etmopterus spinax, Galeus melastomus, and Scyliorhinus canicula) and explored both the influence of host features in shaping the communities and their role as biological indicators of environment stability in the Gulf of Naples (central Mediterranean Sea), a geographical area characterized by strong anthropic pressure. Parasites found were all trophic transmitted helminths with a complex life cycle, except Lernaeopoda galei, that is a ecto-parasite copepod. Communities were all similarly impoverished with 4-5 component species and low values of species richness and diversity. Higher abundance of cestode larvae of the genus Grillotia was found in G. melastomus, although their dominance in all host species suggests that the three sharks have a similar role as intermediate/paratenic hosts in local food webs. Similarly, high abundance of Grillotia larvae could also suggest the occurrence of high abundance of largest top predators in the area. Host morphological (fork length in S. canicula and G. melastomus and body condition index in G. melastomus) and physiological (sex and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices in S. canicula) variables were differently correlated to parasite community structures depending by host species. Potential reasons for the present impoverished parasite communities are discussed.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Copépodes , Parasitos , Tubarões , Animais , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mar Mediterrâneo , Tubarões/fisiologia
5.
J Parasitol ; 108(3): 264-273, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687321

RESUMO

Egg structure and early embryonic development of the aspidogastrean, Rohdella amazonica, a basal trematode, were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to gain insight into functional, developmental, and phylogenetic characteristics. Gravid worms were removed from the intestine of naturally infected banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus, collected from the Bay of Marajó, Paracauari River (Pará, Brazil) and processed by standard TEM methods. By the time of pronuclear fusion, the fertilized zygote was already enclosed in a thick, electron-dense pre-operculate eggshell and an underlying layer of vitellocytes that fused into a vitelline syncytium as they were still secreting their shell granules. When cleavage commenced, a small number of macromeres moved to the area just underneath the eggshell, where they fused to form a single syncytial embryonic envelope. Simultaneously, the smaller blastomeres continued to divide as they maintained contact with each other, but remained separate from the vitelline syncytium. Concurrent with these cellular changes, a thickened knob expanded at one pole of the eggshell and began to form an opercular suture. By the time the operculum was fully formed, the vitelline syncytium had mostly degenerated, while the smaller blastomeres had become cohesive as a single mass that preceded the differentiation and morphogenesis of the cotylocidium larva. The general pattern of cleavage and eggshell formation resembles that of other trematodes and polylecithal cestodes, but the single embryonic envelope has been reported only in a few basal taxa. The only other aspidogastrean studied in detail to date is very similar, indicating close phylogenetic affinity and conservatism within this basal neodermatan and neoophoran group.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Parasitos , Tetraodontiformes , Trematódeos , Animais , Filogenia , Tetraodontiformes/parasitologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e003022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674532

RESUMO

Members of the order Trypanorhyncha are cestode parasites that are frequently found infecting the muscles of several marine fish species, affecting fish health and resulting in consumers' rejection. Seventy-five specimens of marine fish were freshly caught from boat landing sites at the Alexandria coast along the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, including two Carangids, the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili and the gulley jack Pseudocarans dentex; two Serranids, the Haifa grouper Epinephelus haifensis and the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra. Forty-five fish were infected; the infection was recorded as blastocysts embedded in fish flesh. Blastocysts were isolated and ruptured; the generated plerocerci were described morphologically, where, four different species were recovered; Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Callitetrarhynchus speciosus, Protogrillotia zerbiae, and Grillotia brayi. The taxonomic position of these parasites was justified by multiple-sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree was constructed following maximum likelihood analysis of the 18s rRNA sequences of the recovered worms. The accession numbers MN625168, MN625169, MN611431and MN611432 were respectively assigned to the recovered parasites. The results obtained from the molecular analyses confirmed the morphological records of the recovered parasites. Since metacestodes are found in the musculature of infected fish specimens, it is necessary to remove these areas in the commercialization of fish.


Assuntos
Bass , Cestoides , Cisticercose , Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Animais , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e258626, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703625

RESUMO

Ligula intestinalis is a cestode parasite that affects freshwater fish in different countries of the world. The current study aims to reveal the phylogenetic, genetic and haplotype diversity of mt-CO1 gene sequences sent to the NCBI database from different countries by using in-silico analysis. The 105 mt-CO1 (371 bp) gene sequences of L. intestinalis obtained from NCBI were used for bioinformatics analyses. Sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and haplotype analysis. As a result of the haplotype analysis of L. intestinalis, 38 haplotypes were obtained from 13 different countries. Hap24 constituted 44.76% of the obtained haplotype network. Changes in nucleotides between haplotypes occurred at 1-84 different points. China and Turkey have highest fixation index (Fst) values of 0.59761, while the lowest (-0.10526) was found between Russia and Turkey. This study provides a baseline for future studies on extensive scale on the epidemiology, ecological aspects, distribution pattern, transmission dynamics and population dispersion of L. intestinalis worldwide.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Mudança Climática , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia
8.
Gene ; 834: 146650, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680022

RESUMO

Taenia pisiformis is one of the most widespread gastrointestinal parasites and its larvae (cysticercosis) causes significant economic loss to rabbit industry. No efficient drug is available for this disease to date. To better understand its genomics, we assembled a 211-Mb high quality genome of T. pisiformis at chromosome level with a scaffold N50 size of 20 Mbp. Totally, 12,097 protein-coding genes was predicted from the genome. Genome-level phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliations with other tapeworms and revealed that T. pisiformis diverged from its closely related relative T. hydatigena âˆ¼ 14.6 Mya. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that the T. pisiformis genome was characterized by adaptive features of strong positive selection signals from carbohydrate/lipid metabolism and body surface integrity, and of expanded gene families related to metabolism of amino acids and lipids. The high-quality genome of T. pisiformis constitutes a resource for the comparative genomics and for further applications in general parasitology.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Taenia , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Filogenia , Coelhos , Taenia/genética
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 131, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipilidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum. Fleas and, less frequently, lice act as an intermediate host, and their ingestion is required for infection to occur. While the disease mainly affects domestic and wild carnivores, it is also considered a zoonotic disease, with most human cases reported in children. Dipylidium caninum is considered to be the most common tapeworm infesting companion animals, but dipilidosis in humans is rare. The aims of this review were to improve current understanding of the epidemiology of this parasitosis and its management by the medical and veterinary community. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the published literature during the last 21 years (2000-2021) on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures of D. caninum infection and dipilidiosis in companion animals and humans was conducted. RESULTS: Using predefined eligibility criteria for a search of the published literature, we retrieved and screened 280 publications. Of these, 161 (141 epidemiological studies, 20 case reports [16 human cases]) were considered for inclusion in this review. This parasitosis is present worldwide; however, despite being the most frequent cestode infection in animals, it is often underdiagnosed using common coprological techniques. Its diagnosis in humans has also proved challenging, being frequently confused with pinworm infection, leading to inappropriate treatment and to the persistence of the disease over time. Prevention measures include control of ectoparasites in animals and the environment, as well as regular deworming of animals, most commonly with praziquantel. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of dipilidiosis remains challenging in both animals and humans, primarily due to the low sensitivity of the diagnostic methods currently available and a lack of knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the parasite. Although treatment with the appropriate anti-cestode compounds is well tolerated and results in resolution of the infection, indiscriminate use of these compounds may predispose to an increase in resistance. Given the worldwide distribution of this parasite, it is essential to act on several fronts, with a focus on health education for children and animal owners and the control of intermediate hosts, both in animals and in the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Animais de Estimação , Sifonápteros/parasitologia
10.
Parasitology ; 149(8): 1094-1105, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535487

RESUMO

Caryophyllideans are intestinal parasites of freshwater fishes, occupying a basal position among the 'true' tapeworms. We performed detailed cytogenetic analyses of the well-known caryophyllidean species Caryophyllaeus laticeps. For comparison, we also examined for the first time the chromosomes of Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi, a specific parasite of loaches in China. Both species showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20, n = 10m. Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)/diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining performed for the first time in the class Cestoda revealed CMA3+/DAPI− bands in the pericentromeric regions of the short arms of chromosome pair no. 7 in the karyotype of C. laticeps. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the 18S rDNA probe confirmed the presence of a single cluster of major rDNA near the centromere on a pair of small chromosomes in both species. These findings support the hypothesis that the ancestral state in the family Caryophyllaeidae is a single interstitial cluster of major rDNA genes and thus one nucleolar organizer region per haploid genome. Our results, which we presented together with literature data plotted on a phylogenetic tree, show stability of caryophyllidean karyotypes at the genus level, but showed differences between genera without a clear phylogenetic signal. The data allowed us to at least formulate a hypothesis about the ancestral haploid chromosome number of n = 10 for the family Caryophyllaeidae and possibly for the sister family Capingentidae. In addition, we compared two populations of C. laticeps from water bodies with different levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, showing a slightly increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities at the contaminated site.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Cipriniformes , Parasitos , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Análise Citogenética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia
11.
Parasitology ; 149(8): 1106-1118, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570686

RESUMO

Dibothriocephalus latus is the most frequent causative agent of fish-borne zoonosis (diphyllobothriosis) in Europe, where it is currently circulating mainly in the Alpine lakes region (ALR) and Russia. Three mitochondrial genes (cox1, cob and nad3) and 6 microsatellite loci were analysed to determine how is the recently detected triploidy/parthenogenesis in tapeworms from ALR displayed at the DNA level. A geographically distant population from the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir in Russia (RU-KR) was analysed as a comparative population. One or 2 alleles of each microsatellite locus was detected in plerocercoids from RU-KR, corresponding to the microsatellite pattern of a diploid organism. In contrast, 1­3 alleles were observed in tapeworms from ALR, in accordance with their triploidy. The high diversity of mitochondrial haplotypes in D. latus from RU-KR implied an original and relatively stable population, but the identical structure of mitochondrial genes of tapeworms from ALR was probably a consequence of a bottleneck typical of introduced populations. These results indicated that the diploid/sexually reproducing population from RU-KR was ancestral, located within the centre of the distribution of the species, and the triploid/parthenogenetically reproducing subalpine population was at the margin of the distribution. The current study revealed the allelic structure of the microsatellite loci in the triploid tapeworm for the first time.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Diphyllobothrium , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Diphyllobothrium/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lagos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Triploidia
12.
mBio ; 13(3): e0067922, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502903

RESUMO

The concept of a holobiont, a host organism and its associated microbial communities, encapsulates the vital role the microbiome plays in the normal functioning of its host. Parasitic infections can disrupt this relationship, leading to dysbiosis. However, it is increasingly recognized that multicellular parasites are themselves holobionts. Intestinal parasites share space with the host gut microbiome, creating a system of nested microbiomes within the primary host. However, how the parasite, as a holobiont, interacts with the host holobiont remains unclear, as do the consequences of these interactions for host health. Here, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomics sequencing to characterize the microbiome of the intestinal cestode Eubothrium and its effect on the gut microbiome of its primary host, Atlantic salmon. Our results indicate that cestode infection is associated with salmon gut dysbiosis by acting as a selective force benefiting putative pathogens and potentially introducing novel bacterial species to the host. Our results suggest that parasitic cestodes may themselves be holobionts nested within the microbial community of their holobiont host, emphasizing the importance of also considering microbes associated with parasites when studying intestinal parasitic infections. IMPORTANCE The importance of the parasite microbiome is gaining recognition. Of particular concern is understanding how these parasite microbiomes influence host-parasite interactions and parasite interactions with the vertebrate host microbiome as part of a system of nested holobionts. However, there are still relatively few studies focusing on the microbiome of parasitic helminths in general and almost none on cestodes in particular, despite the significant burden of disease caused by these parasites globally. Our study provides insights into a system of significance to the aquaculture industry, cestode infections of Atlantic salmon and, more broadly, expands our general understanding of parasite-microbiome-host interactions and introduces a new element, the microbiome of the parasite itself, which may play a critical role in modulating the host microbiome, and, therefore, the host response, to parasite infection.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Parasitos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Cestoides/genética , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
13.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611588

RESUMO

In an effort to expand knowledge of Clade 3-one of the ten clades that compose the non-monophyletic order 'Tetraphyllidea' all current members of which parasitise orectolobiform sharks-we targeted species of orectolobiform sharks that had not previously been examined for 'tetraphyllidean' cestodes. That work led to the discovery of three new species off Australia and Taiwan. Ambitalveolus gen. n. was erected to accommodate these species. Ambitalveolus costelloae gen. n. et sp. n., Ambitalveolus kempi sp. n., and Ambitalveolus penghuensis sp. n. differ from one another in scolex size, genital pore position, and number of marginal loculi, proglottids, and testes. Among 'tetraphyllideans', the new genus most closely resembles the two other genera in Clade 3. It differs from Carpobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 in lacking anterior and posterior flap-like extensions of its bothridia; instead, its bothridia are essentially circular. It differs from Caulopatera Cutmore, Bennett et Cribb, 2010 in that its vitelline follicles are in two lateral bands, rather than circum-medullary, and in that its bothridia bear, rather than lack, conspicuous marginal loculi. A key to the three genera in Clade 3 is provided. A phylogenetic analysis including new sequence data for one of the three new species of Ambitalveolus gen. n., the only species of Caulopatera, and all four described species and one undescribed species of Carpobothrium supports previously hypothesised close affinities between Caulopatera and Carpobothrium, with the new genus as their sister group. This is the first report of 'tetraphyllidean' cestodes from the orectolobiform shark family Brachaeluridae Applegate. The association of the new species with orectolobiform sharks is consistent with those of the other members of Clade 3. However, whereas species of Carpobothrium and Caulopatera parasitise members of the hemiscylliid genus Chiloscyllium Müller et Henle, species of Amitalveolus gen. n. parasitise members of the Brachaeluridae and Orectolobidae Gill.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Tubarões , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
J Helminthol ; 96: e36, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35615954

RESUMO

We present the results of our studies of the helminth fauna and the diet of the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gorodetskiy bird colonies on the Rybachiy Peninsula (Murman coast of the Barents Sea) carried out in 2006-2008 and in 2018-2020. We did not find any noticeable changes in the species diversity of the helminth fauna of the kittiwakes, the proportion of the dominant parasite species and the values of most quantitative infection indices between the two study periods. At the same time, there was a marked decrease in the mean abundance of the dominant cestode species (Alcataenia larina Krabbe, 1869 and Tetrabothrius erostris Loennberg, 1889) in 2018-2020 as compared to 2006-2008. The changes in parasitology of birds found in our study appear to be largely determined by fluctuations of abiotic conditions (increased water and air temperature) and the state of the food supply (size structure of the zooplankton) in the study area.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Charadriiformes , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Aves , Charadriiformes/parasitologia , Mudança Climática
15.
Acta Trop ; 232: 106516, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580638

RESUMO

Chickens and ducks are important sources of essential proteins and nutrition for global consumption, especially their eggs and meat. Tapeworm infections in chickens and ducks are the cause of serious poultry health and economic problems in the processing of livestock and food production systems. Raillietina are cosmopolitan in distribution and are possibly the most common tapeworm parasites. There are three important species regarding avian infection, with different pathogenicity, including Raillietina echinobothrida, R. tetragona, and R. cesticillus. Co-infection diagnosis of these tapeworms using morphological analysis can be performed, but this is time-consuming and complicated. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a triplex PCR for the detection and discrimination of three Raillietina species. The triplex PCR assay specifically amplified target DNAs with no inter-specific interference and produced a specific band for each species. According to the specificity test, there was no cross-amplification with the DNA template of related parasites and their hosts. The lowest detectable DNA concentrations were evaluated and provided sensitivities of 0.5 pg/µL for R. echinobothrida, 5 pg/µL for R. tetragona, 50 fg/µL for R. cesticillus, and 5 pg/µL for the combination of DNA from all three species. Simultaneous detection limits of egg capsules and gravid proglottids was also performed, with and without feces. The interference of feces in the reaction was related to a decrease in sensitivity, but simultaneous detection of three Raillietina species in amounts lower than one gravid proglottid and ten egg capsules was still successful. Thus, this study is the first triplex PCR assay for Raillietina detection and can be utilized as an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection and discrimination of R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, and R. cesticillus infection in poultry through the verification of fecal specimens. In addition, it could improve the performance of specific treatments and promote veterinary healthcare.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Cápsulas , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Galinhas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico
16.
Parasitol Res ; 121(6): 1607-1619, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435510

RESUMO

Since 2012, a massive invasion of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has taken place into the pelagic area of Lake Constance. This species, which had previously been restricted to the littoral zone, is now the dominant pelagic fish and the previously dominant whitefish (Coregonus wartmanni) has suffered severe reductions in growth and recruitment. In this study, in total, 2871 sticklebacks were collected via monthly sessions over a 4-year period in pelagic and benthic areas of Lake Constance and examined for signs of infection with Schistocephalus solidus, a parasite known to be potentially fatal. The infection risk to sticklebacks increases throughout the course of the year and is size- and sex-dependent. Habitat has only a marginal impact. All parasite-induced harm is imparted after stickleback spawning and parental care is over. The results did not support the hypothesis that the invasion of the pelagic area might be driven by parasite-avoiding behaviour. Furthermore, the impact of the parasite is likely to be limited to post-reproductive adults, thereby ensuring stable reproduction of the hosts despite high rates of transmission and mortality. In consequence, stickleback stock development is independent of S. solidus infection, leading to secure coexistence of host and parasite even at extraordinary high host levels.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Salmonidae , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 143, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromedin U (NMU) plays an important role in activating the group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and initiating the host's anti-parasitic immune responses. It is aimed to explore the distribution characteristics of NMU in the sheep small intestine and the influence of Moniezia benedeni infection on them. In the present study, the pET-28a-NMU recombinant plasmids were constructed, and Escherichia coli. BL21 (DE3) were induced to express the recombinant protein. And then, the rabbit anti-sheep NMU polyclonal antibody was prepared and immunofluorescence staining was performed with it. The expression levels of NMU in the intestine of normal and Moniezia benedeni-infected sheep were detected by ELISA. RESULTS: The results showed that the molecular weight of the obtained NMU recombinant protein was consistent with the expected molecular (13 kDa) and it was expressed in the form of inclusion body. The titer and specificity of obtained rabbit anti-sheep NMU polyclonal antibody were good. The results of immunofluorescence analysis showed that the nerve fibers which specifically expressed NMU mainly extended from the ganglion in the submucosal to lamina propria (LP) in the sheep small intestine, and the expression level was relatively high; especially on the nerve fibers of LP around the intestinal glands. The expression levels were gradually increased from the duodenum to the ileum, and the levels in the jejunum and ileum were significantly higher than that in the duodenum (P < 0.05). In addition, scattered NMU positive cells were distributed in the epithelium of the jejunal crypts. Moniezia benedeni infection increased the expression of NMU in each intestinal segment, especially in the jejunum and ileum there were significant increase (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It was suggested that Moniezia benedeni infection could be detected by the high expression of NMU in sheep enteric nervous, and which laid the foundation for further studies on whether NMU exerts anti-parasitic immunity by activating ILC2s. In addition, NMU was expressed in some intestinal gland epitheliums, which also provided a basis for studying its roles in regulation of the immune homeostasis. The present study laid the foundation for further revealing the molecular mechanism of sheep's neural-immune interaction network perceiving the colacobiosis of parasites.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Imunidade Inata/genética , Intestino Delgado , Linfócitos , Neuropeptídeos , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
18.
J Helminthol ; 96: e30, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465856

RESUMO

An annotated checklist of the helminth parasites associated with reptiles from Peru is provided, as the result of a compilation of parasitological papers published between 1963 and January 2022 and records of species deposited in national and international collections. The list provides data on hosts, developmental stage, sites of infection, geographical distribution in Peruvian territory, code of material deposited in helminthological collections, references and taxonomic notes. The database includes records of 106 different species of helminth parasites (82 nominal species and 24 taxa identified at the generic level), the majority in the adult stage. These helminth parasites come from 18 of the 25 official Peruvian regions. Nematodes have the highest richness in number of species (79 species), followed by trematodes (17 species) and cestodes (nine species). The acanthocephalans are represented by only one species. The parasites with the highest number of records were Physaloptera retusa Rudolphi, 1819 (11 hosts), Physalopteroides venancioi (Lent, Freitas & Proença, 1946) (nine hosts), Strongyluris oscari Travassos, 1923 (seven hosts), and Parapharyngodon scleratus Travassos, 1923 (five hosts), all of which are nematodes. The 106 taxa of helminth parasites have been reported infecting 55 species of reptiles in Peru, distributed in 34 genera and 14 families. The reptile species harbouring the highest number of helminth parasites are the yellow-footed tortoise Chelonoidis denticulatus (Linnaeus) with 18 species (three trematodes and 15 nematodes), followed by the Peru desert tegu Dicrodon guttulatum Duméril & Bibron (Teiidae) with 11 species (three cestodes and eight nematodes) and the yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle Podocnemis unifilis Troschel (Podocnemididae) with 10 species (five trematodes and five nematodes). Of the 524 species of reptiles reported in Peru, only 55 (>10%) are reported as hosts of helminths representing a small proportion considering the great variety of reptile hosts that inhabit the various tropical and subtropical geographical areas of Peru.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Helmintos , Parasitos , Tartarugas , Animais , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Peru , Répteis/parasitologia , Vertebrados
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20201425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442265

RESUMO

Ten endoparasite species found in Pygocentrus piraya, which is a piranha species native to São Francisco river, were collected from 108 fish caught in Três Marias reservoir in 2004 and 2005, namely: Digenea - Austrodiplostomum sp. (metacercariae); Eucestoda - Proteocephalidae gen. sp. (plerocercoids); and Nematoda - Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Cystidicoloides fischeri and Capillostrongyloides sentinosa (adults); Spinitectus rodolphiheringi (juvenile); Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Spiroxys sp. and Goezia sp. (larvae). In helminth fauna, P. (S.) inopinatus has shown higher prevalence and dominance. Fish sex has influenced the prevalence of Hysterothylacium sp., which was higher in female specimens. Longer total length of fish has positively influenced the abundance of C. sentinosa and Hysterothylacium sp.. The rainy season has favored parasitic indices, mainly P. (S.) inopinatus abundance, as well C. sentinosa and Hysterothylacium sp. prevalence and abundance. There were co-occurrences between adult and some larval nematodes. Endemic piranhas, as well as final hosts, are important intermediate and/or paratenic hosts, given the relevant number of larvae (proteocephalideans and nematodes) of heteroxene cycle found in them. Proteocephalidae gen. sp., C. sentinosa, Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Goezia sp. and S. rodolphiheringi are new records parasitizing P. piraya in São Francisco basin.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Characidae , Caraciformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Larva , Rios
20.
Zoology (Jena) ; 152: 126012, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390608

RESUMO

А novel type of a complex neuro-glandular brain structure including both nervous and glandular elements and associated with sensory ones is detected in Pyramicocephalus phocarum plerocercoid (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea), parasite of Gadus morua from the White Sea. The brain has two lateral lobes connected by a long cellular median commissure. The brain is tightly surrounded by glandular cells, which receive numerous synapses from the brain neurons. A complex of sensory organs associated with ducts and terminal pores of the frontal glands lies in the scolex tegument. Serotonin, FMRFamide- and GABA-like immunoreactive (IR) neurons are found in the brain, the main nerve cords, and the plexus of the plerocercoid. The innervation of the frontal gland ducts by FMRFamide-IR neurites is detected for the first time proving that they function under control of the nervous system and thus evidencing the eccrine nature of the secretion mechanism. Ultrastructural data show that light, dark and neurosecretory neurons are present in the brain lobes. The median commissure consists of loosely arranged thin parallel axons and several giant and small neurons. The commissure is stratified and penetrated by frontal glandular cells and their processes. Such neuro-glandular morpho-functional brain complex is suggested as a model for Diphyllobothriidae family. Five structural types of sensory organs are described in the scolex of P. phocarum; their colocalization with eccrine gland terminals is supposedly specific for Diphyllobothriidae family. Within the order Diphyllobothriidea, there are significant differences in the architecture of the plerocercoid brain at the family level. We suppose homology of giant commissural neurons among Diphyllobothriidea. Differences between diphyllobothriidean nervous system and that of other cestodes are discussed.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Animais , Encéfalo , FMRFamida/análise , Sistema Nervoso/ultraestrutura , Serotonina/análise
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