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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(51): 15699-15715, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910494

RESUMO

Betalains are water-soluble pigments that may be used as alternatives to artificial colorants in the food industry. In addition, the betalain profile may be of taxonomic significance to some higher plants. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) is an emerging crop grown by Taiwan aboriginal communities, and its various cultivars contain different betalain compositions. To develop an authenticity method for evaluating djulis cultivars, we performed comprehensive betalain profiling with HPLC-Q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). An HRMS method for betalain annotation was developed and used to identify 68 betalains, including 10 betacyanins, 24 betacyanin derivatives, and 34 betaxanthins. The profile of betacyanins and their derivatives could be utilized to classify different cultivars of djulis, while betaxanthins were less informative. Furthermore, the betalain profiles were indicative of the geographic origin of djulis. This HRMS method and analytical platform for betalains may be helpful to guide further investigations of natural pigments in other plants.


Assuntos
Betalaínas , Chenopodium , Betacianinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714855

RESUMO

We evaluated phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous (water) and organic extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) of Chenopodium glaucum. Highest phenolic content 45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g d.w was found in aqueous extract followed by ethyl acetate (41mg GAE/g d.w) and methanol extract (34.46 mg GAE/g d.w). Antibacterial potential of aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum was examined against Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aqueous, methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and S. epidermidis. However, against A. baumannii significantly higher inhibition zone (19 mm and 18.96 mm respectively) was shown by ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Aqueous extract possessed highest growth inhibition (11 mm) against E. coli. Aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed 9 mm, 10 mm, and 10.33 mm zone of inhibition against the K. pneumoniae. For antifungal activity, the extracts were less effective against Aspergillus niger but showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). The antioxidant activity was measured as DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), H2O2 and ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity of free radicals. All the organic extracts of C. glaucum possessed ABTS, DPPH and H2O2 scavenging properties. The highest cytotoxic activity measured as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) against human lungs carcinoma cells was recorded for methanolic (IC50 = 16 µg/mL) and n-hexane (IC50 = 25 µg/mL) extracts, respectively. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed 4 major and 26 minor compounds in n-hexane extract and 4 major and 7 minor compounds in methanol extract of the C. glaucum. It is concluded that aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum would be potential therapeutic agents and could be exploited on a pilot scale to treat human pathogenic diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chenopodium/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
4.
J Plant Physiol ; 265: 153492, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385120

RESUMO

The transition from vegetative to reproductive phases is the most fundamental and tightly controlled switch in the life of flowering plants. The short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum is a fast cycling annual plant lacking a juvenile phase. It can be induced to flowering at the seedling stage by exposure to a single period of darkness. This floral induction may then be cancelled by a short pulse of red light at midnight called night break (NB), which also inhibits the floral activator FLOWERING LOCUS T LIKE 1 (CrFTL1). We performed a comparative transcriptomic study between C. rubrum seedlings treated by NB and ones growing through uninterrupted night, and found about six hundred differentially expressed genes, including the B-BOX DOMAIN (BBX) genes. We focused on the CrBBX19 and BOLTING TIME CONTROL 1 (BTC1) genes, homologous to the upstream regulators of the BvFT2, a floral inducer in sugar beet. The transcription patterns of the two genes were compatible with their putative role as a sensor of the dark period length optimal for flowering (CrBBX19), and a signal of lights-on (CrBTC1), but the participation of other genes cannot be excluded. The expression profiles of CrBBX19 and the homolog of the core endogenous clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) were highly similar, which suggested their co-regulation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/genética , Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium/genética , Escuridão , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fotoperíodo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0249250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974647

RESUMO

In this study, different probiotics commonly used to produce fermented dairy products were inoculated independently for Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. fermentation. The strain with the highest level of antioxidant activity was selected and the fermentation process was further optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). Lactobacillus plantarum BCRC 11697 was chosen because, compared to other lactic acid bacteria, it exhibits increased free radical scavenging ability and can produce more phenolic compounds, DPPH (from 72.6% to 93.2%), and ABTS (from 64.2% to 76.9%). Using RSM, we further optimize the fermentation protocol of BCRC 11697 by adjusting the initial fermentation pH, agitation speed, and temperature to reach the highest level of antioxidant activity (73.5% of DPPH and 93.8% of ABTS). The optimal protocol (pH 5.55, 104 rpm, and 24.4°C) resulted in a significant increase in the amount of phenolic compounds as well as the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging ability of BCRC 11697 products. The IC50 of the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging ability were 0.33 and 2.35 mg/mL, respectively, and both protease and tannase activity increased after RSM. An increase in lower molecular weight (<24 kDa) protein hydrolysates was also observed. Results indicated that djulis fermented by L. plantarum can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants for preventing free radical-initiated diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/métodos , Chenopodium/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 360: 129951, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989882

RESUMO

The kanihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) Andean grain from the Peruvian Altiplano presents proteins of 15% to 19%. The objective was to obtain purified bioactive antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), hydrolyzed with Alcalase and Pepsin-pancreatin sequential system of protein fractions of kanihua varieties Ramis (KR) and Cupi-Sayhua (KS), and hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) and percentage inhibition (IP) of the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. To obtain AMPs, nutraceuticals, bio-preservatives, and novel ingredients in food design. The results showed 216 hydrolysates (1%, w/v), only 28 presented significant difference compared to controls (IP ≥ 45%, p ≤ 0.05), 4 AMPs were purified by chromatography, glutelins KS 4 h (1:10) stood out with DH 40% and IP 52% and 70% of S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively (p ≤ 0.05), showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 95% for E. coli (p ≤ 0.05), and presented an anionic charge. In conclusion, the simulated digestion in vitro showed higher DH (7%-67%) than Alcalase (13%-54%); the majority were extensive; of 28 hydrolysates with IP ≥ 45% 4 AMPs with important IPs were obtained, and one was anionic.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/embriologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Chenopodium/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(4): e2000914, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606911

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are a promising group of natural products of the aromatic plants due to their various biological effects such as allelopathic, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities. The present study aimed to construct the detailed chemical profile of the EO derived from Deverra tortuosa aerial parts along with assessing its allelopathic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant potentialities. The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The allelopathic activity of the EO was assessed against the germination and seedling growth of the weed Chenopodium murale. Also, the EO was tested against five microbes. The antioxidant activity was determined using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The GC/MS analysis of EO revealed the presence of 86 compounds with a preponderance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Widdrol, ß-phellandrene, piperitol, cubedol, α-terpinene, (E)-10-heptadecen-8-ynoic acid methyl ester, citronellyl tiglate, and m-cymene were the major compounds. A comparative profile was established between the EOs constituents of our study with the documented EOs of D. tortuosa and the other Deverra species around the world via agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal components analysis (PCA). The EO showed a substantial allelopathic activity against C. murale, as well as it showed considerable antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Thereby, the EO of D. tortuosa could be considered as a promising environmental-friendly bioherbicide against weeds. Also, it could be integrated into food preservation due to its potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, further study is recommended for more characterization of the major compounds and evaluation of their activities, either singular or synergistic, and assess their efficiency and biosafety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(19): 3336-3340, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711317

RESUMO

Chenopodium foliosum Asch. has been recognised by Bulgarian legislation as a medicinal plant. The decoction of its aerial parts has been used for treatment of cancer, as an immunostimulant and antioxidant drug. An UHPLC-HRMS profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of flavonoid composition of C. foliosum. Fourty flavonoid glycosides with nine aglycones (patuletin, gomphrenol, spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone) were detected. Kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides were identified as minor components. A pseudo MS3 experiment aided at discriminating 6-methoxykaempferol and isorhamnetin glycosides. Flavonoid composition dominated by di-, triglycosides and acylated flavonoids. Acid hydrolysis and GS-MS analysis confirmed the presence of D-glucose, D-apiose and L-rhamnose. Ten flavonoids were reported here for the first time.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Chenopodium/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 1475-1481, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058972

RESUMO

Herein acid phosphatase isoenzyme was extracted from the C. murale seedlings. The purification was accomplished by chromatographic techniques and passing through DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column. The specific activity of acid phosphatase 5.75 U/mg of protein was obtained with 66 purification fold 15.8% yield and molecular mass was 29 kDa with very faint bands corresponding to 18 kDa and 14 kDa. The maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C best illustrated by first order kinetics. When temperature was raised (55 °C to 75 °C), the deactivation rate constant was increased from 0.001 to 0.014 min-1, while half-life was decreased from 693 to 49 min-1. The results of activity collected at different temperature were then used to estimate, activation energy of hydrolysis reaction (Ea = 47.59 kJmol-1). A high Z-value (18.86 °C min-1) was obtained indicating a less sensitivity towards temperatures. The residual activity examinations were carried out from 55 °C to 75 °C and assessing the Deactivation Energy (Ed 116.39 kJmol-1), Enthalpy change (ΔH° 113.55kJmol-1), Entropy change (ΔS° 110.33kJmol-1) and change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG° 10.02 kJmol-1). Taken together, thermodynamic parameters confirm the high stability of enzyme and show potential commercial applicability.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/química , Chenopodium/química , Cinética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fosfatase Ácida/genética , Entropia , Estabilidade Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plântula/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
10.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(10): 1260-1266, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of herbicides leads to severe damage, especially to the environment. The aim of this investigation was operated to study the allelopathic effect of Calotropis procera, Hyoscyamus muticus and Pulicaria undulata aqueous extracts on the seed germination of Portulaca oleracea and Chenopodium murale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aerial parts of the plants (Calotropis procera, Hyoscyamus muticus and Pulicaria undulata) washed well in distilled water and were dried in room temperature then ground to fine powder. Aqueous extract was prepared using distilled water. RESULTS: In this study, different concentrations of plant extracts (1, 3 and 5%) were used to illustrate which of these concentrations have the potential to inhibit seed growth of Portulaca oleracea and Chenopodium murale. Concentration of 5% for all plant extracts used to inhibited the growth of all seeds of Chenopodium murale while, concentration of 5% for Pulicaria undulata extract only inhibited the growth of all seeds of Portulaca oleracea. CONCLUSION: This work dealt with the use of allelopathy strategy in preventing the growth of some weeds to be one of the safest alternative ways of using herbicides. The results showed the effective effect of plant extracts for both Calotropis procera, Hyoscyamus muticus and Pulicaria undulata on the seed germination of Portulaca oleracea and Chenopodium murale.


Assuntos
Calotropis/metabolismo , Chenopodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hyoscyamus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Portulaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulicaria/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Alelopatia , Herbicidas , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura
11.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 488, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887929

RESUMO

Picorna-like plant viruses are non-enveloped RNA spherical viruses of ~30 nm. Part of the survival of these viruses depends on their capsid being stable enough to harbour the viral genome and yet malleable enough to allow its release. However, molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we report a structure of a picorna-like plant virus, apple latent spherical virus, at 2.87 Å resolution by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with a cold-field emission beam. The cryo-EM map reveals a unique structure composed of three capsid proteins Vp25, Vp20, and Vp24. Strikingly Vp25 has a long N-terminal extension, which substantially stabilises the capsid frame of Vp25 and Vp20 subunits. Cryo-EM images also resolve RNA genome leaking from a pentameric protrusion of Vp24 subunits. The structures and observations suggest that genome release occurs through occasional opening of the Vp24 subunits, possibly suppressed to a low frequency by the rigid frame of the other subunits.


Assuntos
Capsídeo/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Secoviridae/química , Secoviridae/genética , Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Chenopodium/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Secoviridae/ultraestrutura
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438574

RESUMO

Allergic diseases are a major health concern worldwide. Pollens are important triggers for allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. Proteases released upon pollen grain hydration appear to play a major role in the typical immunological and inflammatory responses that occur in patients with allergic disorders. In this study, we aimed to identify specific proteolytic activity in a set of pollens with diverse allergenic potential. Diffusates from Chenopodium album, Plantago lanceolata and Eucalyptus globulus were added to a confluent monolayer of Calu-3 cells grown in an air-liquid interface system. We identified serine proteases and metalloproteinases in all pollen diffusates investigated. Proteases found in these pollen diffusates were shown to compromise the integrity of the lung epithelial barrier by disrupting transmembrane adhesion proteins E-cadherin, claudin-1 and Occludin, as well as, the cytosolic complex zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) resulting in a time-dependent increase in transepithelial permeability. Tight junction disruption and increased transepithelial permeability facilitates allergen exposure to epithelial sub-layers contributing to the sensitization to a wide range of allergens. These pollen extracts also induced an increase in the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) cytokines measured by flow cytometry possibly as a result of the activation of protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR-2).


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pólen/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular , Chenopodium/enzimologia , Eucalyptus/enzimologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Plantago/enzimologia , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Água
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069965

RESUMO

The use of photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors allows simulating cascade of defense and damage responses, including the oxidative stress. In our study, PSII inhibiting herbicide metribuzin was applied to the leaf of the model plant species Chenopodium album. The temporally and spatially resolved cascade of defense responses was studied noninvasively at the leaf level by combining three imaging approaches: Raman spectroscopy as a principal method, corroborated by chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) and infrared thermal imaging. ChlF imaging show time-dependent transport in acropetal direction through veins and increase of area affected by metribuzin and demonstrated the ability to distinguish between fast processes at the level of electron transport (1 - Vj) from slow processes at the level of non-photochemical energy dissipation (NPQ) or maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm). The high-resolution resonance Raman images show zones of local increase of carotenoid signal 72 h after the herbicide application, surrounding the damaged tissue, which points to the activation of defense mechanisms. The shift in the carotenoid band indicates structural changes in carotenoids. Finally, the increase of leaf temperature in the region surrounding the spot of herbicide application and expanding in the direction to the leaf tip proves the metribuzin effect on slow stomata closure.


Assuntos
Clorofila A/metabolismo , Raios Infravermelhos , Imagem Óptica , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Temperatura , Chenopodium/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11066-11078, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955333

RESUMO

To understand toxic effect of Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Chenopodium murale, 40-day-old plants were exposed to 10, 50, and 250 mg L-1 of NPs using hydroponic system under controlled light and temperature conditions. Aboveground parts and roots were harvested 3 and 6 days after treatments and evaluated for some growth and biochemical indices. By increasing the concentration of ZnO NPs, the content of Zn increased in the roots more than the shoots. Our findings showed that all ZnO NPs treatments resulted in a decrease in growth, total chlorophyll content and soluble proteins, while the content of carotenoids, lipid peroxidation, leaf hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and leaf electrolyte leakage increased significantly compared with the control. These changes, along with increased proline content and catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the treated plants, suggest that all concentrations of ZnO NPs used in this study strongly induced oxidative stress. A decline in growth-related indicators can be considered as an indicator of ZnO NPs phytoxicity in C. murale. Based on the concentration of Zn dissolved in the solution, the effects of Zn released into the nutrient solution may be greatly involved in induction of toxicity and retardation of growth at least under our experimental conditions. The results of this study suggest that an important mechanism of ZnO NPs phytotoxicity may be the exacerbation of oxidative stress and damage to biomembranes.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hidroponia , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas , Zinco
15.
Planta ; 250(6): 2111-2125, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584118

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Chenopodium ficifoliumflowered under long days despite much lower expression ofFLOWERING LOCUS Thomolog than under short days. Frequent duplications of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene across various taxonomic lineages resulted in FT paralogs with floral repressor function, whereas others duplicates maintained their floral-promoting role. The FT gene has been confirmed as the inducer of photoperiodic flowering in most angiosperms analyzed to date. We identified all FT homologs in the transcriptome of Chenopodium ficifolium and in the genome of Chenopodium suecicum, which are closely related to diploid progenitors of the tetraploid crop Chenopodium quinoa, and estimated their expression during photoperiodic floral induction. We found that expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T like 1 (FTL1), the ortholog of the sugar beet floral activator BvFT2, correlated with floral induction in C. suecicum and short-day C. ficifolium, but not with floral induction in C. ficifolium with accelerated flowering under long days. This C. ficifolium accession was induced to flowering without the concomitant upregulation of any FT homolog.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnoliopsida/genética , Regulação para Cima , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Ativação Transcricional
16.
J Plant Res ; 132(6): 839-855, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473860

RESUMO

The Chenopodiaceae is one of the families including C4 species among eudicots. In this family, the genus Chenopodium is considered to include only C3 species. However, we report here a transition from C3 photosynthesis to proto-Kranz to C3-C4 intermediate type in Chenopodium. We investigated leaf anatomical and photosynthetic traits of 15 species, of which 8 species showed non-Kranz anatomy and a CO2 compensation point (Γ) typical of C3 plants. However, 5 species showed proto-Kranz anatomy and a C3-like Γ, whereas C. strictum showed leaf anatomy and a Γ typical of C3-C4 intermediates. Chenopodium album accessions examined included both proto-Kranz and C3-C4 intermediate types, depending on locality. Glycine decarboxylase, a key photorespiratory enzyme that is involved in the decarboxylation of glycine, was located predominantly in the mesophyll (M) cells of C3 species, in both M and bundle-sheath (BS) cells in proto-Kranz species, and exclusively in BS cells in C3-C4 intermediate species. The M/BS tissue area ratio, number of chloroplasts and mitochondria per BS cell, distribution of these organelles to the centripetal region of BS cells, the degree of inner positioning (vacuolar side of chloroplasts) of mitochondria in M cells, and the size of BS mitochondria also changed with the change in glycine decarboxylase localization. All Chenopodium species examined were C3-like regarding activities and amounts of C3 and C4 photosynthetic enzymes and δ13C values, suggesting that these species perform photosynthesis without contribution of the C4 cycle. This study demonstrates that Chenopodium is not a C3 genus and is valuable for studying evolution of C3-C4 intermediates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Chenopodium/anatomia & histologia , Chenopodium/enzimologia , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante)/genética , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante)/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509964

RESUMO

Djulis is a cereal crop rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber that may have nutraceutical activity to prevent colon cancer. This study was designed to examine the preventive effect of djulis on colon carcinogenesis in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Rats were fed different AIN-93G-based diets: groups N and DMH were fed AIN-93G diet and groups LD, MD, and HD were fed AIN-93G diet containing 5, 10, and 20% djulis, respectively. All rats except for group N were injected with DMH to induce colon carcinogenesis. After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed and colon and liver tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that djulis-treated rats had significantly lower numbers of colonic preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sialomucin-producing (SIM)-ACF, and mucin-depleted foci. Djulis treatment increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in colon and liver. Djulis also reduced p53, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expressions and increased Bax and caspase-9 expressions. Besides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids were found rich in djulis. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive effect of djulis on carcinogen-induced colon carcinogenesis via regulating antioxidative and apoptotic pathways in rats. Djulis may have the potential to be developed as a valuable cereal product for chemoprevention of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/prevenção & controle , 1,2-Dimetilidrazina , Ração Animal , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/induzido quimicamente , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 9(11): 1297-1303, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grass pollen is the most prevalent sensitizing aeroallergen to cause respiratory allergies in northern China. Air pollutants have a substantial effect on respiratory health and some pollens. This study aimed to investigate relationships among airborne grass pollen, air pollutants and allergic diseases, in order to determine their effects on patients with grass pollen allergies in Beijing, China, during the period from 2013 to 2016. METHODS: Data regarding autumnal grass pollens and air pollutants measured in Beijing from 2012 to 2016 were obtained from local governmental agencies. Patient data regarding specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) analyses from 2013 to 2016 were obtained from the Department of Allergy in Beijing Tongren Hospital. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to assess associations between the daily number of grass pollen allergen-positive patients and the following parameters: 3 clinically-relevant grass pollen genera (Artemisia, Humulus, and Chenopodium) and inhalable pollutants. RESULTS: Correlation analysis indicated that the daily number of grass pollen-positive patients was significantly associated with the peak period of grass pollens, as well as pollutants SO2 and NOx. Moreover, concentrations of air pollutants (eg, ozone, oxides of nitrogen [NOx ], and SO2 ) were consistently and significantly associated with concentrations of grass pollens; particulate matter 2.5 µm in diameter was negatively associated with Artemisia and Chenopodium pollens. CONCLUSION: Grass pollens exhibited substantial impact on allergic disease morbidity. Air pollutants impacted allergic disease and grass pollen. Thus, public health and clinical approaches to anticipate and reduce allergic disease morbidity from pollen and pollutants are needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pólen/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Artemisia , Chenopodium , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Humulus , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Chem ; 297: 124948, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253280

RESUMO

Djulis (Chenopodiun formosaneum Koidz.,), pseudo-cereal crop emerged as a potential source of functional ingredients, was used to identify phytosterols and triterpenes from seven inbred lines of Djulis hull using GC-MS. Key bioactive compounds were identified including 6 phytosterols (34.73-59.48 mg/100 g), 6 triterpenes (30.56-57.47 mg/100 g), and 5 other unsaponifiable compounds (15.89-22.50 mg/100 g). Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted and explored the variation among Djulis hull samples with two clusters based on the surface color that reflected the content of phytosterols and triterpenes. These results confirmed that the color might be used as an indicator for estimation of phytosterol and triterpene contents in Djulis hull. Overall, this is the first study that identified novel unsaponifiable compounds in Djulis hull, which might contribute to the development of phytosterols and/or triterpenes enriched functional foods.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/química , Fitosteróis/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pigmentação , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 7836820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179342

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered the epidemic of the 21st century. Traditional medicine uses plants to treat DM; many of these have hypoglycemic effects in both animal models and diabetic patients. Our objective was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Tilia americana, Borago officinalis, Chenopodium nuttalliae, and Piper sanctum on diabetic rats. The methanolic extracts of the plants under study were obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was evaluated on Artemia salina; the antioxidant potential was evaluated using the DPPH technique. Hypoglycemic capacity at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was tested on Wistar rats with diabetes induced by alloxan (120 mg/kg). The toxicity on A. salina was null for the extracts of B. officinalis and P. sanctum, moderate for T. americana, and highly toxic for C. nuttalliae. The relevant extract of T. americana var. mexicana showed antioxidant activity. Three plants of the studied plants showed hypoglycemic activity: Tilia Americana (p = 0.0142), Borago officinalis (p = 0.0112), and Piper sanctum (p = 0.0078); P. sanctum was the one that showed the greatest reduction in glucose levels at a lower dose.


Assuntos
Borago/química , Chenopodium/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tilia/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água do Mar
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