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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130797, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399178

RESUMO

This work monitored the effect of ripening and variety on the physiochemical quality and flavor of fermented Chinese chili pepper (Paojiao). Three commercial varieties of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens Linn.) at three ripening stages were selected. Physiochemical quality (color, texture, and vitamin C) and flavor properties [capsaicinoids, free amino acid (FAA), and aroma] were determined and compared by multivariate data analysis. The hardness and chewiness decreased, while the contents of vitamin C, capsaicin, and taste-active FAAs increased in Paojiao with ripening. More volatiles were found in green peppers. Fingerprinting and multivariate data analysis revealed that ester, aldehydes, and terpenes were discriminant volatiles that significantly changed in Paojiao during ripening. In general, ripening and variety greatly affect the physiochemical and flavor quality of peppers and their effects intensify after fermentation.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Capsaicina/análise , China , Aromatizantes , Paladar
2.
Gene ; 807: 145951, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500051

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of selected polymorphisms of SIRT3 and SIRT5 in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: For this study, 500 blood samples of GC patients and 500 blood samples of healthy individuals were collected. Six selected polymorphisms of mitochondrial sirtuins were analyzed for analysis using Tetra-Arms PCR followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms [rs3782116 (p < 0.0001), rs6598072 (p < 0.0001) and rs11246020 (p < 0.0001), rs938222 (p = 0.0136), rs3757261 (p = 0.0005) and rs2841511 (p = 0.0015)] were observed significant higher in GC patients vs controls. Haplotype analysis was performed, and 51 haplotypes were generated using haploview software. Among these haplotypes, eleven haplotypes were found associated with a significantly increased risk of GC. Furthermore, SNP-SNP interaction showed a significant correlation between studied SNPs and GC risk. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms are linked with a significant decrease in survival of GC patients CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that selected SNPs may be associated with enhanced risk of GC and hence can be potential prognostic markers for prognosis and predisposition of GC.


Assuntos
Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sirtuína 3/sangue , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/sangue , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 807: 145960, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509581

RESUMO

Opsin is a fellow of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily. It can be divided into visual and non-visual opsin according to whether it is directly involved in visual imaging. Opsin plays an important role in visual image formation and the regulation of non-image forming functions such as circadian entrainment in the growth, development and evolution of fish. Crimson snapper belongs to Perciforme mainly found in the Indo-West Pacific and the South China Sea. It is one of the most influential economic fishes in the South China Sea. In order to study the existence and expression of opsin gene in Crimson snapper, we sequenced the genome and tissue sample transcriptome of Crimson snapper. In this study, 32 opsin genes were identified from the genome of Crimson snapper. The length of these genes ranged from 1061 bp to 86203 bp and were distributed on 15 different chromosomes. The analysis of opsin gene family of Crimson snapper showed that the sws2 had two extra copies as compared with that of Zebrafish. Domain and motif analysis revealed that all the 32 opsin genes have seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors (7TM receptors) each, and the opsin family contained 10 common motifs. The expression level of opsin gene, confirmed by RT-qPCR, was analyzed by using nine tissues transcriptome databases of Crimson snapper. The results showed that almost all opsin genes were highly expressed in the retina and brain, except opn7a and opn7b which were expressed in intestine and red skin, and almost no expression in other tissues. Our results provide a comprehensive basic knowledge for the opsin gene family of Crimson snapper, which has significance for the study of the function of opsin in Lutjanidaes.


Assuntos
Opsinas/genética , Perciformes/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , China , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Opsinas/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126743, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364212

RESUMO

Limited knowledge of the combined effects of water and sediment properties and metal ionic characteristics on the solid-liquid partitioning of heavy metals constrains the effective management of urban waterways. This study investigated the synergistic influence of key water, sediment and ionic properties on the adsorption-desorption behavior of weakly-bound heavy metals. Field study results indicated that clay minerals are unlikely to adsorb heavy metals in the weakly-bound fraction of sediments (e.g., r = -0.37, kaolinite vs. Cd), whilst dissociation of metal-phosphates can increase metal solubility (e.g., r = 0.61, dissolved phosphorus vs. Zn). High salinity favors solubility of weakly-bound metals due to cation exchange (e.g., r = 0.60, conductivity vs. Cr). Dissolved organic matter does not favor metal solubility (e.g., r = -0.002, DOC vs. Pb) due to salt-induced flocculation. Laboratory study revealed that water pH and salinity dictate metal partitioning due to ionic properties of Ca2+ and H+. Selectivity for particulate phase increased in the order Cu>Pb>Ni>Zn, generally following the softness (2.89, 3.58, 2.82, 2.34, respectively) of the metal ions. Desorption followed the order Ni>Zn>Pb>Cu, which was attributed to decreased hydrolysis constant (pK1 = 9.4, 9.6, 7.8, 7.5, respectively). The study outcomes provide fundamental knowledge for understanding the mobility and potential ecotoxicological impacts of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Gene ; 807: 145888, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a glucose intolerance condition encounters for the first time in a fraction of pregnant women. The role of different host inflammatory molecules in GDM etiology has been deciphered. Chemerin is a chemoattractant protein primarily associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the association of chemerin and its genetic variants with the predisposition of GDM is not clear, and our present study is aimed to address the issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 703 Chinese women comprising of GDM (n = 303), glucose tolerant pregnant women (n = 211), and non-pregnant glucose tolerant controls (n = 189) were recruited in the present investigation. GDM was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization recommendation for diagnosis of gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Plasma levels of chemerin were quantified by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Common variants in the chemerin gene (rs4721, rs17173617, rs7806429, and rs17173608) were genotyped by using TaqMan assay. RESULTS: Plasma chemerin level was found higher in subjects with GDM as compared to glucose tolerant pregnant and non-pregnant women. Further, a positive correlation between plasma chemerin and HOMA-IR index suggesting an essential role of chemerin in mediating insulin resistance. Variants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with lower levels of plasma chemerin and low HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, mutants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with protection against the development of GDM in the Chinese cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chemerin is elevated in GDM patients. Genetic variation in chemerin gene associated with lower plasma levels of chemerin, HOMA-IR index and protects against the development of GDM in Chinese.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Glicemia/genética , Quimiocinas/sangue , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Gravidez
6.
Food Chem ; 369: 130885, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461516

RESUMO

The formation of biogenic amines (BAs) is an important potential danger in traditional fermented fish (Suan yu), and Enterobacteriaceae play an important role in the formation of BAs. The amine production abilities of 97 strains of Enterobacteriaceae screened from traditional fermented Suan yu were analyzed by reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The genotypic diversity of amino acid decarboxylase on 23 strains of high-yield BAs was verified by PCR. Enterobacteriaceae with the highest production of amines was determined by analysis of the effects of physicochemical factors (pH, NaCl, temperature, and aerobic/anaerobic) on BA production and principal component analysis (PCA). The adaptability of the strains was examined using surimi simulation fermentation system, and the correlations among the indicators were analyzed using Cytoscape. Results showed that 97 strains of Enterobacteriaceae had strong amine-producing ability. Furthermore, 23 strains producing high yields of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine were identified. All of the strains carried Idc, odc, speA, speB, and adiA, and five strains carried hdc. pH mainly affected the BA production of amine-producing bacteria. Three strains (Enterobacter asburiae 26C3, Klebsiella pneumoniae 47C2, and Morganella morganii 45C3) had the best amine-producing ability and used as the inoculated group. In this group, the values of BA (228.70-290.05 mg/kg) and the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N, 173.87-221.87 mg/100 g) exceeded the limit. Moreover, myofibrillar protein degradation was significant as indicated by the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and decreased FAA content. Cytoscape software and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Enterobacteriaceae and pH were related to BA formation in Suan yu. These results provide a theoretical basis for controlling the BA of fermented fish products.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Enterobacteriaceae , Animais , China , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Fermentação
7.
Food Chem ; 369: 130920, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461518

RESUMO

Chinese traditional fermented baijiu is a famous alcoholic beverage with unique flavor. Despite its consumption for millennia, the flavor mystery behind baijiu is still unclear. Studies indicate that esters are the most important flavor substances, and bring health benefits. However, the aroma contribution and formation mechanism of esters still need to be clarified to reveal the flavor profile of baijiu. This review systematically summarizes all the 510 esters and finds 9 ethyl esters contribute greatly to the flavor of baijiu. The 508 different microbial species that have been identified affect the synthesis of esters through fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. The determination of minimum functional microbial groups and the analysis of their metabolic characteristics are crucial to reveal the mechanism of formation of baijiu flavor, and ensure the reproducible formation of flavor substances.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Aromatizantes , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126768, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365232

RESUMO

This study provides new knowledge on the mobility, behavior, and partitioning of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the water-sediment-plant system along the Dongzhulong and Xiaoqing Rivers. The fate of PFASs in these rivers is also discussed. The study area is affected by the industrial production of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The ∑PFASs in water and sediments close to the industrial discharge were 84,000 ± 2000 ng/L and 2300 ± 200 ng/g dw, respectively, with the concentrations decreasing along the river due to dilution. PFOA was the dominant compound (74-97% of the ∑PFASs), although other PFASs were identified close to urban areas. Principal component analysis and solid-liquid distribution coefficients revealed that long-chain PFASs accumulated in the sediment whereas short-chain PFASs remained in the water all along the river. PFASs were taken up by plants and remobilized to different plant compartments according to shoot concentration factors (SCFs), root concentration factors (RCF), and transfer factors (TFs). Among the four plant species studied, floating plants absorbed high levels of PFASs, while rooted species translocated short-chain PFASs from the roots to the shoots. Therefore, floating species, due to their high uptake capacity and large proliferation rate, could eventually be used for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113778, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571472

RESUMO

Land development poses challenges to the sustainable use of resources and environmental health in regions. This study explores the coupling relationship and its spatial-temporal evolution trend between land development intensity and resources environment carrying capacity of 31 provinces in China from 2005 to 2017. The information entropy method, coupling degree model, and coupling coordination degree model are used to calculate the index weight, coupling degree, and coupling coordination degree. The results show that: (1) Three change types of resources environment carrying capacity are presented with land development intensity increasing: first decrease and then increase; first increase and then decrease; and alternating fluctuations. (2) The proportion of construction land, GDP per land, and population density are dominate determinants of land development intensity, while the water resources per capita, energy consumption per unit of GDP, and per capita cultivated land area are that of resources environment carrying capacity. (3) From the perspective of temporal evolution, both coupling and coordination relationship were found to have continuously strengthened. (4) In terms of spatial evolution, the coupling level presented a constantly narrowing inter-regional gap, and the coordination level has changed from initial two-level differentiation to final regional gap narrowing. These findings can provide evidence in support for integrating land development with resources environmental protection to promote regional coordinated development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recursos Hídricos , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Entropia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113816, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571474

RESUMO

The Mongolian Plateau, home to the world's largest contiguous temperate grasslands, has been known for its vast steppe landscapes and legendary history of the Mongol Empire. However, like temperate grasslands elsewhere around the world, the Mongolian steppe landscapes have been severely degraded by increasing human activities during the past several decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the landscape and ecosystem changes in the Wulagai River Basin (WRB) in Inner Mongolia, where China's last intact steppe ecosystem reportedly resides. Using remote sensing data and landscape metrics, we found that, during 1979-2016, WRB lost about 55 % of wetlands, 76 % of shrublands, and 46 % of sandy-land vegetation, with its most dominant vegetation type shifting from meadow steppe to dry steppe for the first time in history. Human land uses continued to intensify: cropland expanded by about 40 %; impervious surface area increased by almost 34 times; and surface coal mining rampaged through the heartland, tearing up vegetation and sucking up water near and far. The WRB landscape became more diverse compositionally (increasing land cover types), more fragmented ecologically (habitat loss and isolation), and more complex geometrically (anthropogenic and natural landscape elements entangled). Damming, mining, and overgrazing were the major direct drivers for the observed environmental changes. Government-sponsored restoration programs have had positive ecological changes across China, but landscape destruction and fragmentation in the Wulagai River Basin have continued. This dire situation demands urgent government policy intervention and stakeholder-involved governance actions to promote the sustainability of this legendary landscape.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Mineração
11.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113768, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583282

RESUMO

Many studies have assessed the relative sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change, and even optimized climate states from long-term averages to infer short-term changes, but how ecosystem sensitivity and its relationships with climate variability vary over time remains elusive. By combining the vegetation sensitivity index (VSI) and a 15 year moving window, we analyzed interannual variability in spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation sensitivity to short-term climate variability and its correlations with climatic factors in China over the past three decades (1982-2015). We demonstrated that vegetation sensitivity shows high spatial heterogeneity, and varies with vegetation type and climate region. Generally, vegetation in the southwest and mountainous regions was more sensitive, especially coniferous forests and isolated shrubland patches. Comparatively, vegetation in dry regions was less sensitive to climate variability than in wetter climates. Due to frequent climate variability in the early 1990s, a large increase in the VSI was detected in 1996. Significant increases in the interannual variability of vegetation sensitivity were observed in greater than 23.7% of vegetated areas and decreases in only 4.2%. Solar radiation was the dominant climate driver of vegetation sensitivity, followed by temperature and precipitation. However, climate controls are not invariable across a range of climatic conditions, such as precipitation exerted an increasing influence on changes of vegetation sensitivity. Quantitative analyses of ecosystem sensitivity to climate variability such as ours are vital to identify which regions and vegetation are most vulnerable to future climate variability.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Florestas , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
12.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113839, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592663

RESUMO

The ecological compensation (EC) mechanism is an innovative institutional arrangement which can effectively realize the coordinated development of social-economic growth and ecological protection. The current research on the evaluation of the implementation effect of EC mechanism mainly focuses on its environmental performance, how the EC mechanism guides the economically underdeveloped areas in the upper reaches of the basin to embark on the road of high-quality economic development, especially the mechanism of how EC triggers the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, it is a topic worthy of in-depth discussion. This study takes China's first cross-provincial horizontal EC mechanism pilot (Xin'an River Basin EC) as the research object and regards it as a quasi-natural experiment. This paper selects the annual panel data of the 11 cities involved from 2009 to 2019 and builds a DID model to study the mechanism of EC affecting industrial structure adjustment systematically. The results show that the EC mechanism mainly promotes the adjustment of the industrial structure in the pilot area through two paths, this is achieved by triggering the transfer of backward or highly polluting industries and promoting the upgrading of the industrial structure. At the same time, technological innovation plays a part intermediary role in the impact of EC to promote the upgrading of industrial structure. Further analysis found that the larger the funds of compensation input, the higher the assessment intensity, the better the effects are. Finally, this study puts forward relevant policy recommendations to further release the potential of the horizontal EC for the reference of decision-makers.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , China , Cidades , Invenções , Rios
13.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113793, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601347

RESUMO

Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been regarded as the main receptors of microplastics in industrial and domestic wastewater. The excess sludge they generate is an important carrier for the microplastics to enter the environment. In China, relevant regional studies are still in an initial phase. In this work, microplastics in the sewage sludges at different sampling points of five WWTPs in Nanjing City (an important city in the Yangtze River basin) were investigated, including their abundance, morphology and chemical composition. Furthermore, the influence factors such as population density, economic development level, wastewater source and treatment process were also discussed. The analysis results through optical microscope and FT-IR showed that the detected microplastics were divided into fragments, films, fibers and granules. Their chemical component reached up to 19 species, including small amounts of petroleum resins which was scarcely detected in other studies. Wastewater source was the primary factor influencing the microplastic abundance and size in sludge. And the microplastic shape and chemical components were closely related to the industrial type. Furthermore, because the removal effect on the microplastics with different morphologies were varied with the treatment process, the preliminary suggestions on the technology for particular wastewater were proposed. This study provides partial regional data and analysis for the microplastics contained in the sludge of WWTPs, expecting to provide a certain theoretical support for the operations management of WWTPs and standardized sludge treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Esgotos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113822, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607135

RESUMO

Restoration of submerged plants in eutrophic lakes can reduce nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in the water body. However, the effect of submerged plants on phytoplankton communities and their photosynthetic activity in situ are still poorly understood. Here, we studied the response of phytoplankton community structure and fluorescence parameters to different submerged plants coverage, the relationship of phytoplankton community and fluorescence parameters with submerged plants coverage and water physicochemical parameters were analysed in sampling area of Hangzhou West Lakes. The results showed that the coverage and biomass of submerged plants were negatively correlated with nitrogen and phosphorus contents in water body but positively correlated with total phenol content. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in the study site changed greatly (32.25-124.54). In spring and summer, Oscillatoria and Leptolyngbya (Cyanophyta) were the dominant species, while in autumn and winter, the dominant species were Cyclotella (Chlorophyta), and Melosira and Cymbella (Bacillariophyta). Compared with Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta, fluorescence parameters of Cyanophyta were more sensitive to total phosphorus, N:P ratio, total phenols, pH, and electric conductivity. Fluorescence parameters of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were only affected by underwater light. Total phosphorus (TP) and N:P had a negative effect on the maximum photochemical electron yield of Cyanophyta. Furthermore, Cyanophyta was inhibited by total phenols from submerged plants. When phytoplankton were under stress, photochemical electron yield decreased significantly, whereas non-photochemical quenching increased. The structural equation model showed that the coverage of submerged plants might indirectly affect the fluorescence parameters of Cyanophyta by affecting nitrogen, phosphorus, and total phenol contents in the water body. These findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impact of submerged plant restoration on phytoplankton community dynamics in subtropical eutrophic shallow lakes and provide a theoretical basis for the management of lakes.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , China , Eutrofização , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Fitoplâncton , Estações do Ano
15.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113858, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607139

RESUMO

The agricultural cooperative may significantly impact the adoption of environmentally friendly production technologies, which eventually help the farmers with better living standards and productivity. However, critical evaluation of how and to what extent the cooperative organization's participation leads the farmer's adoption of environmentally friendly technology (EFT) is relatively unclear. Thus, to critically explore the knowledge gap, the study evaluates the effects of cooperative participation towards adopting environmentally friendly production technologies based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The key variables used in the study have been extracted from an extensive literature investigation, while the empirical data has been collected from October to December 2020 from 292 kiwi-fruit farmers within the Shaanxi province of China. Simultaneously, the partial least square of structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) tools has been utilized to craft the final assessment. The factor loadings of all three latent variables have been statistically significant and interrelated for quantifying the proposed model. The statistically proven framework portrayed that cooperative organizations' participation positively impacts and shapes behavioral factors and facilitates the adoption of environmentally friendly production technologies. The study found the social structure like China, the impacts of cooperation could be crucial. As cooperative participation is an ample predictor for facilitating environmentally friendly technologies, the government should broaden the technical supports, and agricultural extension should also provide extended training for a smooth transition of the cooperatives.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Frutas , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Tecnologia
16.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113912, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628281

RESUMO

The increase in coal consumption and its impact on the environment has become a bottleneck that hinders sustainable development. This paper discusses the effect of economic growth and coal intensity on China's coal consumption during 2005-2017 using the Laspeyres index decomposition method. The decoupling of coal consumption from economic growth was examined in conjunction with the Tapio elasticity index, and the decoupling contributions of economic growth and coal intensity are further determined. The results indicated that economic growth drives an increase in coal consumption; however, the contribution rate declines gradually with decrease in economic growth rate in each province. Further research showed that the secondary industry is the main contributor to the increment, and the rapid development of tertiary industry increases indirect coal consumption. Coal intensity has a positive impact on curbing coal consumption, but it is not sufficient to offset the increment generated by the economic effect. Moreover, in each province, the curbing effect gradually decreased as the decline in coal intensity weakened in the secondary industry. Furthermore, coal consumption is weakly decoupled from economic growth over the long term, and the secondary industry will determine the future trend of decoupling.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias
17.
Food Chem ; 368: 130826, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454369

RESUMO

The safety and quality of aquatic foods are a public concern due to their content of pollutants, such as arsenic. A formula is derived for quantifying the benefit-risk ratio (HQ) of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids vs. arsenic in Chinses mitten crabs. Among these arsenic species, the proportion of inorganic arsenic, which is extremely harmful to the human body, is<5%, and its level does not exceed the national standard limit. Meanwhile, comparing with the HQ from the original method, the HQs from groups 0 min, 5 min, 15 min are significantly higher(p < 0.05). This suggests the original assessment method could underestimate the risk of eating crabs. Eating steamed crabs is easier to digest essential fatty acids (EFAs) than eating raw crabs, and it also protects consumers against arsenic exposure. To achieve a good balance of dietary benefits and risks, the steaming duration of the crabs should exceed 30 min.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Braquiúros , Animais , China , Digestão , Humanos , Nutrientes , Medição de Risco
18.
Food Chem ; 367: 130725, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390908

RESUMO

Grains of three specialty maize varieties and one conventional maize variety cultivated in China were collected and dissected to obtain the germ, endosperm, and pericarp fraction, and the distribution pattern of phosphorus, carotenoids, and tocochromanols was determined. The results showed that phytochemical contents varied significantly among different maize fractions. The germ fraction accounted for 78.3 to 86.5% of the total phosphorus present in the maize kernels. Over 86.9% of carotenoids were located in the endosperm. Except for waxy maize, 64.5 to 74.8% of the tocochromanols were contributed by the germ. Considerable differences in phytochemical contents were observed between the genotypes. Waxy maize contained the highest content of tocopherols, tocotrienols and tocochromanols meanwhile waxy maize had the lowest carotenoid and phytate phosphorus content. High lysine maize contained the highest levels in carotenoids and lowest tocochromanols. Over all, total carotenoids were significantly inversely associated with total tocochromanols.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Zea mays , Carotenoides/análise , China , Fósforo , Tocoferóis , Zea mays/genética
19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114428, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710727

RESUMO

Quality control for Chinese patent medicine (CPM) containing animal-derived crude drug(s) is rather difficult. The methods based on chemical composition analysis, which are commonly used in CPM consisted of plant-derived crude drugs, are often not applicable for CPM containing animal-derived crude drug, because the effective constituents of most animal-derived crude drugs remain unknown. Even if there are such methods, they are usually qualitative rather than quantitative, and the specificity is generally poor. Here we proposed a molecular quantification method for CPM containing animal-derived crude drug, based upon the hypothesis that the amount of remnant DNA fragments could reflect feeding quantity of the crude drugs and thus ensure the quality of the CPM. Take Jinlong capsule [a hepatocellular carcinoma-resisting Chinese patent medicine comprising of three fresh animal drugs, i.e. Shougong (Peking gecko, Gekko swinhonis), Qi She (sharp-snouted pitviper, Deinagkistrodon acutus), and Jinqian Baihua She (many-banded krait, Bungarus multicinctus)] as an example, we established a qPCR assay for Qi She in the capsule, which verified the feasibility of the quality control method based on molecular quantification. Species-specific primers and TaqMan probe for Qi She were designed, and the qPCR assay system was then established. The assay exhibited a good specificity; there's a good linearity between Ct values and logarithm of the target amplicon copy numbers within the range of 8.8 × 101 to 8.8 × 106 copies/µL, and the limit of detection was 88 copies/µL. The method was validated through reproducibility, stability assessment. Recovery of spiked samples was between 91.59% and 101.69%. It was verified that the copy numbers reflected the original feeding amount of an animal-derived crude drug by self-made Jinlong capsules. The assay was successfully applied in Qi She-specific amplicon determination in 20 batches of Jinlong capsule. The study was expected to provide a new strategy for quality control of CPM containing animal-derived crude drug.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , China , Feminino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 47-60, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423602

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the SARS epidemic in 2003, the Chinese government has increased inputs to bolster the health care system. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the geographic maldistribution of health resources in China. We examine the spatial and temporal variation of the SARS epidemic using a difference-in-differences strategy. Our empirical results show that, compared with cities without SARS case reports, exogenous health shocks significantly increased the affected cities' medical resources supply. We provide multiple robustness tests to examine the validity of the main findings. Further study shows that the mechanism is because the SARS event increased the financial autonomy of the epidemic-affected cities, thus providing an incentive for local governments to increase health resources. Meanwhile, health shocks have little influence on the regions with only imported cases than the infected area. These findings provide a possible explanation for the inequality in the distribution of health resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
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