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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261001, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384066

RESUMO

Drought variability analysis is of utmost concern for planning and efficiently managing water resources and food security in any specific area. In the current study, drought spell occurrence has been investigated in the Balochistan province of Pakistan during the past four decades (1981-2020) using standardized precipitation index (SPI), reconnaissance drought index (RDI), and precipitation deciles (PD) at an annual timescale. Precipitation and temperature data collected from 13 synoptic meteorological stations located in Balochistan were used to calculate the SPI, the RDI, and the PD for calculation of drought severity and duration. Based on these indices, temporal analysis shows adverse impacts of drought spells in Nokkundi during 1991-1993, in Barkhan, Dalbandin, Quetta stations during 1999-2000, whereas Barkhan, Dalbandin, Lasbella, Sibi during 2002-2003, Zhob during 2010-2011, Kalat and Khuzdar during 2014-2015, and Panjgur during 2017-2018. Also, the aridity index for each station was calculated based on the UNEP method shows that major part of Balochistan lies in the arid zone, followed by the hyper-arid in the southwestern part and the semi-arid zones in the northeastern part of the province. SPI and RDI results were found more localized than PD, as PD shows extensive events. Furthermore, principal component analysis shows a significant contribution from all the indices. For SPI, RDI, and PD, the first three principal components have more than 70% share, contributing 73.63%, 74.15%, and 72.30% respectively. By integrating drought patterns, long-term planning, and preparedness to mitigate drought impacts are only possible. The RDI was found more suitable and recommended in case of temperature data availability.


A análise da variabilidade da seca é de extrema importância para o planejamento e gestão eficiente dos recursos hídricos e da segurança alimentar em qualquer área específica. No estudo atual, a ocorrência de períodos de seca foi investigada na província do Baluchistão, no Paquistão, durante as últimas quatro décadas (1981-2020), usando índice de precipitação padronizado (SPI), índice de seca de reconhecimento (RDI) e decis de precipitação (PD) em uma escala anual. Dados de precipitação e temperatura coletados de 13 estações meteorológicas sinóticas localizadas no Baluchistão foram usados ​​para calcular o SPI, o RDI e o PD para cálculo da severidade e duração da seca. A análise temporal mostra os impactos adversos dos períodos de seca em Nokkundi durante 1991-1993 e na maior parte da província de 1999 a 2004. Além disso, o índice de aridez para cada estação foi calculado com base no método do PNUMA. Os resultados de SPI e RDI foram encontrados mais localizados do que PD, pois PD apresenta eventos extensos. Além disso, a análise de componentes principais mostra uma contribuição significativa de todos os índices. Para SPI, RDI e PD, os três primeiros componentes principais têm mais de 70% de participação, contribuindo com 73,63%, 74,15% e 72,30%, respectivamente. O planejamento e a preparação de longo prazo para mitigar os impactos da seca só são possíveis por meio da integração dos padrões de seca.


Assuntos
Chuva , Recursos Hídricos , Estações Meteorológicas , Secas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Paquistão
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 279, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609939

RESUMO

Identifying suitable zones for surface water storage and groundwater recharge is needed to enhance irrigation water availability. This study was undertaken to map rainwater harvesting (RWH) potential zones using geospatial tools and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The suitable locations for RWH were also mapped using the Boolean logic concept. The surface runoff is a vital factor to demarcate the appropriate zones for RWH. The curve number approach was used to estimate the surface runoff potential. The runoff coefficient (RC) map was generated based on rainfall and surface runoff depth. Weights have been allocated to selected themes of RC, drainage density, and slope. The themes were integrated using geographic information system (GIS) and AHP to demarcate the suitable zones for RWH. The derived RWH potential map was categorized into zones like "very good," "good," "moderate," "poor," and "very poor" with an aerial extent of 14.3%, 24.7%, 28.3%, 20.2%, and 12.6%, respectively. The area suitable for farm ponds was found to be about 9% (408 km2), 13% (329 km2), and 4% (244 km2) in Mirzapur, Chandauli, and Sonbhadra districts, respectively. Furthermore, 22, 15, and 21 locations were found suitable for check dams in Mirzapur, Chandauli, and Sonbhadra districts, respectively. At a large scale, effective planning of water management strategies based on multicriteria decision analysis and GIS offers increased availability of surface and groundwater resources and may help for enhancing the agricultural land use options. The higher resolution maps may be further utilized to plan RWH strategies at village level.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Abastecimento de Água , Chuva , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 280, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622448

RESUMO

Floods are among the most serious and devastating phenomena of natural disasters. Cities adjacent to flood-prone areas in the last decades have played a major role in increasing the potential adverse effects of flood damage. This research study aims to evaluate and mitigate the risks of flood events in the El Bayadh region, which suffers from poor infrastructure and drained networks. To achieve this, it is necessary to evaluate rainfall intensities and their limits for durations from 0.167 to 24 h with return periods from 2 to 1000 years. Eight different frequency analysis distributions were fit to the historical rainfall data series over 43 years (1970-2012) using hypothesis-based goodness tests and information-based criteria. The most appropriate distributions were used to develop the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) and flood risk-duration-frequency (RDF) curves for the study area. The results show that high-intensity rainfall values last for short durations, while high flood risk values last for intermediate durations. The results of the flood RDF curves can provide useful information for policy makers to make the right decisions regarding the effectiveness of the region's protection structures against future flood risks.


Assuntos
Inundações , Avaliação de Risco e Mitigação , Argélia , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inundações/prevenção & controle , Chuva , Desastres
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 521, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627383

RESUMO

Moisture recycling in precipitation is an important hydrological process, accounting for ~ 67% globally. North-east India, home to the world's wettest place, boasts vast wetlands and forest-cover. Despite its proximity to the coast, we find locally recycled moisture to be the primary annual source of rainfall (~ 45%). During the pre-monsoon season, the enriched δ18O (~ - 0.7 ‰) and high d-excess (~ 14 ‰) are ascribed to enhanced transpiration, owing to atmospheric instability which causes Nor'westers. During the Monsoon season, oceanic flux provides increased surficial moisture, enabling deep-localised convection via evaporation. Significant localised recycling, even during the Monsoon season is estimated (~ 38%), with predominantly high d-excess in precipitation during latter half of the monsoon with increased moisture contribution from floods in Brahmaputra (high d-excess). The increasing δ18O and d-excess during the post-monsoon season is associated with progressively lesser rainout history and increased localized recycling (~ 67%). In light of the dwindling wetlands and forest-cover, our study highlights their indispensable role in governing regional hydro-meteorology and water availability.


Assuntos
Chuva , Áreas Alagadas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Estações do Ano
5.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137767, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610516

RESUMO

Stormwater runoff has become a major anthropogenic urban pollution source that threatens water quality. In this study, coagulation-sedimentation, and ammonium ion exchange and regeneration (AIR) modules were coupled as a CAIR system to efficiently treat stormwater runoff. In the coagulation module, 99.3%, 91.7%, and 97.0% of turbidity, total phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand could be removed at an optimized poly-aluminum ferric chloride dosage of 30 mg/L, and the continuous experiment confirmed that the full load mode was more suitable for its rapid start-up. In the AIR module, dynamic ammonium removal indicated that the breakthrough time decreased with the rising initial concentration and superficial velocity. The Modified Dose Response (MDR) model described the ammonium exchange behavior better than the Thomas and the Bohart-Adams models. Then, a design flow of the ion exchange reactor was constructed by correlating constants in the MDR model with engineering parameters, and the ion exchange reactor was designed for continuous operation of the CAIR system. The average concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, and total nitrogen in the effluent of the CAIR system were 7.22 ± 2.26, 0.17 ± 0.05, 1.49 ± 0.01, and 1.62 ± 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The almost unchanged exchange capacity and physicochemical properties after the multicycle operation confirmed the durability of zeolite for ion exchange. Techno-economic analysis suggested that the CAIR system is practically promising for stormwater management with efficient pollutants removal, small footprint, and acceptable operating cost.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Fósforo/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Water Res ; 230: 119504, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621275

RESUMO

The evolution of the climate in the future will probably lead to an increase in extreme rainfall events, particularly in the Mediterranean regions. This change in rainfall patterns will have impacts on combined sewer systems operation with a possible increase of spilled flows, leading to an increase of untreated water volumes released to the receiving water. Due to the impact of overflows on the water cycle, local authorities managing combined sewer systems are wondering about the extent of these changes and the possibility of taking it into account in stormwater management structure design. To do this, rainfall data with a fine time step are required to better master the shape of the hyetographs that are crucial to get a relevant rainfall/runoff relationship in an urban environment. However, there are currently no simulations of future rainfall series available at a time step compatible with the needs in urban drainage field. In this work, future rainfall time series with a fine time step are elaborated with the aim to be used in urban hydrology. The proposed approach is based on simulations results from five regional climate models in the framework of the Euro-Cordex program. It consists in a spatial downscaling step followed by a temporal disaggregation. The rainfall time series obtained are then used as input for a calibrated and validated hydrological model to investigate the evolution of annual CSO volumes and frequencies by 2100. The results show an increase of annual spilled volumes between 13% and 52% according to the considered climate model. This increase will most likely be a problem regarding compliance of sewer networks in line with the water framework directive, particularly the current French regulations. No clear trends were observed on the CSO frequencies. If there is a consensus for all the carried-out simulations to conclude that the CSO volumes will increase, we must remember that actual regional climate models suffer from limited spatial and temporal resolution and don't explicitly solve convection processes. Due to this point uncertainty concerning the evolution rate remains important particularly for intense rainfall episodes. New generations of climate models are needed to accurately predict intense episodes.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ciclo Hidrológico , Água , Movimentos da Água , Fatores de Tempo , Chuva , Esgotos
7.
Water Res ; 230: 119533, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638734

RESUMO

The installation of green infrastructure (GI) is an effective approach to manage urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow (CSO) by restoring pre-development conditions in urban areas. Research on simulation-optimization techniques to aid with GI planning decision-making is expanding. However, due to high computational expense, the simulation-optimization methods are often based on design storm events, and it is unclear how much different rainfall scenarios (i.e., design storm events vs. long-term historical rainfall data) impact the optimal siting of GI. The Parallel Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (ParaPADDS) algorithm in a novel simulation-optimization tool OSTRICH-SWMM was used to leverage distributed computing resources. A case study was conducted to optimally site rainwater harvesting cisterns within 897 potential subcatchments throughout the City of Buffalo, New York. Seven design storm events with different return periods and rainfall durations and a one-month historical rainfall time series were considered. The results showed that the optimal solutions of siting cisterns using event-based scenarios, though less computationally expensive, may not perform well under continuous rainfall scenarios, suggesting design rainfall scenarios should be carefully considered for optimizing GI planning. The impact of rainfall scenarios was particularly significant in the middle region of the Pareto front of multi-objective optimization. Utilizing high-performance parallel computing, OSTRICH-SWMM is a promising tool to optimize GI at large spatial and temporal scales.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Chuva , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , New York
8.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117176, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608605

RESUMO

To analyse the moisture migration characteristics of permeable asphalt pavement (PAP) in engineering applications, a PAP sample with a length and width of 163 m and 12 m, respectively, was designed and paved. The pavement comprised PAC-13, PAC-20, ATPB-25, graded grade, and sandy soil subgrade from the top to the bottom. Moisture sensors were set at 4 cm, 10 cm, 28 cm, 46 cm, 61 cm, 76 cm, 101 cm, 126 cm, 176 cm, and 226 cm below the pavement surface to ascertain the volumetric water content during and after rainfall. This data were used to analyse the changes in the infiltration depth, infiltration rate, water level height, and water emptying time of the PAP under different rainfall conditions. The results show that the prediction model for the infiltration depth can be established using the water adhesion rate and rainfall. According to the moisture changes of the pavement layer after rainfall, the water migration process of the PAP can be divided into the drying stage, wetting stage, emptying stage, and recovery drying stage. The relationship between the average rainfall intensity and the average infiltration rate is a linear function. The water emptying time at the depth of 0-10 cm is less than 20 h, and the emptying time at a depth below 10 cm is less than 6 d.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Água
9.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117179, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608609

RESUMO

Various stormwater best management practices and green infrastructures (GIs) are recommended to address flooding, stormwater runoff, water quality, and sustainability. While detention basins are considered one of the main GI strategies, their benefits cannot be fully realized without properly maintaining them and making sure that they stay operational. Therefore, this paper used agent-based modeling (ABM) to devise an optimal maintenance program for detention basins to ensure that they function properly and continue to perform their water quality and flood control functions. More specifically, the following 2 agent types were incorporated in the model: 1) the detention basins were considered as static agents, and 2) the service teams responsible for the operation (maintenance, repair, and replacement) of the detention basins were considered as active agents. The developed ABM was applied for the entire network of stormwater detention basins in Newark, NJ. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the most critical variables affecting the total cost of operating the network of detention basins as well as the functioning percentage of detention basins. In addition, optimization was implemented to determine the best maintenance program or policy that minimizes the total cost of operations, while also making sure that a desired functionality level or threshold is achieved for the entire network of detention basins. Finally, the ABM was statistically validated using a total of 10,000 Monte Carlo runs and 99% confidence intervals. The optimization results showed that, in order to minimize the total cost of maintaining the entire network of detention basins and ensure that at least 80% of the basins are in a functioning state at the end of the planning horizon, the decision-maker should implement the following maintenance program or strategy: have 2 service teams for the operations of the detention basins, follow a replacement policy, and replace detention basins after 3 maintenance periods. Also, the identified optimal maintenance program or strategy would result with an average total annual cost of around $4,085,000, where the average annual repair cost is around $2,572,200, the average annual maintenance cost is around $19,700, the average annual replacement cost is around $763,100, and the average annual service team cost is around $730,000. The proposed ABM for detention basins can be extended to other GIs as well as to different geographical areas. The usage of ABM has the advantage to reduce the subjectivity in developing plans for managing GIs.


Assuntos
Chuva , Qualidade da Água , Inundações
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1451, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702865

RESUMO

Large-scale urban growth has modified the hydrological cycle of our cities, causing greater and faster runoff. Urban forests (UF), i.e. the stock of trees and shrubs, can substantially reduce runoff; still, how climate, tree functional types influence rainfall partitioning into uptake and runoff is mostly unknown. We analyzed 92 published studies to investigate: interception (I), transpiration (T), soil infiltration (IR) and the subsequent reduction in runoff. Trees showed the best runoff protection compared to other land uses. Within functional types, conifers provided better protection on an annual scale through higher I and T but broadleaved species provided better IR. Regarding tree traits, leaf area index (LAI) showed a positive influence for both I and T. For every unit of LAI increment, additional 5% rainfall partition through T (3%) and I (2%) can be predicted. Overall, runoff was significantly lower under mixed species stands. Increase of conifer stock to 30% in climate zones with significant winter precipitation and to 20% in areas of no dry season can reduce runoff to an additional 4%. The study presented an overview of UF potential to partition rainfall, which might help to select species and land uses in different climate zones for better storm-water management.


Assuntos
Traqueófitas , Água , Florestas , Chuva , Árvores , Ciclo Hidrológico , Movimentos da Água , Abastecimento de Água
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 87(2): 407-422, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706290

RESUMO

The deep tunnel stormwater system, consisting of dropshafts and underground tunnels, is used to alleviate or prevent urban water problems associated with extreme rainfall events. The stepped dropshaft can transport surface runoff to the tunnels with high energy dissipation, low risk of cavitation and good exhaust performance, which well meets the requirement of the deep tunnel stormwater system. In the present study, the characteristics of the standing wave were investigated by experiments and numerical simulations, including the peak, trough and length of the standing wave. The flow regimes were divided into the nappe flow, the transition flow and the skimming flow with the increase of discharge, in which the standing wave mainly occurs on the external wall under the nappe flow and the transition flow. Influences of inflow discharge and dropshaft geometries were analyzed, including step rotation angle, relative step height and dropshaft curvature. The relations of the characteristics of standing wave with these effect factors were obtained. The maximum discharge capacity of the stepped dropshaft was established by considering that the standing wave just reached the above steps, which could be useful for the design and safe operation of the stepped dropshaft.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Poluição da Água , Chuva
12.
PeerJ ; 11: e14763, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710865

RESUMO

Background: Among the New World vultures, the Andean condor is considered one of the most culturally and ecologically important species. However, their populations are declining over their entire distributional range. In response, conservation strategies have been implemented in many countries to reverse the increasing extinction risk of this species. The initiatives rely on extensive population surveys to gather basic information necessary to implement policies and to intervene efficiently. Still, there is a need to standardize the surveys based on seasonality and suitable environmental conditions throughout the species distribution. Here, we provide the first assessment of how daily temperature, rainfall, and seasonality influence surveys of Andean condors on a communal roost in the central Peruvian Andes. Methods: Using an autoregressive generalized linear model, we associated environmental variables with visual surveys of adult and young condors at three different times of the day and three times a week between June 2014 and March 2015. Results: We found that both adults and young Andean condors showed a threefold reduction in the use of the communal roost after the beginning of the rainy season. Colder and drier days (dry season) are preferable for surveying, as we expect the total number of condors using communal roosts to reduce under rainy (rainfall = -0.53 ± 0.16) and warmer days (temperature = -0.04 ± 0.02) days. Therefore, the significant variation in the use of roosts across seasons and hours should be carefully accounted for in national surveys, at the risk of undermining the full potential of the communal roost surveys. Moreover, we also found a strong bias towards immatures (about 76%) in the adult:immature ratio and a remarkable absence of Andean condors during the wet season. These results suggest that the species might be using other unknown communal roosts hierarchically. Such results provide key information for selecting priority areas for conservation and selecting the best time to survey this species in the tropical Andes. Finally, it may open a fruitful avenue for further research on the protection of the Andean condor.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estações do Ano , Chuva
13.
PeerJ ; 11: e14686, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710870

RESUMO

The complex physical-chemical and microbiological composition of leachate in sanitary landfills sets the adequate treatment for different waste types. However, before the final disposal of wastes in receptor waterbodies, it is essential to use specific methods to quantitatively prevent internal flows to find proper treatments. The aim of the present research is to use hydrological models to estimate monthly leachate flow generation in Macapá's Municipal Sanitary Landfill (ASMM), Amapá State, Brazil. Disregarding the temporal trend bias, the average (0.45 m3s-1), minimum (0.07 m3s-1) and maximum (0.72 m3s-1) flows were estimated based on hydrological models in the literature (Rmax = 99%, p < 0.05). The results estimated from different hydrological gauges pointed towards significant spatial variations in final discharge. Thus, estimated flows worked as reference to calculate the loads of coproducts and nutrients concerning different operational stages in ASMM. Therefore, rain intensity estimates have pointed out precipitation variability, and it has significantly affected leachate flow. In conclusion, there would be a proportional increase in leachate flow during extreme maximum precipitation events; overflow would be the effect of such flows and it would assumingly have impact on its surrounding areas. It is also possible estimating some degree of rainfall impact over ASMM's infrastructure in the long term (>10 years), since it could influence its lifespan.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Chuva
14.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 3, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2021, a once-in-a-century heavy rainstorm suddenly attacked Zhengzhou, an important inland city in northern China. However, there have been no studies on the psychological health of disaster-stricken residents. This study is the first to comprehensively report on the mental health status and related factors of local ordinary residents after the heavy rainstorm. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mental health status and related influencing factors of local ordinary residents after the flood disaster, and to provide reference for government departments to formulate disaster psychological intervention countermeasures based on evidence-driven strategies. METHODS: The snowball sampling technique was used in this study, and measurement tools of Rainstorm Exposure Questionnaire, Subjective Perception of Rainstorm, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DAS-21) and Chinese version of Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used to evaluate the rainstorm exposure, subjective perception of the rainstorm, psychological symptoms and social support of the disaster-stricken residents within a week after the rainstorm. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the psychological status and related factors of local residents after the rainstorm disaster. RESULTS: A total of 469 valid samples were obtained in this study. All the subjects were in the disaster area and experienced the rainstorm personally, with normal intelligence. The statistical results showed that 25.37% people had experienced at least three rainstorm-related stresses, nearly 20.26% people had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and 39.3%, 53.92% and 65.83% people had depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that female (all p < 0.05), the divorced, agricultural workers/farmers (all p < 0.05), students (all p < 0.05), people experiencing at least three rainstorm-related stresses (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), people with lower satisfaction at the social flood fighting measures (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and people with low social support (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) were all independent risk factors for poor psychological health, and college education or above (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), the lower degree of worrying about themselves (all p < 0.01), family members (all p < 0.01) and family property (all p < 0.01) were all related to higher psychological health among flood survivors after the disaster. CONCLUSIONS: Rainstorm could cause local residents to have various degrees of psychological symptoms. This study identified factors associated with the psychological health of disaster-stricken residents, which could be used to develop psychological interventions in improving psychological health of local residents.


Assuntos
Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Chuva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , China
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(1): 293-302, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635817

RESUMO

The effects of vegetable planting on soil loss and nutrient loss, runoff, soil erosion, and nitrogen (ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen) losses under individual rainfalls of fruit- and leaf-vegetable fields between April to October in 2021 were observed using in-situ observation testing. The results showed that: ① the runoff, erosion, and nitrogen loss of the fruit-vegetable pattern (eggplant-chili) were 1.27-2.00 times those under the leaf-vegetable pattern (leaf lettuce-sweet potato leaves), especially under the second season vegetable period. Those losses under the second season vegetable accounted for 50.86%-68.83% of the total losses under different vegetable patterns, which were approximately 1.03-2.04 times those under the first season vegetable. The runoff, erosion, and nutrient loss of vegetable fields under different treatments were both concentrated in June and July, and the nitrogen loss was mainly in the form of nitrate nitrogen with surface runoff. ② The runoff, erosion, and nutrient losses under individual rainfalls of vegetable fields under different treatments fluctuated among the vegetable growing season, and the losses were mainly concentrated in several typical rainfall events. On the whole, the loss and concentration of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in runoff and erosion sediment of vegetables in the first season were lower than those in the second season. The runoff, erosion, and loss of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen of fruit-vegetable were higher than those of leaf-vegetable. ③ Both rainfall amount and maximum 30 min rainfall intensity had significantly positive effects on runoff, soil loss, and nitrogen loss. Runoff, erosion, and nutrient losses under different vegetable patterns were mainly generated by moderate rain, heavy rain, and heavy rainstorms, which accounted for 29.58%-46.68%, 24.54%-36.79%, and 24.01%-39.13% of the total losses, respectively. The results also showed that soil erosion and nutrient losses generated by different rainfall grades were obviously different for the fruit- and leaf-vegetable treatments. The results indicated that the vegetable pattern had significant impacts on soil loss and nutrient loss, and the leaf-vegetable pattern could reduce soil erosion and nutrient loss compared with the fruit-vegetable pattern. Furthermore, for different vegetable patterns and vegetable growing seasons, the effects of rainfall on soil loss and nutrient loss were quite different. The results of this study were helpful in clarifying the soil erosion and nutrient loss characteristics of vegetable fields in South China.


Assuntos
Erosão do Solo , Verduras , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitratos , Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Solo , Chuva , China
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(1): 303-311, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635818

RESUMO

Roofs occupy a great proportion of urban impervious surfaces, and the implementation of eco-roof construction in urban areas is beneficial to alleviate the ecological and environmental problems caused by rapid urbanization. In this study, different eco-roofs (i.e., 68.6%-90.7%, and 39.8%-54.5%, respectively. However, all the eco-roofs were sources of NO-3-N, DCr, DFe, and DNi. The blue roof was a sink of DCu (with a pollutant load reduction rate of 21.9%) and did not affect the cumulative load of PO3-4-P in runoff. However, the green roof and blue-green roof were the sources of PO3-4-P and DCu. The RQI value of the blue roof was the highest, followed by that of the blue-green roof and green roof. The RQI value of the green roof was significantly lower than that of the blue and blue-green roofs (P<0.05). These results indicated that the runoff quality of the blue roof was the best, whereas that of the green roof was the worst. Adding a storage layer to the green roofs could significantly improve the runoff quality. The results of this study provide scientific references for the selection and design of eco-roof facilities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Chuva , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Movimentos da Água , Urbanização
17.
Am J Hum Biol ; 35(1): e23790, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Northern Finland, like the rest of the Arctic, has experienced increases in mean annual temperature, the number of winter rains, the number of thaw-freeze days, the number of extremely warm weather events, and a shortened snow season. These changes have produced numerous problems for reindeer herders whose livelihoods rely on a healthy ecosystem with predictable weather patterns. METHODS: We performed a scoping literature review to assess how climate change induced extreme weather has negatively impacted reindeer herding as well as the health and wellbeing of reindeer herders. RESULTS: Late snow cover negatively impacts reindeer herding through a more widely dispersed herd that increases the work to gather reindeer, leads to reduced calf weight, and results in less meat for sale. This increased labor, especially in extreme cold conditions, can also negatively impact reindeer herder health. Icing due to thaw-freeze and rain-on-snow events makes it impossible for reindeer to dig through the snow to access lichens, increasing the need for reindeer herders to keep the herd in winter enclosures and provide supplemental feed. CONCLUSION: Climate change induced weather events such as late snow cover and icing increase reindeer herder efforts and expenses, put their livelihood at risk, and put their health at risk.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Rena , Animais , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Chuva
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 87(1): 157-173, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640030

RESUMO

Enhancing resilience of drainage networks is a crucial practice to protect both humans and nature. One way to enhance resilience is to identify critical parts of drainage networks for targeted management and maintenance strategies. While hydrodynamic modelling approaches for identification are computationally intensive, in this study, a novel method based on complex network analysis is used to determine the most critical pipes in a benchmark and a real network of an Alpine municipality. For evaluation, the results of the proposed graph method are compared with hydrodynamic simulations in terms of accuracy and computational time. Results show that the proposed method is very accurate (R2 = 0.98) for branched benchmark network while the accuracy reduces slightly for the more complex real network (R2 = 0.96). Furthermore, the accuracy of the proposed method decreases with increasing loop degree and when the system is pressured with higher return period rainfall. Although the outcomes of the proposed method show slight differences to hydrodynamic modelling, it is still very useful because the computational time and data required are much less than a hydrodynamic model.


Assuntos
Chuva , Humanos , Cidades
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160121, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370790

RESUMO

Sustainable cities require spacious infrastructures such as roadways to serve multiple functions, including transportation and water treatment. This can be achieved by installing stormwater control measures (SCM) such as biofilters and swales on the roadside compacted soil, but compacted soil limits infiltration and other functions of SCM. Understanding the effect of compaction on subsurface processes could help design SCM that could alleviate the negative impacts of compaction. Therefore, we synthesize reported data on compaction effects on subsurface processes, including infiltration rate, plant health, root microbiome, and biochemical processes. The results show that compaction could reduce runoff infiltration rate, but adding sand to roadside soil could alleviate the negative impact of compaction. Compaction could decrease the oxygen diffusion rate in the root zone, thereby affecting plant root activities, vegetation establishment, and microbial functions in SCM. The impacts of compaction on carbon mineralization rate and root biomass vary widely based on soil type, aeration status, plant species, and inherent soil compaction level. As these processes are critical in maintaining the long-term functions of SCM, the analysis would help develop strategies to alleviate the negative impacts of compaction and turn road infrastructure into a water solution in sustainable cities.


Assuntos
Solo , Purificação da Água , Chuva , Abastecimento de Água , Cidades
20.
Water Res ; 229: 119492, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549185

RESUMO

Rain-induced surface runoff and seasons lead to short- to medium-term anomalies in combined storm- and wastewater flows and temperatures, and influence treatment processes in wastewater resource recovery facilities (WRRF). Additionally, the implementation of decentralized heat recovery (HR) technologies for energy reuse in buildings affect energy-related processes across the urban water cycle and WRRFs heat inflows. However, quantitative insights on thermal-hydraulic dynamics in sewers at network scale and across different scales are very rare. To enhance the understanding of thermal-hydraulic dynamics and the water-energy nexus across the urban water cycle we present a modular framework that couples thermal-hydraulic processes: i) on the surface, ii) in the public sewer network, iii) in households (including in-building HR systems), and iv) in lateral connections. We validate the proposed framework using field measurements at full network scale, present modelling results of extended time periods to illustrate the effect of seasons and precipitation events simultaneously, and quantify the impact of decentralized HR devices on thermal-hydraulics. Simulation results suggest that the presented framework can predict temperature dynamics consistently all year long including short- to long-term variability of in-sewer temperature. The study provides quantitative evidence that the impact of household HR technologies on WRRF inflow heat budgets is reduced by approximately 20% during wet-weather periods in comparison to dry-weather conditions. The presented framework has potential to support multiple research initiatives that will improve the understanding of the water-energy nexus, pollutant dispersion and degradation, and support maintenance campaigns at network scale.


Assuntos
Tempo (Meteorologia) , Estações do Ano , Chuva , Água , Esgotos
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