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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(1): 367-382, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050889

RESUMO

A number of cost-effective and environmentally friendly flood reduction measures can provide detention of runoff from natural landscapes upstream of urban areas, with multiple added benefits. This study presents a methodology for assessing the needs for and feasibility of natural flood detention facilities. The candidate catchments for natural flood detention facilities were identified by GIS analysis and further assessed using data from maps and field inspections. Results for two case catchments show that a suitable topography and nature and biodiversity are key feasibility criteria for natural flood detention facilities. The study concluded that it is possible to streamline the process of selecting the location and type of natural flood detention facilities. Map analyses, field inspections and interdisciplinary collaboration are all important when planning natural flood detention facilities. As a result of the study, the City of Oslo will construct several natural flood detention facilities upstream of the city to gain practical experience with such facilities. While it is not expected that natural flood detention will solve all flooding problems in urban areas, it is expected that natural flood detention can positively contribute to future resilient stormwater management and the implementation of the EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Inundações , Cidades , Previsões
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(1): 383-397, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050890

RESUMO

Most previous quantitative research conducted on urban creep and urban expansion has focused on small areas, short time periods, case studies with fairly uniform housing stock and demographic makeup, and the characterisation of urban creep and expansion exclusively in terms of impervious area changes without quantification of the consequential hydrological impact, i.e., increase in surface runoff volume and peak flows in a catchment. This study, using satellite imagery, catchment characteristics data, geographic information system and hydrologic modelling, presents, for the first time, a long-term analysis of urban creep and expansion. The case study is the Ouseburn catchment in Newcastle upon Tyne, a wide-ranging catchment made up of rural, suburban and urban areas, over a period of seven decades. The rate of increase of impervious surfaces is found not to be constant in time; the significant impact of this variation on the catchment's hydrologic response is quantified. This has overall caused a substantial flow volume increase in the Ouseburn over the study period, e.g. 48% for a 1 in 5 years rainfall event. The conclusions obtained are likely representative of many large towns and cities across the United Kingdom and the methodology presented can be easily replicated in other study areas.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Cidades , Hidrologia
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(1): 398-408, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050891

RESUMO

Urbanization and an increase in precipitation intensities due to climate change, in addition to limited urban drainage systems (UDS) capacity, are the main causes of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) that cause serious water pollution problems in many cities around the world. Model predictive control (MPC) systems offer a new approach to mitigate the impact of CSOs by generating optimal temporally and spatially varied dynamic control strategies of sewer system actuators. This paper presents a novel MPC based on neural networks for predicting flows, a stormwater management model (SWMM) for flow conveyance, and a genetic algorithm for optimizing the operation of sewer systems and defining the best control strategies. The proposed model was tested on the sewer system of the city of Casablanca in Morocco. The results have shown the efficiency of the developed MPC to reduce CSOs while considering short optimization time thanks to parallel computing.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Urbanização , Cidades , Mudança Climática , Redes Neurais de Computação
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 99, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032240

RESUMO

Street dust samples can be used as an indicator for pollution monitoring especially in big cities. Various environmental problems have been experienced in Dilovasi, Turkey, and studies have been carried out in many different areas; however, no study has been conducted to examine the heavy metal content in street dusts. Therefore, in this study, 20 heavy metals, namely Si, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Ti, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, Sr, V, Co, Cd, Sb, As, Sn, Mo, Sc and Ag, in the street dusts of Dilovasi were investigated at 40 sampling points. Samples were analyzed with ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The concentrations were from 0.01 mg/kg for Ag to 42,645.48 mg/kg for Si. The Igeo values were in the range of 0.02 for Ag and 8.03 for V. The average EF value was 29.67, which indicates a very high pollution level. ERI was found as 300.74. This value being 300-600 indicates a considerable ecological risk level for the region. According to PCA, the predominant anthropogenic contribution of metal pollution in this area was due to traffic and vehicle-related activities and industrial activities and their waste. Metal pollution from residential areas and natural resources was relatively low, but it was another source of pollution.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 107, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044541

RESUMO

Atmospheric dust is one of the most recent environmental pollutions in Iran. This study examines the concentration of heavy metals and the assessment of environmental and human health risk in the dust samples of Hendijan region as one of the most important centers of wind erosion in the southwestern of Iran. ICP-MSS analysis was performed on 18 samples of fine dust to specify the concentration of heavy metals. Studies showed that the highest concentrations of metals in these fine dust samples belong to Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Pb and Cd, respectively. Examining fine dust's pollution assessment showed that the highest enrichment and geo-accumulation index belong to As, Ni and Cr metals. Environmental risk assessment shows the low environmental risk of these fine dusts. The hazard quotient in children and adults belongs to Cr, As and Ni, respectively. Human health risk assessment also showed that the highest absorption of metals in both children and adults is through ingestion. The non-carcinogenic risk of heavy metals of dust samples in children is about 9 times more than adults. The highest risk of cancer in the adult group belongs to Ni metal and in the group of children belongs to As and Ni metal. PCA analysis showed that As, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni are of anthropogenic origin and Zn and Pb are of geogenic origin. The source of the dust phenomenon with the HYSPLIT model and the backward method indicates the tracking of this dust mass through Iraq, and its probable origin was assessed in the centers of northern Iraq and southeastern Syria.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009927

RESUMO

Illegal discharges of pollutants into sewage networks are a growing problem in large European cities. Such events often require restarting wastewater treatment plants, which cost up to a hundred thousand Euros. A system for localization and quantification of pollutants in utility networks could discourage such behavior and indicate a culprit if it happens. We propose an enhanced algorithm for multisensor data fusion for the detection, localization, and quantification of pollutants in wastewater networks. The algorithm processes data from multiple heterogeneous sensors in real-time, producing current estimates of network state and alarms if one or many sensors detect pollutants. Our algorithm models the network as a directed acyclic graph, uses adaptive peak detection, estimates the amount of specific compounds, and tracks the pollutant using a Kalman filter. We performed numerical experiments for several real and artificial sewage networks, and measured the quality of discharge event reconstruction. We report the correctness and performance of our system. We also propose a method to assess the importance of specific sensor locations. The experiments show that the algorithm's success rate is equal to sensor coverage of the network. Moreover, the median distance between nodes pointed out by the fusion algorithm and nodes where the discharge was introduced equals zero when more than half of the network nodes contain sensors. The system can process around 5000 measurements per second, using 1 MiB of memory per 4600 measurements plus a constant of 97 MiB, and it can process 20 tracks per second, using 1.3 MiB of memory per 100 tracks.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Águas Residuárias , Cidades , Esgotos
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252952, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019093

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Cidades , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 49, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978634

RESUMO

Originating from China, COVID-19 became the first-ever coronavirus pandemic, wreaking havoc in 218 nations. The lack of a potential treatment exacerbated by the inability of the healthcare infrastructure to contain the viral trajectory led to a worldwide lockdown. The anthropogenic halt presented an unprecedented background to quantify the effect of the anthroposphere on environmental pollution. Consequently, we analyzed the variations in the air (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2) and water pollutants (BOD, COD, DO, coliform) using real-time monitoring data in the majorly hit Indian metropolitan states during the lockdown in contrast to 2019 levels. The overall AQI (air quality index) de-escalated by -31.35%, -34.35%, -32.63%, -29.25% in Delhi, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Karnataka, respectively, from the 2019 levels. The daily concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 plunged tremendously. The exact pre-disposing factors responsible for higher COVID-19 transmission in some geographical centers remain elusive. Investigations have corroborated putative links between air pollutants and COVID-19 mortalities. Therefore, we further mapped PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 to co-relate with COVID-19 infectivity and mortality across the study states. Significant (P < 0.001) positive correlation between COVID-19 transmission was established for all pollutants with maximum co-relation with AQI followed by NO2. River Ganga water in Uttarakhand was deemed "fit for drinking" for the first time in two decades. An aggregate of -71.94, -61.32, and -77.94 decrease in BOD, COD, total coliform levels, and an 11.75 rise in the average DO levels from 2019 data. This study will better assist the future framework of health and environment restoration policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 91, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024963

RESUMO

Taking detailed rules for implementing of the plan on atmospheric pollution prevention and control in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas promulgated and implemented in 2013 as the starting point, taking air pollution as the research object, using the propensity score matching method and difference-in-differences method to answer whether coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is conducive to resolving the problem of air pollution. Using panel data from 251 cities in China 2003-2016, this paper discusses the environmental effects and mechanisms of coordinated urban cluster development. The results showed that the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei had a significant and continuous effect on the convergence of PM2.5 to low levels. The results of further mechanism identification show that the policy of atmospheric joint defense rules in the process of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development mainly promotes the convergence of PM2.5 through population and economic scale effect, structural effect and technical effect, and promotes the convergence of PM2.5 in the low direction by reducing the economic growth scale of the city itself. It is suggested to further promote the formation and development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration, strengthen cooperation among local governments in environmental governance e across regions, and promote the green growth and coordinated development of urban clusters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010731

RESUMO

The field of rapid urbanization has recently paid more attention to the relationship between tourism development and liveable city construction. Previous studies have mainly focused on the experiences of tourists in tourist cities and seldom paid attention to the perceptions of local residents. Based on survey data of nearly 10,000 permanent residents in 40 key tourist cities in China, this study uses a multilevel model to quantitatively analyse the natural environment characteristics, sociocultural environment characteristics and comprehensive attraction of tourism in different tourist cities to explore their impact on urban liveability satisfaction. Results show that the developed tourist cities do not exactly correspond to the cities with a high liveability evaluation. The objective evaluation of both the natural environment and the sociocultural environment has an important influence on the liveability of cities, but the influence of the natural environment is stronger than that of the sociocultural environment. An intermediary effect exists in the subjective evaluation of the natural environment and environments for liveability perception. Simultaneously, residents' liveability satisfaction varies according to their age, education level, annual household income and other social and economic conditions. These findings provide insights for developing countries to further improve residents' living quality and urban construction under the condition of the rapid development of tourism.


Assuntos
Turismo , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Satisfação Pessoal
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010739

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have led to a rapid increase in the number of brownfields, however there is a lack of identification of the spatial extent of brownfields in cities and accurate assessment of brownfield redevelopment. Based on the relationship between brownfields and urban complex ecosystems, this paper defines brownfields in China and constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system including socio-economic and ecological subsystems. Using Wuhu City as empirical evidence, 19 brownfields were identified using remote sensing data and field surveys. Based on the detection of soil contaminants in brownfields, a fuzzy integrated evaluation method was used to suggest their redevelopment direction. It is found that the government's planned land use types and the brownfield redevelopment evaluation results match to a large extent, but social, economic and ecological environmental factors should be more fully considered. At the same time, the identification and redevelopment of brownfield sites in the city as a whole need to be carried out by the government's professional forces in order to obtain more effective and scientific conclusions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Urbanização
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010749

RESUMO

The promotion of information flow reinforces the interactive cooperation and evolutionary process among cities. In the information age, public online search is a typical behavior of Internet society, which is the key to information flow generation and agglomeration. In this study, we attempt to explore the evolutionary characteristics of intercity networks driven by public online social behavior in the information age and construct an information flow network (IFN) from the perspective of public search attention. We also explore the evolution of the IFN in terms of the whole network, node hierarchy, and subgroup aggregation. Meanwhile, we also discuss the impact of the sustainable driving factors on the IFN. Finally, an empirical study was conducted in Guanzhong Plain Urban Agglomeration (GPUA). Our results show that: (1) the information flow in GPUA fluctuating upward in the early study period and gradually decreasing in the later study period. However, the agglomeration degree of information flow in the urban agglomeration continues to increase. (2) The hierarchical structure of urban nodes in GPUA presents a trend of "high in the middle and low on both sides", and the formation of subgroups is closely related to geographic location. (3) The driving factors all impacting the IFN include public ecology, resource investment, information infrastructure, and economic foundation. This study provides theoretical and practical support for exploring the intercity network and promotes the sustainable urban development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Urbanização , Atenção , China , Cidades , Reforma Urbana
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010816

RESUMO

Climate change disproportionately affects natural resource-dependent communities in the ecologically vulnerable regions of western China. This study used the household livelihood vulnerability index under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (HLV-IPCC) to assess vulnerability. Data were collected from 823 households in Ningxia, Gansu, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces, these being ecologically vulnerable regions in China. With a composite HLVI-IPCC and multiple regression model, the factors that affect households' adaptive capability to HLVI-IPCC was estimated. Results indicate that Ningxia is the most vulnerable community, while Guangxi is the least vulnerable community across all indices. Moreover, Gansu has the heaviest sensitivity and exposure to climate change, whereas Ningxia has the highest adaptive capability to climate change. In addition, the age of household head and distance of the home to the town center had significant negative impacts on households' adaptive capacity to HLVI-IPCC. The results also suggest that the HLVI assessment can provide an effective tool for local authorities to formulate prioritizing strategies with promoting climate-resilient development and increasing long-term adaptive capacity.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Características da Família , China , Cidades
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010852

RESUMO

The coupling and coordination development of the environment and economy (CC2E) is one of the most vital issues to sustainable development. This paper adopted the coupling coordination model, projection pursuit algorithm, and random forest model to explore the spatial-temporal evolution and influencing factors of the CC2E in the Yangtze River Delta from 2015 to 2019, respectively. The results showed that: (1) The degree of coupling coordination (DCC) of the CC2E in most cities of the Yangtze River Delta has risen from primary coordination to intermediate coordination. (2) In the spatial perspective, the distribution of DCC is correlated with geographical location. The value of DCC in the western region was significantly lower than that of the eastern cities. (3) The influencing factors results showed that the GDP in the economic subsystem and the annual average concentration of PM2.5 in the environmental subsystem were the most influencing factors of DCC in the Yangtze River Delta. The established index system of CC2E and the measurements of CC2E provide a new idea for how to achieve sustainable development. Meanwhile, this study can provide recommendations for formulating the environmental protection and economic development policy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Rios , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010856

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is a problem of universal concern throughout the globe. The development of real estate industry not only consumes huge resources, but also has close ties with high-consumption industries such as the construction industry. However, previous studies have rarely explored the impact of real estate development on environmental pollution. Therefore, this paper employs the entropy method to construct a comprehensive index of environmental pollution based on panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2000 to 2017, and empirically examines the impact of real estate development on environmental pollution. This article uses real estate investment to measure the development of the real estate industry. In view of the high spatial autocorrelation of environmental pollution, this paper selects a spatial econometric model. The empirical study found that: (1) By using the Spatial Durbin Model, real estate development has an inverted U-shaped impact on environmental pollution. Meanwhile, most cities have not yet reached the turning point; that is, with the continuous development of the real estate industry, environmental pollution will continue to increase. (2) Further regional heterogeneity found that the inverted U-shaped relationship still exists in coastal and inland areas. (3) Finally, this article used the Spatial Mediation Model to explain the nonlinear impact of real estate development on environmental pollution, with two important mediating variables: population density and industrial structure. Through the above analysis, it can be observed that real estate development has a significant impact on environmental pollution. Thus, the country and the government can reduce environmental pollution by improving the investment structure, using environmentally friendly building materials, guiding population flow and promoting industrial upgrading.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , Modelos Econométricos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010869

RESUMO

Personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) from anthropogenic activities is a major concern in African countries, including Mali. However, knowledge of particulates is scant. This study was undertaken to characterize personal exposure to PM2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM2.5) in the city of Bamako in Mali. The exposure to PM2.5, through daily activities was observed from September 2020 to February 2021. Participants wore palm-sized optical PM2.5 sensors on their chest during their daily activities. The exposure levels in four different groups of residents were investigated in relation to their daily activities. The variation in PM2.5 concentration was measured during different activities in different microenvironments, and the main sources of exposure were identified. The highest average 10 min concentrations were observed at home and in bedrooms, while the participants were using specific products typically used in Africa, Asia, and South America that included insecticides (IST; 999 µg/m3) and incense (ICS; 145 µg/m3), followed by traffic (216 µg/m3) and cooking (150 µg/m3). The lowest average 10 min concentrations were also observed in the same microenvironment lacking IST or ICS (≤14 µg/m3). With no use of specific products, office workers and students were the least exposed, and drivers and cooks were the most exposed. The concentrations are up to 7.5 and 3 times higher than the World Health Organization's yearly and daily recommended exposure levels, respectively, indicating the need to promptly elaborate and apply effective mitigation strategies to improve air quality and protect public health. This study highlights the importance of indoor air pollution sources related to culture and confirms previous studies on urban outdoor air pollution sources, especially in developing countries. The findings could be applied to cities other than Bamako, as similar practices and lifestyles are common in different cultures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mali , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9965427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035472

RESUMO

In order to improve the effect of financial data classification and extract effective information from financial data, this paper improves the data mining algorithm, uses linear combination of principal components to represent missing variables, and performs dimensionality reduction processing on multidimensional data. In order to achieve the standardization of sample data, this paper standardizes the data and combines statistical methods to build an intelligent financial data processing model. In addition, starting from the actual situation, this paper proposes the artificial intelligence classification and statistical methods of financial data in smart cities and designs data simulation experiments to conduct experimental analysis on the methods proposed in this paper. From the experimental results, the artificial intelligence classification and statistical method of financial data in smart cities proposed in this paper can play an important role in the statistical analysis of financial data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Inteligência
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(1): 14-18, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990441

RESUMO

Firearm homicides and suicides represent an ongoing public health concern in the United States. During 2018-2019, a total of 28,372 firearm homicides (including 3,612 [13%] among youths and young adults aged 10-19 years [youths]) and 48,372 firearm suicides (including 2,463 [5%] among youths) occurred among U.S. residents (1). This report is the fourth in a series* that provides statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas. As with earlier reports, this report provides a special focus on youth violence, including suicide, recognizing the magnitude of the problem and the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs)† for the periods 2015-2016 and 2018-2019, separated by a transition year (2017), using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Following a period of decreased firearm homicide rates among persons of all ages after 2006-2007 in large metropolitan areas collectively and nationally, by 2015-2016 rates had returned to levels comparable to those observed a decade earlier and remained nearly unchanged as of 2018-2019. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged ≥10 years have continued to increase in large MSAs collectively as well as nationally. Although the youth firearm suicide rate remained much lower than the overall rate, the youth rate nationally also continued to increase, most notably outside of large MSAs. The findings in this report underscore a continued and urgent need for a comprehensive approach to prevention. This includes efforts to prevent firearm homicide and suicide in the first place and support individual persons and communities at increased risk, as well as lessening harms after firearm homicide and suicide have occurred.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Homicídio/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 17, 2022 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is one of the main concerns for the health of European citizens, and cities are currently striving to accomplish EU air pollution regulation. The 2020 COVID-19 lockdown measures can be seen as an unintended but effective experiment to assess the impact of traffic restriction policies on air pollution. Our objective was to estimate the impact of the lockdown measures on NO2 concentrations and health in the two largest Italian cities. METHODS: NO2 concentration datasets were built using data deriving from a 1-month citizen science monitoring campaign that took place in Milan and Rome just before the Italian lockdown period. Annual mean NO2 concentrations were estimated for a lockdown scenario (Scenario 1) and a scenario without lockdown (Scenario 2), by applying city-specific annual adjustment factors to the 1-month data. The latter were estimated deriving data from Air Quality Network stations and by applying a machine learning approach. NO2 spatial distribution was estimated at a neighbourhood scale by applying Land Use Random Forest models for the two scenarios. Finally, the impact of lockdown on health was estimated by subtracting attributable deaths for Scenario 1 and those for Scenario 2, both estimated by applying literature-based dose-response function on the counterfactual concentrations of 10 µg/m3. RESULTS: The Land Use Random Forest models were able to capture 41-42% of the total NO2 variability. Passing from Scenario 2 (annual NO2 without lockdown) to Scenario 1 (annual NO2 with lockdown), the population-weighted exposure to NO2 for Milan and Rome decreased by 15.1% and 15.3% on an annual basis. Considering the 10 µg/m3 counterfactual, prevented deaths were respectively 213 and 604. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the lockdown had a beneficial impact on air quality and human health. However, compliance with the current EU legal limit is not enough to avoid a high number of NO2 attributable deaths. This contribution reaffirms the potentiality of the citizen science approach and calls for more ambitious traffic calming policies and a re-evaluation of the legal annual limit value for NO2 for the protection of human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Cidade de Roma/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20200942, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043853

RESUMO

Studies of risk perception and risk communication concerning the nuclear area are quite common in scientific literature. However, though numerous studies on this topic point to the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in facilitating the reduction of perceived risks, there are few papers that effectively discuss the role of education in risk communication on the subject, particularly in Brazil. The objective of the present work was to reflect on this problem by analyzing the results obtained from two case studies on the implementation of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, in the city of Iperó, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. As was verified in the investigation, most participants of the study had high perception of risk with respect to the implementation of the reactor. Nevertheless, although important in the project of the reactor implementation, it was verified that the state, municipal and community schools of the city of Iperó had not participated, in the public hearings nor had they discussed the issue inside the school community, until the moment of the research.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Percepção , Brasil , Cidades , Humanos
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