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1.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 609-617, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We generated a novel disease mouse model in which a fructose-containing western diet (FD) induces development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed FD for 60 weeks and body weight and blood pressure were monitored. Plasma cholesterol level was measured at the end of the experiments. Histopathology of NASH was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson-Trichrome staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and immunohistochemistry against a proliferation marker. Circadian gene expression levels were compared by sampling the livers in 4-h intervals, followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: FD-fed mice developed obesity, transient hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and liver adiposity. The mice spontaneously developed hepatic nodules, which were diagnosed as non-neoplastic nodular regenerative hyperplasia. FD-fed mice had increased expression of growth factor genes and cirrhosis markers compared to control mice. Circadian expression of lipid metabolism genes was deregulated by FD intake. CONCLUSION: C57BL/6J mice fed FD developed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and nodular regenerative hyperplasia over time.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Frutose/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperplasia/etiologia , Hiperplasia/metabolismo , Hiperplasia/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 575-583, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yeast hydrolysate (YH) has multiple salutary biological activities. Nevertheless, the application of YH in broiler production is limited. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of YH derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exploring growth performance, serum parameters, organs relative weight, carcass traits, meat quality and antioxidant status of broilers. RESULTS: Supplementing YH linearly and quadratically improved (P < 0.05) body weight gain and gain-to-feed ratio compared to that in the control group. Triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol in serum, the decline in pH and cooking loss of breast muscle, and malonaldehyde concentration in serum and liver were decreased linearly and/or quadratically by YH (P < 0.05), whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in serum, GSH-Px activity in liver, glutathione content in serum and liver, eviscerated yield rate and chest muscle yield, and the relative weight of spleen and liver were linearly and/or quadratically increased (P < 0.05). Moreover, YH enhanced the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygennase-1 (HO-1), GSH-Px1 and SOD1 (linear and/or quadratic, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dietary YH beneficially affected growth performance, serum parameters, organ relative weight, carcass traits, meat quality and antioxidant status in broilers, indicating its potential application as a promising feed additive in broiler production. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Carne/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624514

RESUMO

The failure of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-raising agents to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) together with recent findings of increased cardiovascular mortality in subjects with extremely high HDL-cholesterol levels provide new opportunities to revisit our view of HDL. The concept of HDL function developed to explain these contradictory findings has recently been expanded by a role played by HDL in the lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) by lipoprotein lipase. According to the reverse remnant-cholesterol transport (RRT) hypothesis, HDL critically contributes to TGRL lipolysis via acquirement of surface lipids, including free cholesterol, released from TGRL. Ensuing cholesterol transport to the liver with excretion into the bile may reduce cholesterol influx in the arterial wall by accelerating removal from circulation of atherogenic, cholesterol-rich TGRL remnants. Such novel function of HDL opens wide therapeutic applications to reduce CVD in statin-treated patients, which primarily involve activation of cholesterol flux upon lipolysis.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Lipólise/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Colesterol/genética , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/classificação , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(27): 2531-2543, 2021 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection have limited options for effective antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: We conducted an open-label, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing three-drug ART based on the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir with standard care (non-dolutegravir-based ART) in children and adolescents starting first- or second-line ART. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with virologic or clinical treatment failure by 96 weeks, as estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Safety was assessed. RESULTS: From September 2016 through June 2018, a total of 707 children and adolescents who weighed at least 14 kg were randomly assigned to receive dolutegravir-based ART (350 participants) or standard care (357). The median age was 12.2 years (range, 2.9 to 18.0), the median weight was 30.7 kg (range, 14.0 to 85.0), and 49% of the participants were girls. By design, 311 participants (44%) started first-line ART (with 92% of those in the standard-care group receiving efavirenz-based ART), and 396 (56%) started second-line ART (with 98% of those in the standard-care group receiving boosted protease inhibitor-based ART). The median follow-up was 142 weeks. By 96 weeks, 47 participants in the dolutegravir group and 75 in the standard-care group had treatment failure (estimated probability, 0.14 vs. 0.22; difference, -0.08; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.03; P = 0.004). Treatment effects were similar with first- and second-line therapies (P = 0.16 for heterogeneity). A total of 35 participants in the dolutegravir group and 40 in the standard-care group had at least one serious adverse event (P = 0.53), and 73 and 86, respectively, had at least one adverse event of grade 3 or higher (P = 0.24). At least one ART-modifying adverse event occurred in 5 participants in the dolutegravir group and in 17 in the standard-care group (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving children and adolescents with HIV-1 infection who were starting first- or second-line treatment, dolutegravir-based ART was superior to standard care. (Funded by ViiV Healthcare; ODYSSEY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02259127; EUDRACT number, 2014-002632-14; and ISRCTN number, ISRCTN91737921.).


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Alcinos/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910760

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a global public health challenge. There is a lack of evidence on the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, and related factors among adult populations of Wolaita, southern Ethiopia. AIM: To assess the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, and related factors among adult populations of Wolaita, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 2483 adult residents, selected using a two-stage random sampling technique. The quantitative data collected from structured questionnaires; anthropometric and biochemical measurements were entered into EpiData version 3.1 using double-entry systems. We determined the weighted prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension for the two-stage survey. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with hypertension and carried out after declaring the data set as survey data to account for the effect of clustering. An adjusted coefficient with 95% CI was used to ascertain the significance of the association. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in the Wolaita area was 31.3% (27.7%-35.1%) and 46.4% (42.9%-50.0%) respectively. The weighted prevalence of hypertension of those who were not aware of their hypertension until the time of the survey was 29.8%% (26.5%-33.3%). Where the weighted prevalence of self-reported cases of hypertension was 2.2% (1.2%-3.8%). Obesity, sugar-sweetened food consumption, male sex, elevated total cholesterol, raised fasting blood sugar, and advancing age were positively associated with hypertension. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension among adults in Wolaita was high. A small proportion of the affected people are aware of their high blood pressure. This study reported a high prevalence of pre-hypertension; which indicates a high percentage of people at risk of hypertension. It is essential to develop periodic screening programs, and primary intervention strategies such as the prevention of obesity, and reduction of sugar-sweetened food consumption.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/patologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/patologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943876

RESUMO

GP.Mur is a clinically important red blood cell (RBC) phenotype in Southeast Asia. The molecular entity of GP.Mur is glycophorin B-A-B hybrid protein that promotes band 3 expression and band 3-AQP1 interaction, and alters the organization of band 3 complexes with Rh/RhAG complexes. GP.Mur+ RBCs are more resistant to osmotic stress. To explore whether GP.Mur+ RBCs could be structurally more resilient, we compared deformability and osmotic fragility of fresh RBCs from 145 adults without major illness (47% GP.Mur). We also evaluated potential impacts of cellular and lipid factors on RBC deformability and osmotic resistivity. Contrary to our anticipation, these two physical properties were independent from each other based on multivariate regression analyses. GP.Mur+ RBCs were less deformable than non-GP.Mur RBCs. We also unexpectedly found 25% microcytosis in GP.Mur+ female subjects (10/40). Both microcytosis and membrane cholesterol reduced deformability, but the latter was only observed in non-GP.Mur and not GP.Mur+ normocytes. The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes was not affected by microcytosis; instead, larger mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased the chances of hypotonic burst. From comparison with GP.Mur+ RBCs, higher band 3 expression strengthened the structure of RBC membrane and submembranous cytoskeletal networks and thereby reduced cell deformability; stronger band 3-AQP1 interaction additionally supported osmotic resistance. Thus, red cell deformability and osmotic resistivity involve distinct structural-functional roles of band 3.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 de Troca de Ânion do Eritrócito/metabolismo , Deformação Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Fragilidade Osmótica , Adulto , Aquaporina 1/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Análise Multivariada , Ligação Proteica , Análise de Regressão
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959840

RESUMO

(1) Background: There is a substantial lack of knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms by which weight loss and weight regain exert their beneficial and adverse effects, respectively, on cardiometabolic outcomes. We examined associations between changes in circulating metabolites and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors during diet-induced weight loss and weight loss maintenance. (2) Methods: This prospective analysis of data from the Satiety Innovation (SATIN) study involved adults living with overweight and obesity (mean age=47.5). One hundred sixty-two subjects achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD) were included in a 12-week weight loss maintenance period. Circulating metabolites (m=123) were profiled using a targeted multiplatform approach. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. (3) Results: Decreases in the concentrations of several phosphatidylcholines (PCs), sphingomyelins (SMs), and valine were consistently associated with decreases in total (TChol) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels during the LCD. Increases in PCs and SMs were significantly associated with increases in TChol and LDL-C during the weight loss maintenance period. Decreases and increases in PCs during LCD and maintenance period, respectively, were associated with decreases in the levels of triglycerides. (4) Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that decreases in circulating PCs and SMs during weight loss and the subsequent weight loss maintenance period may decrease the cardiovascular risk through impacting TChol and LDL-C.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Restrição Calórica , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Saciação , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Valina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618834

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the link between systemic and general psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a group of U.S. Latinos as a function of acculturation and education within the blended guiding conceptual framework of the biopsychosocial model of the stress process plus the reserve capacity model. We analyzed data from self-identifying Mexican-origin adults (n = 396, 56.9% female, Mage = 58.2 years, 55.5% < 12 years of education, 79% U.S.-born) from the Texas City Stress and Health Study. We used established measures of perceived stress (general stress), neighborhood stress and discrimination (systemic stress) to capture psychosocial stress, our primary predictor. We used the atherosclerotic CVD calculator to assess 10-year CVD risk, our primary outcome. This calculator uses demographics, cholesterol, blood pressure, and history of hypertension, smoking, and diabetes to compute CVD risk in the next 10 years. We also created an acculturation index using English-language use, childhood interaction, and preservation of cultural values. Participants reported years of education. Contrary to expectations, findings showed that higher levels of all three forms of psychosocial stress, perceived stress, neighborhood stress, and perceived discrimination, predicted lower 10-year CVD risk. Acculturation and education did not moderate the effects of psychosocial stress on 10-year CVD risk. Contextualized within the biopsychosocial and reserve capacity framework, we interpret our findings such that participants who accurately reported their stressors may have turned to their social networks to handle the stress, thereby reducing their risk for CVD. We highlight the importance of examining strengths within the sociocultural environment when considering cardiovascular inequities among Latinos.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Criança , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Características de Residência , Fumar , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638523

RESUMO

The transmissible respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide since its first reported outbreak in December of 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, multiple studies have shown an inverse correlation between the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and the severity of COVID-19, with low HDL levels being associated with an increased risk of severe outcomes. Some studies revealed that HDL binds to SARS-CoV-2 particles via the virus's spike protein and, under certain conditions, such as low HDL particle concentrations, it facilitates SARS-CoV-2 binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and infection of host cells. Other studies, however, reported that HDL suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In both cases, the ability of HDL to enhance or suppress virus infection appears to be dependent on the expression of the HDL receptor, namely, the Scavenger Receptor Class B type 1 (SR-B1), in the target cells. SR-B1 and HDL represent crucial mediators of cholesterol metabolism. Herein, we review the complex role of HDL and SR-B1 in SARS-CoV-2-induced disease. We also review recent advances in our understanding of HDL structure, properties, and function during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Colesterol/sangue , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Receptores de Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27310, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596129

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The association between serum total cholesterol (TC) level and incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in patients with follicular thyroid cancer postthyroidectomy is unknown.This was a retrospective study and patients (n = 384) were divided into low and high TC groups according to the median TC level. Incidence of composite ASCVD (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death) was compared between these 2 groups and factors contributing to the association of TC and ASCVD were evaluated.Patients in the high TC group were older and more likely to have diabetes and have higher C-reactive protein level. After thyroidectomy, serum levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine were lower while thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the high TC group. 31.6% and 39.7% of patients developed hypothyroidism in the low and high TC groups (P < .05) postthyroidectomy. The incidence rate of composite ASCVD was higher in the high TC versus low TC groups, with incidence rate ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.69), which was mainly driven by a higher incidence rate of myocardial infarction in the high TC group (incidence rate ratio: 2.11 and 95% CI: 1.10-4.20). In unadjusted model, higher TC was associated with 73% higher risk of composite ASCVD. After adjustment for hypothyroidism, the association of higher TC and composite ASCVD was attenuated into insignificance, with hazard ratio of 0.92 and 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.34.Increased TC level was associated with composite ASCVD, which might be attributed to hypothyroidism postthyroidectomy. The use of levothyroxine might help to prevent hypercholestemia and reduce the incidence of ASCVD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia
11.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(5): 459-465, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664921

RESUMO

Vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates is a critical marker of the restart of seasonal reproductive activity. During this process of multihormonal regulation, females allocate a considerable amount of organic and mineral reserves to the synthesis of yolk, with changes in their plasma values. In this work, we determined plasma levels of various metabolites and steroid hormones throughout the reproductive cycle in females of Salvator merianae who developed vitellogenic and non-vitellogenic follicular cycles. We worked for two consecutive years with 20 adult females from the Experimental Hatchery of the Facultad de Agronomía y Zootecnia of the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. Values of metabolites: glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, total proteins, and hormones: estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, were determined during the following stages of the annual cycle: hibernation, hibernation emergence, courtship-mating, oviposition, and incubation. Vitellogenic females showed significantly higher plasma levels of triglycerides, calcium, phosphorus, and albumin than non-vitellogenic females, mainly in the courtship-mating stage (advanced vitellogenesis). In contrast, annual cholesterol averages were lower in vitellogenic females. Glucose showed changes throughout the annual cycle regardless of the vitellogenic condition. Total proteins plasma levels had very few fluctuations during the cycle. Among the hormones studied, only testosterone showed differences related to vitellogenic condition, with higher levels in non-vitellogenic females during the entire reproductive cycle. The knowledge of these changes associated with vitellogenesis will improve zootechnical management and will allow optimizing the reproductive efficiency of Salvator lizards in captivity.


Assuntos
Lagartos/fisiologia , Vitelogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Lagartos/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258058, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665804

RESUMO

Primary hyperlipidaemia in Schnauzer is characterized by increased plasma triglycerides (TG) and/or total cholesterol (TC) concentration and is associated with an increased risk of developing pancreatitis, insulin resistance and seizures. In humans, omega-3 fatty acids in addition to a low-fat diet can be used to reduce TG and TC. This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids associated to a diet management with two different fat content in Schnauzer with primary hyperlipidaemia. Eighteen dogs with primary hyperlipidaemia were divided into two groups: group 1, n = 10, 8 females, 2 males, age (mean ± standard deviation) of 7.13 ± 2.70 years and body weight (BW) (mean ± standard deviation) of 7.25 ± 1.22 kg were treated with fish oil (approximately 730 mg/day of omega-3) associated with a low-fat and low-calorie diet (approximately 24g of fat/1000 kcal) for 90 days (T90); and group 2, n = 8 dogs, 6 females, 2 males, with 7.0 ± 1.77 years old and average BW of 8.36 ± 1.51 kg, treated with fish oil (approximately 730 mg/day of omega-3) and maintenance diet with moderate amount of fat (approximately 33g of fat/1000 kcal) for 90 days. Plasma TG and TC concentrations and lipoprotein (LP) profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) were evaluated before and after treatment. TG and TC serum concentrations, expressed in mg/dL (mean ± standard deviation), before and after treatment in group 1 were: TG = 391.30 ± 487.86 (T0) and 118.7 ± 135.21 (T90); TC = 308.2 ± 63.06 (T0) and 139 ± 36.91 (T90). As for group 2, TG = 391.63 ± 336.89 (T0) and 250.75 ± 211.56 (T90); TC = 257.25 ± 92.88 (T0) and 207.25 ± 63.79 (T90). A reduction (p<0.05) of TG and TC was observed in both groups. The distribution of TG and TC among LP was not different between the pre (T0) and post treatment (T90) periods. After 90 days of treatment, the administration of omega-3 fatty acids, associated with a low-fat or maintenance diet reduced triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia without altering LP profile. The current investigation shows that both therapies were effective in reducing plasma TC and TG concentrations without altering LP profile.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684393

RESUMO

The objective of this randomized cross-over trial was to evaluate the short term effects of a calorie-restricted Korean style Mediterranean diet (KMD) versus a calorie-restricted conventional diet on lipid profile and other metabolic parameters in hypercholesterolemic patients. Ninety-two patients with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to two groups and switched to the other group following a 4-week intervention after a 2-week washout period. While participants during KMD intervention period received home delivery of two meals daily except for weekends, those during the control group were advised to consume a conventional diet. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly decreased in KMD group even after adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake changes, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity changes (all p < 0.05). Anthropometric parameters, white blood cell (WBC), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and fatty liver index (FLI) also significantly decreased after KMD intervention (all p < 0.05). In addition, WBC, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C and FLI were significantly decreased even after adjusting for weight reduction changes. Calorie-restricted KMD not only helps to treat dyslipidemia by improving the lipid parameters but also has beneficial effects on reducing cardiovascular risk by improving chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Mediterrânea , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fígado Gorduroso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684581

RESUMO

Osteoporosis has been discovered to be a risk factor for menopausal women. Although synbiotics (probiotics and prebiotics) are found in fermented soymilk-honey made using local probiotics, their effect on osteocalcin levels is still unknown. Therefore, this study's objective was to determine the influence of fermented soymilk-honey from different probiotics on osteocalcin levels. A 90-day pre-post quasi-experimental study with a control design was conducted on 54 postmenopausal women divided into three intervention groups namely, the soymilk (SM) group, the soymilk-honey fermented with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 (SMH Lc) group, and the soymilk-honey fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1 R 1.3.2 (SMH Lp) group. Participants consumed 100 mL of soymilk (SM) or fermented soymilk with honey (SMH Lc or SMH Lp) for 90 days. At the beginning and end of the study, the blood serum osteocalcin level was measured and subjects' health status was assessed, such as cholesterol total, random blood glucose, and uric acid levels. Our results presented that in the SMH Lp group, 90 days supplementation of soy-honey milk fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1 R 1.3.2 significantly reduced the level of blood serum osteocalcin. Based on these results it is justified to perform more detailed studies on the effect of fermented soy-honey milk on bone health.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Mel , Menopausa/fisiologia , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Leite de Soja/farmacologia , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei/fisiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Menopausa/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteocalcina/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue
15.
JAMA ; 326(13): 1286-1298, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609450

RESUMO

Importance: After decades of decline, the US cardiovascular disease mortality rate flattened after 2010, and racial and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality persisted. Objective: To examine 20-year trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the US population by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 50 571 participants aged 20 years or older from the 1999-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a series of cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative samples of the US population, were included. Exposures: Calendar year, race and ethnicity, education, and family income. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age- and sex-adjusted means or proportions of cardiovascular risk factors and estimated 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were calculated for each of 10 two-year cycles. Results: The mean age of participants ranged from 49.0 to 51.8 years and the proportion of women from 48.2% to 51.3% in the surveys. From 1999-2000 to 2017-2018, age- and sex-adjusted mean body mass index increased from 28.0 (95% CI, 27.5-28.5) to 29.8 (95% CI, 29.2-30.4); mean hemoglobin A1c increased from 5.4% (95% CI, 5.3%-5.5%) to 5.7% (95% CI, 5.6%-5.7%) (both P < .001 for linear trends). Mean serum total cholesterol decreased from 203.3 mg/dL (95% CI, 200.9-205.8 mg/dL) to 188.5 mg/dL (95% CI, 185.2-191.9 mg/dL); prevalence of smoking decreased from 24.8% (95% CI, 21.8%-27.7%) to 18.1% (95% CI, 15.4%-20.8%) (both P < .001 for linear trends). Mean systolic blood pressure decreased from 123.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 122.2-124.8 mm Hg) in 1999-2000 to 120.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 119.6-121.3 mm Hg) in 2009-2010, then increased to 122.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 121.7-123.8 mm Hg) in 2017-2018 (P < .001 for nonlinear trend). Age- and sex-adjusted 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk decreased from 7.6% (95% CI, 6.9%-8.2%) in 1999-2000 to 6.5% (95% CI, 6.1%-6.8%) in 2011-2012, then did not significantly change. Age- and sex-adjusted body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c were consistently higher, while total cholesterol was lower in non-Hispanic Black participants compared with non-Hispanic White participants (all P < .001 for group differences). Individuals with college or higher education or high family income had consistently lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors. The mean age- and sex-adjusted 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was significantly higher in non-Hispanic Black participants compared with non-Hispanic White participants (difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 1.0%-1.7%] in 1999-2008 and 2.0% [95% CI, 1.7%-2.4%] in 2009-2018]). This difference was attenuated (-0.3% [95% CI, -0.6% to 0.1%] in 1999-2008 and 0.7% [95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%] in 2009-2018) after further adjusting for education, income, home ownership, employment, health insurance, and access to health care. Conclusions and Relevance: In this serial cross-sectional survey study that estimated US trends in cardiovascular risk factors from 1999 through 2018, differences in cardiovascular risk factors persisted between Black and White participants; the difference may have been moderated by social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Classe Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Colesterol/sangue , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/tendências , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610044

RESUMO

Epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and osteoporosis are strikingly overlapping. This study presents matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), as a simple molecular link more consistently associated with the pathophysiology of both osteoporosis and CVD risk factors. 40 adult female rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups [control sham-operated, untreated osteoporosis, carvedilol-treated osteoporosis and alendronate-treated osteoporosis]. After 8 weeks, blood samples were collected to estimate Lipid profile (Total cholesterol, HDL, Triglycerides), inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF alpha, CRP and NO), and Bone turnover markers (BTM) (Alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and pyridinoline). The tibias were dissected to estimate MMP-9 and NF-kB gene expression, OPG, RANKL levels and for histological examination. Induction of osteoporosis resulted in a significant elevation in BTM, inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia. MMP-9 was significantly elevated and positively correlated with BTM, inflammation and dyslipidemia markers. Carvedilol and alendronate exerted a bone preservative role and attenuated dyslipidaemia and inflammation in accordance with their respective effect on MMP-9.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Remodelação Óssea/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Osso Cortical/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/genética , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Tíbia/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707758

RESUMO

Introduction: metabolic syndrome portends an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. Evidence showed that healthcare workers are at higher risk of cardiovascular events because of their engagement in night-shift work. Therefore, this study determined the association between metabolic syndrome and healthcare work status in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study involving 105 healthcare workers and 143 non-healthcare workers. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made based on the International Diabetic Federation criteria: abdominal obesity plus, any two of: elevated blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg or previous diagnosis of hypertension on the use of antihypertensive medications; impaired fasting glucose; elevated triglycerides; and low HDL-cholesterol. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were analysed using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: men comprised 37.9% of the study population and the mean age was 42.1 ± 9.7 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar in both groups (HCWs-29.5% vs non-HCWs- 28.0%, p-value=0.789); overall prevalence was 28.6%. Abdominal obesity, elevated total cholesterol and elevated LDL-cholesterol occurred more frequently in HCWs than in non-HCWs: (68.6% vs 55.2%, p-value=0.034; 65.7% vs 39.2%, p-value= < 0.001 and 50.5 vs 28.7%; p-value < 0.001) respectively. Female sex (aOR: 3.67, 95% CI: 1.74-7.45; p < 0.001) and obesity (aOR: 4.39, 95% CI: 2.31-8.37; p < 0.001) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: a similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in the healthcare workers and the non- healthcare workers. However, abdominal obesity, elevated total cholesterol and elevated LDL-cholesterol occurred more frequently in healthcare workers than in non- healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638898

RESUMO

The preference for high-calorie foods depends on sex and contributes to obesity development. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) beneficially affects taste preferences and obesity, but its action has mainly been studied in males. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of FGF21 on food preferences and glucose and lipid metabolism in C57Bl/6J male and female mice with diet-induced obesity. Mice were injected with FGF21 or vehicle for 7 days. Body weight, choice between standard (SD) and high-fat (HFD) diets, blood parameters, and gene expression in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues, liver, muscles, and the hypothalamus were assessed. Compared to males, females had a greater preference for HFD; less WAT; lower levels of cholesterol, glucose, and insulin; and higher expression of Fgf21, Insr, Ppara, Pgc1, Acca and Accb in the liver and Dio2 in BAT. FGF21 administration decreased adiposity; blood levels of cholesterol, glucose, and insulin; hypothalamic Agrp expression, increased SD intake, decreased HFD intake independently of sex, and increased WAT expression of Pparg, Lpl and Lipe only in females. Thus, FGF21 administration beneficially affected mice of both sexes despite obesity-associated sex differences in metabolic characteristics, and it induced female-specific activation of gene expression in WAT.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , PPAR alfa/genética , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Fatores Sexuais
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499695

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation is proposed to exert an antimicrobial effect according to studies performed using bacterial and cell cultures. Therefore, we investigated the effects of electrification on inflammation in septic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: healthy control (C), electrified healthy (E), sepsis (S), and electrified sepsis (SE) groups. Staphylococcus aureus (1 x 109 colonies) in 1 ml of medium was intraperitoneally injected into rats to produce a sepsis model. The rats in the E and SE groups were exposed to a low direct electrical signal (300 Hz and 2.5 volts) for 40 min and 1 and 6 h after bacterial infection. Immediately after the second electrical signal application, blood and tissue samples of the heart, lung, and liver were collected. An antibacterial effect of a low direct electrical signal was observed in the blood of rats. The effects of electrical signals on ameliorating changes in the histological structure of tissues, blood pH, gases, viscosity and cell count, activities of some important enzymes, oxidative stress parameters, inflammation and tissue apoptosis were observed in the SE group compared to the S group. Low direct electrical signal application exerts antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects on septic rats due to the induction of electrolysis in body fluids without producing any tissue damage.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Glutationa/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Reologia , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3193-3201, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate the change in circulating serum irisin and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after 6 and 12 months of GLP-1 treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-five patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with insulin or other hypoglycaemic drugs were added to dulaglutide (N° = 44) and liraglutide (N° = 41) treatment. After 6 months of GLP-1 analogues a significant decrease in BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (WC) (p < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.003), triglycerides (p = 0.017), IL-6 (p = 0.045) and a significant increase in serum irisin (p < 0.001) were observed compared to baseline. After 12 months of treatment no significant differences were found compared to the levels at 6 months. The change in irisin from baseline (Δ_irisin) was significantly related to the changes in total-cholesterol (Δ_total-cholesterol) (r = -0.293; p = 0.020), while the change in IL-6 (Δ_IL-6) was significantly related to the changes in WC (Δ_WC) (r = 0.347; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Additive treatment with GLP1-analogues results in an increase in serum circulating irisin levels and a decrease in IL-6. The post-treatment change in irisin was correlated with a decrease in total cholesterol, while the change in IL-6 was correlated with a decrease in WC.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fibronectinas/sangue , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/efeitos adversos , Incretinas/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura
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