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1.
Curr Biol ; 33(1): R16-R18, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626855

RESUMO

The superior colliculus is important for spatial attention across vertebrates. A new study in pigeons discovered a mechanism of attention: electric fields traveling across the optic tectum, which could be thought of as the avian version of the mammalian superior colliculus.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Colículos Superiores , Animais , Atenção , Mamíferos
2.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101946, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621271

RESUMO

Pigeons are common birds around the world and may act as intermediate hosts of the tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sacrocystis spp. This study aimed to provide an overview on the prevalence of and exposure to these parasites in Iranian domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica) through molecular, serological and histopathological examination. Blood and tissue samples (i.e., brain, heart, gizzard, neck, thigh, and pectoral muscles) were taken from 100 pigeons. Sera were screened by agglutination tests for detection of anti- T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies, genomic DNA from tissue samples were assessed by respective species-specific PCRs, and histopathological examination of tissues was carried out. A seroprevalence of 45 % to anti-T. gondii and 35 % to anti-N. caninum IgG was recorded. PCR detected T. gondii DNA in 28 pigeons. Sacrocystis spp. was detected in one animal, but sequencing of the 28 S rRNA gene product did not reveal the identity of the species. Histopathology revealed myocarditis, myositis, and gliosis in the heart, skeletal muscles, and brain, respectively. No Sarcocystis tissue-cysts were detected, but T. gondii tissue cyst-like structures in the brain (i.e., 4 %) and heart (i.e., 3 %) were found by histology. Data reported herein demonstrate that pigeons from Iran are infected with tissue cyst-forming apicomplexans, particularly T. gondii. Since domestic pigeons are in close contact with human populations, and consumption of their meat and egg is popular in different societies, control strategies for minimizing the risk of infection in both pigeons and humans are suggested.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Neospora , Sarcocystis , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neospora/genética , Sarcocystis/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
3.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 333: 114213, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642229

RESUMO

Maternal androgen exposure can have crucial effects on offspring development. Bird eggs are frequently used for studying these effects and virtually all research in this field has focused on post-hatching offspring traits. Yet, much of the yolk, in which the maternal hormones are deposited, is consumed during the embryonic phase. Here, we studied the effects of yolk androgens during this prenatal period. As there is evidence that androgens stimulate post-hatching traits such as increased growth, we measured heart rate throughout incubation as a proxy for prenatal metabolism. Rock pigeons (Columba livia) typically lay 2-egg clutches with yolk androgen levels in second-laid eggs being consistently higher than in first-laid eggs. We investigated whether embryonic heart rate was higher in second- than first-laid eggs. Additionally, we increased yolk androgen levels (testosterone and androstenedione) with the mean difference between those in first- and second-laid eggs, to investigate whether the effects of androgens are egg sequence dependent. As expected, embryonic heart rate predicted body embryo organ- and body mass, and body dimensions, with body mass being significantly higher in second- than first-laid eggs. Androgen treated first-laid eggs increased heart rate to that of second-laid control eggs only temporally, yet it had an overall positive effect on embryo body dimensions but not on tissue mass. Our findings indicate that embryos from different egg laying sequence differed in heart rate and prenatal development outcomes but this can only partially be explained by their difference in maternal androgen levels.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Columbidae , Animais , Androgênios/metabolismo , Columbidae/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Testosterona/metabolismo , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765546

RESUMO

The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.(AU)


O presente estudo descreve o perfil hematológico, a preferência alimentar e a comparação de caracteres morfométricos de casais reprodutores de pombo-rocha (Columba livia). Para tanto, 25 pares (25 amostras por sexo) foram amostrados por meio de redes de névoa do distrito de Okara e Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Paquistão. As aves foram então anestesiadas com uma combinação de cetamina HCL (10 mg/kg) e diazepam (0,2 mg/kg) e submetidas a medidas morfométricas; 5 µL de sangue também foram retirados da veia jugular de cada ave anestesiada para análise hematológica. Poucos pares também foram dissecados para remover o trato gastrointestinal (GITs) para preferências alimentares. Os resultados revelaram que não há diferenças significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos e na preferência alimentar dos casais reprodutores de Columba livia. A análise intestinal revelou ainda que a maior parte do conteúdo intestinal consistia em ervilha e milho na maioria dos pares. Em relação às medidas mensurais, foram registradas diferenças significativas no peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica, enquanto os demais parâmetros estudados permanecem não significativos entre os sexos. Assim, conclui-se que além de três parâmetros morfométricos (peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica), ambos os sexos são semelhantes em termos de morfometria, hematologia e preferência alimentar.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Columbidae/anatomia & histologia , Columbidae/sangue , Dieta/veterinária
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765456

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.(AU)


Durante este estudo de um ano, amostras de sangue e fezes de pombos (Zenaida asiatica), patos (Anas platyrhynchos), pombos (Columba livia), perdizes (Alectoris chukar), perus (Meleagris gallopavo) e ganso (Chen caerulescens) foram coletados para avaliar a prevalência de parasitas nessas aves. As aves foram mantidas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore. Todas essas espécies de aves foram mantidas em gaiolas separadas e todo o seu corpo foi inspecionado regularmente para registrar parasitas externos. Para parasitas internos, foram analisadas 100 amostras de sangue e 100 amostras fecais de cada espécie. Durante o presente estudo, duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, carrapatos de aves (Args persicus) e ácaros (Dermanyssus gallinae), enquanto 17 espécies de endoparasitas, três de sangue e 14 de amostras fecais, foram identificadas. Os parasitas sanguíneos prevalentes foram Plasmodium juxtanucleare, 29,3%, Aegyptinella pullorum, 15%, e Leucoctoyzoon simond, 13%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 50%, Capillaria anatis, 40%, Capillaria annulata, 37,5%, Heterakis gallinarum, 28,3%, Ascardia galli, 24% e Allodpa suctoria, 2%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 12,1% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis, 9,1%, também foram registrados nas amostras fecais das aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 27% e 3 espécies de protozoários, ou seja, Eimeria maxima tendo prevalência de 20,1%, Histomonas meleagridis, 8%, e Giardia lamblia, 5,3%, foram registradas. Em nossa recomendação, são indicados medicação adequada e saneamento das casas e gaiolas dos pássaros para evitar parasitas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Columbidae , Perus , Gansos
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765441

RESUMO

The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.(AU)


O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Columbidae/parasitologia , Ftirápteros , Dípteros , Carrapatos , Ácaros , Prevalência
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252059, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339358

RESUMO

Abstract The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.


Resumo O presente estudo descreve o perfil hematológico, a preferência alimentar e a comparação de caracteres morfométricos de casais reprodutores de pombo-rocha (Columba livia). Para tanto, 25 pares (25 amostras por sexo) foram amostrados por meio de redes de névoa do distrito de Okara e Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Paquistão. As aves foram então anestesiadas com uma combinação de cetamina HCL (10 mg/kg) e diazepam (0,2 mg/kg) e submetidas a medidas morfométricas; 5 µL de sangue também foram retirados da veia jugular de cada ave anestesiada para análise hematológica. Poucos pares também foram dissecados para remover o trato gastrointestinal (GITs) para preferências alimentares. Os resultados revelaram que não há diferenças significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos e na preferência alimentar dos casais reprodutores de Columba livia. A análise intestinal revelou ainda que a maior parte do conteúdo intestinal consistia em ervilha e milho na maioria dos pares. Em relação às medidas mensurais, foram registradas diferenças significativas no peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica, enquanto os demais parâmetros estudados permanecem não significativos entre os sexos. Assim, conclui-se que além de três parâmetros morfométricos (peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica), ambos os sexos são semelhantes em termos de morfometria, hematologia e preferência alimentar.


Assuntos
Animais , Columbidae , Preferências Alimentares , Paquistão , Plumas , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285630

RESUMO

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Parasitos , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
9.
J Exp Biol ; 226(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576032

RESUMO

The ability of birds to fly through cluttered environments has inspired biologists interested in understanding its underlying mechanisms, and engineers interested in applying its underpinning principles. To analyse this problem empirically, we break it down into two distinct, but related, questions: How do birds select which gaps to aim for? And how do they steer through them? We answered these questions using a combined experimental and modelling approach, in which we released pigeons (Columbia livia domestica) inside a large hall with an open exit separated from the release point by a curtain creating two vertical gaps - one of which was obstructed by an obstacle. We tracked the birds using a high-speed motion capture system, and found that their gap choice seemed to be biased by their intrinsic handedness, rather than determined by extrinsic cues such as the size of the gap or its alignment with the destination. We modelled the pigeons' steering behaviour algorithmically by simulating their flight trajectories under a set of six candidate guidance laws, including those used previously to model target-oriented flight behaviours in birds. We found that their flights were best modelled by delayed proportional navigation commanding turning in proportion to the angular rate of the line-of-sight from the pigeon to the midpoint of the gap. Our results are consistent with this being a two-phase behaviour, in which the pigeon heads forward from the release point before steering towards the midpoint of whichever gap it chooses to aim for under closed-loop guidance. Our findings have implications for the sensorimotor mechanisms that underlie clutter negotiation in birds, uniting this with other kinds of target-oriented behaviours including aerial pursuit.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Voo Animal , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Lateralidade Funcional
10.
Behav Processes ; 205: 104816, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584963

RESUMO

Relational responding refers to behavior that conforms to a rule for com- paring stimuli. Lazareva et al. (2014) trained pigeons to choose either the smaller or the larger of two circles, using 1-3 pairs of circles for training and 17-19 new pairs for testing. The pigeons showed relational responding on some test pairs and systematic failures on others. We present a simple artificial neural network model that reproduces the animals' behavior well, similarly to Lazareva et al.'s (2014) statistical model based on stimulus features and stimulus relationships. We analyze how the network model gener- alizes from training to test stimuli, and show that it can reconcile contrasting ideas about relational responding from the seminal works by Köhler (1929, 1918/1938, 1924), positing that animals can learn relational rules such as "choose the larger stimulus," and Spence (1937), positing that relational re- sponding can be explained based on stimulus generalization.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Aprendizagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Generalização do Estímulo , Columbidae
11.
Zool Res ; 44(1): 142-152, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484226

RESUMO

The ability to navigate long distances is essential for many animals to locate shelter, food, and breeding grounds. Magnetic sense has evolved in various migratory and homing species to orient them based on the geomagnetic field. A highly conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein IscA is proposed as an animal magnetoreceptor (MagR). Iron-sulfur cluster binding is also suggested to play an essential role in MagR magnetism and is thus critical in animal magnetoreception. In the current study, we provide evidence for distinct iron binding and iron-sulfur cluster binding in MagR in pigeons, an avian species that relies on the geomagnetic field for navigation and homing. Pigeon MagR showed significantly higher total iron content from both iron- and iron-sulfur binding. Y65 in pigeon MagR was shown to directly mediate mononuclear iron binding, and its mutation abolished iron-binding capacity of the protein. Surprisingly, both iron binding and iron-sulfur binding demonstrated synergistic effects, and thus appear to be integral and indispensable to pigeon MagR magnetism. These results not only extend our current understanding of the origin and complexity of MagR magnetism, but also imply a possible molecular explanation for the huge diversity in animal magnetoreception.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Ferro , Animais , Enxofre
12.
Parasitol Res ; 122(2): 527-536, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522547

RESUMO

Avian trichomonosis is a worldwide and cross-species epidemic, and the infection in pigeons is particularly severe. Although the disease causes a serious threat to poultry health resulting in significant economic losses, the relationship between Trichomonas gallinae (T. gallinae) and host innate immunity is still not clear. Extracellular traps (ETs) are an innate immunity response to parasitic infections. However, whether host cells can produce ETs after T. gallinae infection has not yet been reported. In the present study, the ability of T. gallinae to induce the production of heterophil extracellular traps (HETs) in pigeons was examined. T. gallinae-induced HETs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the main components of HETs were detected by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were tested during the HETosis. A quantitative analysis of T. gallinae-induced HETs, the role of myeloperoxidase (MPO), store-operated Ca (2+) entry (SOCE), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in T. gallinae-induced HET formation were conducted by inhibitor assays. The results showed that T. gallinae induced ET formation in pigeon heterophils. ETs consisted of a DNA skeleton, neutrophil elastase (NE), MPO, and Histone3 (H3). T. gallinae-induced HETs formation in a dose- and time-dependent process. The release of T. gallinae-induced HETs depends on MPO, SOCE, and NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, after T. gallinae stimulated pigeon heterophils, ROS production was significantly increased, while no significant differences in the LDH activity were observed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Armadilhas Extracelulares , Tricomoníase , Trichomonas , Animais , Trichomonas/genética , Columbidae/parasitologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
13.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114642, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306875

RESUMO

Pigeon breeding is associated with exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin and with symptoms of the airways. Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human health. Some pigeons participate in national and international indoor exhibitions. This study aims to obtain knowledge about the potential human exposure to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria including the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a pigeon exhibition in Denmark. In walking areas for visitors, airborne microorganisms in different size fractions able to enter the airways were sampled and following identified. The average concentrations were: 5000 cfu fungi/m3, 1.8 × 104 cfu bacteria/m3, 37 endotoxin units/m3, and 0.18 mg dust/m3 air with the highest concentrations in-between rows with pigeon cages. The fungal species Wallemia sp. and Aspergillus versicolor and the bacterial species S. equorum and S. aureus were found in high concentrations. MRSA spa type t034 described to be associated with livestock was found in the air. Most of the S. aureus was present in the size fraction of 1.1-2.1 µm, which are particles able to enter the human terminal bronchi. In conclusion, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxin, respectively, were found in concentrations 10, 2000, and 200 times higher than outdoor references. The airborne bacteria in the exhibition were mainly species found previously in pigeon coops showing that the pigeons are the sources of exposure. The presence of airborne MRSA in the pigeon exhibition highlights the importance of also considering this environment as a potential place of exchange of resistant bacteria between animals and between animals and humans.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Humanos , Poeira , Columbidae , Endotoxinas/análise , Staphylococcus aureus , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Bactérias , Fungos , Microbiologia do Ar
14.
Poult Sci ; 102(2): 102378, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565634

RESUMO

The crop of pigeon has specific characteristics as producing crop milk in the lactating period. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the regulation of crop lactation remain unclear. miRNAs, the essential regulators of gene expression, are implicated in various physiological and biological activities. In this study, we discovered a new miRNA that regulated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta (PIK3CD) and crop fibrocyte proliferation. Results of the luciferase reporter assay suggested that miR-193-5p suppressed PIK3CD expression by targeting a conserved binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of PIK3CD mRNA. MiR-193-5p promoted crop fibrocyte proliferation and migration, whereas PIK3CD inhibited these effects. These findings suggested an important regulatory role of miR-193-5p in crop fibrocyte proliferation, suggesting that miR-193-5p and PIK3CD might be important regulators of crop milk production.


Assuntos
Columbidae , MicroRNAs , Feminino , Animais , Columbidae/genética , Columbidae/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Lactação , Galinhas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
15.
Poult Sci ; 102(2): 102350, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577268

RESUMO

With the large-scale and intensive development of pigeon breeding industry and the improvement of production level, stress factors have an important impact on the immune, antioxidant capacity, and productivity of pigeons. In this study, the extenuating effect of Astragalus, Epimedium, and Ligustrum lucidum (AEF) on the antioxidant, production performance, and immune mechanism was investigated in breeding pigeons. Eighty pairs of 11-month-old healthy breeding pigeons with the same egg production batch were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (C group), treated with AEF (AEF group), in restraint stress (S group) and treated with AEF and in restraint stress (S+AEF group). Results showed that AEF reduces weight loss during lactation and increases spleen weight, increased IgA, IgG, T4, GSH-Px, and SOD in serum and decreased T3 and MDA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment with AEF declined HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, GR levels in liver and cFOS, GR mRNA levels in the Hypothalamus, GR mRNA levels in the pituitary (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the results of the intestine studies showed that AEF promoted relative abundances of Firmicutes and relieve intestinal injury in the colon of pigeons. These results indicated AEF enhanced stress resistance, immunity, production performance and antioxidant capacity of pigeons.


Assuntos
Epimedium , Ligustrum , Feminino , Animais , Antioxidantes , Columbidae , Galinhas , Melhoramento Vegetal , RNA Mensageiro
16.
J Avian Med Surg ; 36(3): 262-271, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36468803

RESUMO

Aspergillosis is a common disease in birds. Currently, avian aspergillosis is treated with voriconazole administered orally, although intramuscular (IM) administration increases bioavailability and is more effective in treating generalized aspergillosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of the intravenous formulation of voriconazole as an IM injection in the pectoral muscles of pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) as a model for other avian species. Sixteen healthy pigeons received IM injections of voriconazole (12.5 mg/kg) and sterile saline in the right and left pectoral muscles, respectively, twice a day for 7 days. Additionally, 4 birds acted as controls (no injections). Eight birds in the treatment group and 2 of the control pigeons were humanely euthanized 1 day (group 1) and 14 days (group 2) after the final injection. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry panels were performed prior to the birds being euthanized. Gross and histopathological evaluations of the pectoral muscles were completed postmortem. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in multiple parameters, including aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, but all biochemical analytes remained within the reference intervals for the species. The group 1 birds had advanced gross and histopathological pectoral muscle lesions associated with the voriconazole injections compared with the contralateral side, the group 2 birds, and the negative controls. After 14 days, the pectoral muscles did not reveal any gross or histopathological changes associated with the voriconazole or sterile saline injections. These results indicate that the intravenous formulation is safe for IM use twice per day for 1 week in pigeons. Further investigation is needed to extrapolate these findings to other avian species and to evaluate the roles of longer treatment periods and higher doses of voriconazole.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Columbidae , Animais , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Voriconazol/efeitos adversos , Aspergilose/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais
17.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 39(6): 1209-1217, 2022 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575091

RESUMO

Control at beyond-visual ranges is of great significance to animal-robots with wide range motion capability. For pigeon-robots, such control can be done by the way of onboard preprogram, but not constitute a closed-loop yet. This study designed a new control system for pigeon-robots, which integrated the function of trajectory monitoring to that of brain stimulation. It achieved the closed-loop control in turning or circling by estimating pigeons' flight state instantaneously and the corresponding logical regulation. The stimulation targets located at the formation reticularis medialis mesencephali (FRM) in the left and right brain, for the purposes of left- and right-turn control, respectively. The stimulus was characterized by the waveform mimicking the nerve cell membrane potential, and was activated intermittently. The wearable control unit weighted 11.8 g totally. The results showed a 90% success rate by the closed-loop control in pigeon-robots. It was convenient to obtain the wing shape during flight maneuver, by equipping a pigeon-robot with a vivo camera. It was also feasible to regulate the evolution of pigeon flocks by the pigeon-robots at different hierarchical level. All of these lay the groundwork for the application of pigeon-robots in scientific researches.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Robótica , Animais , Columbidae/fisiologia , Robótica/métodos , Córtex Cerebral
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553580

RESUMO

The breast muscle is essential for flight and determines the meat yield and quality of the meat type in pigeons. At present, studies about long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in skeletal muscles across the postnatal development of pigeons have not been reported. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing to examine the White-King pigeon breast muscle at four different ages (1 day, 14 days, 28 days, and 2 years old). We identified 12,918 mRNAs and 9158 lncRNAs (5492 known lncRNAs and 3666 novel lncRNAs) in the breast muscle, and 7352 mRNAs and 4494 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in the process of development. We found that highly expressed mRNAs were mainly related to cell-basic and muscle-specific functions. Differential expression and time-series analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were primarily associated with muscle development and functions, blood vessel development, cell cycle, and energy metabolism. To further predict the possible role of lncRNAs, we also conducted the WGCNA and trans/cis analyses. We found that differentially expressed lncRNAs such as lncRNA-LOC102093252, lncRNA-G12653, lncRNA-LOC110357465, lncRNA-G14790, and lncRNA-LOC110360188 might respectively target UBE2B, Pax7, AGTR2, HDAC1, Sox8 and participate in the development of the muscle. Our study provides a valuable resource for studying the lncRNAs and mRNAs of pigeon muscles and for improving the understanding of molecular mechanisms in muscle development.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Columbidae/genética , Columbidae/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22363, 2022 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572713

RESUMO

The pigeon food production industry from breeding to processing into food for market circulation involves many stages and people, which is prone to food safety issues and difficult to regulate. To address these problems, one possible solution is to establish a traceability system. However, in traditional traceability systems, a number of stages involved and each of them provides their own data accumulated in the database. Therefore, complex traceability data are compose of too many stages easily result in confusing information for customers. Besides, centralized data storage makes data vulnerable to be tampered with. To solve these problems, hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) principles have been utilized in our work which is a comprehensive traceability system. In this work, we analyze the pigeon food production industry through HACCP principles and determine some critical control points (CCPs), including incubation, breeding, transportation, slaughtering, processing, and logistics. With the help of these CCPs, we are able to build a traceability system with critical and abundant data but not too complicated for users. To further improve the system, there are different kinds of techniques integrated into it. Firstly, a permissioned blockchain, Hyperledger Fabric, is selected as blockchain module to enhance trustworthiness of data. Secondly, the system contains various IoT devices for automatically collecting environmental parameter data with the aim of reducing human interference. Besides, it is worth mentioning that the proposed information management device can decrease the data entry burden. Consequently, the implementation of the traceability system increase consumers' confidence in pigeon food production. To summarize, it is a new application of modern agricultural information technique in food safety and a bold experiment in the field of poultry, particularly pigeons.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Animais , Humanos , Columbidae , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22618, 2022 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585442

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization occurs among birds, and closely related sister taxa tend to hybridize at a high rate. Genomic hybridization markers are useful for understanding the patterns and processes of hybridization and for conserving endangered species in captivity and the wild. In this study, we developed genomic hybridization markers for the F1 progeny of the sister taxa feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and endangered hill pigeons (Columba rupestris) (family Columbidae). Using whole-genome re-sequencing data, we performed genome-wide analysis for insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms and validated using primers. We conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify species-specific InDels. We produced eight F1 hybrids of hill and feral pigeons, and their samples were tested by re-performing analyses and sequencing using 11 species-specific InDel polymorphisms. Eight InDel markers simultaneously amplified two DNA fragments from all F1 hybrids, and there was no abnormality in the sequencing results. The application of genomic tools to detect hybrids can play a crucial role in the assessment of hybridization frequency in the wild. Moreover, systematic captive propagation efforts with hybrids can help control the population decline of hill pigeons.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Columbidae/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
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