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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2020): 20232752, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593849

RESUMO

The repeated returns of vertebrates to the marine ecosystems since the Triassic serve as an evolutionary model to understand macroevolutionary change. Here we investigate the effects of the land-to-sea transition on disparity and constraint of the vertebral column in aquatic carnivorans (Carnivora; Pinnipedia) to assess how their functional diversity and evolutionary innovations influenced major radiations of crown pinnipeds. We use three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and multivariate analysis for high-dimensional data under a phylogenetic framework to quantify vertebral size and shape in living and extinct pinnipeds. Our analysis demonstrates an important shift in vertebral column evolution by 10-12 million years ago, from an unconstrained to a constrained evolutionary scenario, a point of time that coincides with the major radiation of crown pinnipeds. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the axial skeleton of phocids and otariids followed a different path of morphological evolution that was probably driven by their specialized locomotor strategies. Despite this, we found a significant effect of habitat preference (coastal versus pelagic) on vertebral morphology of crown taxa regardless of the family they belong. In summary, our analysis provides insights into how the land-to-sea transition influenced the complex evolutionary history of pinniped vertebral morphology.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Carnívoros , Animais , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
2.
J Biomech ; 164: 111951, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310005

RESUMO

The present paper describes a novel user-friendly fully-parametric thoraco-lumbar spine CAD model generator including the ribcage, based on 22 independent parameters (1 posterior vertebral body height per vertebra + 4 sagittal alignment parameters, namely pelvic incidence, sacral slope, L1-L5 lumbar lordosis, and T1-T12 thoracic kyphosis). Reliable third-order polynomial regression equations were implemented in Solidworks to analytically calculate 56 morphological dependent parameters and to automatically generate the spine CAD model based on primitive geometrical features. A standard spine CAD model, representing the case-study of an average healthy adult, was then created and positively assessed in terms of spinal anatomy, ribcage morphology, and sagittal profile. The immediate translation from CAD to FEM for relevant biomechanical analyses was successfully demonstrated, first, importing the CAD model into Abaqus, and then, iteratively calibrating the constitutive parameters of one lumbar and three thoracic FSUs, with particular interest on the hyperelastic material properties of the IVD, and the spinal and costo-vertebral ligaments. The credibility of the resulting lumbo-sacral and thoracic spine FEM with/without ribcage were assessed and validated throughout comparison with extensive in vitro and in vivo data both in terms of kinematics (range of motion) and dynamics (intradiscal pressure) either collected under pure bending moments and complex loading conditions (bending moments + axial compressive force).


Assuntos
Cifose , Lordose , Adulto , Humanos , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Sacro , Caixa Torácica , Pelve , Vértebras Lombares/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Torácicas/anatomia & histologia
3.
World Neurosurg ; 181: e459-e467, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37866782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The first sacral nerve root block (S1 NRB) is used to diagnose and treat lumbosacral and radicular pain. This study aims to clarify the anatomy of the S1 neural foramen using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images and to establish the optimal fluoroscopic angle, localize the S1 neural foramen on fluoroscopy, and determine the safe puncture depth for S1 NRB. METHODS: In this single-center cohort study, 200 patients with lumbar degenerative disease who underwent preoperative CT were enrolled. Four distinct studies were conducted using the CT data. Study 1 examined the correlation of the sacral slope angle and the supine and prone positions. Study 2 analyzed the tunnel view angle (TVA) using 3D reconstruction. Study 3 ascertained the location of the S1 neural foramen in fluoroscopy images. Study 4 investigated the safe depth for performing S1 NRB. RESULTS: The regression analysis in Study 1 revealed a correlation of the sacral slope angle and the supine and prone positions. Study 2 determined an optimal fluoroscopic TVA of approximately 30° for the S1 NRB. Study 3 found that the S1 neural foramen was located caudal to the L5 pedicle 1.7 ± 0.2 times the distance between the L4 and L5 pedicles. Study 4 revealed that the depths of the S1 neural foramen and root were 27.0 ± 2.1 mm and 16.5 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests an optimal fluoroscopic angle, a simple method to locate the S1 neural foramen on fluoroscopy, and an ideal puncture depth for a safe and effective S1 NRB.


Assuntos
Nervos Espinhais , Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/diagnóstico por imagem , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/cirurgia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/anatomia & histologia
4.
Evol Dev ; 26(1): e12460, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804483

RESUMO

Spinal regionalization has important implications for the evolution of vertebrate body plans. We determined the variation in the number and morphology of vertebrae across the vertebral column (i.e., vertebral formula) for 63 snake species representing 13 families using intracolumnar variation in vertebral shape. Vertebral counts were used to determine the position of the heart, pylorus, and left kidney for each species. Across all species we observed a conspicuous midthoracic transition in vertebral shape, indicating four developmental domains of the precloacal vertebral column (cervical, anterior thoracic, posterior thoracic, and lumbar). Using phylogenetic analyses, the boundary between the anterior and posterior thoracic vertebrae was correlated with heart position. No associations were found between shifts in morphology of the vertebral column and either the pylorus or left kidney. We observed that among taxa, the number of preapex and postapex vertebrae could change independently from one another and from changes in the total number of precloacal vertebrae. Ancestral state reconstruction of the preapex and postapex vertebrae illustrated several evolutionary pathways by which diversity in the vertebral column and heart position have been attained. In addition, no conspicuous pattern was observed among the heart, pylorus, or kidney indicating that their relative positions to each other evolve independently. We conclude that snakes exhibit four morphologically distinct regions of the vertebral column. We discuss the implications of the forebody and hindbody vertebral formula on the morphological diversification of snakes.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral , Vertebrados , Humanos , Animais , Filogenia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Serpentes/genética
5.
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol ; 340(6): 403-413, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37272301

RESUMO

Serially homologous structures may have complex patterns of regionalization and morphological integration, influenced by developmental Hox gene expression and functional constraints. The vertebral column, consisting of a number of repeated, developmentally constrained, and highly integrated units-vertebrae-is such a complex serially homologous structure. Functional diversification increases regionalization and modularity of the vertebral column, particularly in mammals. For salamanders, three concepts of regionalization of the vertebral column have been proposed, recognizing one, two, or three presacral regions. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on vertebra models acquired with microcomputerized tomography scanning, we explored the covariation of vertebrae in four closely related taxa of small-bodied newts in the genus Lissotriton. The data were analyzed by segmented linear regression to explore patterns of vertebral regionalization and by a two-block partial least squares method to test for morphological integration. All taxa show a morphological shift posterior to the fifth trunk vertebra, which corresponds to the two-region concept. However, morphological integration is found to be strongest in the mid-trunk. Taken jointly, these results indicate a highly integrated presacral vertebral column with a subtle two-region differentiation. The results are discussed in relation to specific functional requirements, developmental and phylogenetic constraints, and specific requirements posed by a biphasic life cycle and different locomotor modes (swimming vs. walking). Further research should be conducted on different ontogenetic stages and closely related but ecologically differentiated species.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Coluna Vertebral , Animais , Filogenia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Salamandridae , Genes Homeobox , Evolução Biológica
6.
J Morphol ; 284(6): e21591, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37183497

RESUMO

Muscles spanning multiple joints play important functional roles in a wide range of systems across tetrapods; however, their fundamental mechanics are poorly understood, particularly the consequences of anatomical position on mechanical advantage. Snakes provide an excellent study system for advancing this topic. They rely on the axial muscles for many activities, including striking, constriction, defensive displays, and locomotion. Moreover, those muscles span from one or a few vertebrae to over 30, and anatomy varies among muscles and among species. We characterized the anatomy of major epaxial muscles in a size series of corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) using diceCT scans, and then took several approaches to calculating contributions of each muscle to force and motion generated during body bending, starting from a highly simplistic model and moving to increasingly complex and realistic models. Only the most realistic model yielded equations that included the consequence of muscle span on torque-displacement trade-offs, as well as resolving ambiguities that arose from simpler models. We also tested whether muscle cross-sectional areas or lever arms (total magnitude or pitch/yaw/roll components) were related to snake mass, longitudinal body region (anterior, middle, posterior), and/or muscle group (semispinalis-spinalis, multifidus, longissimus dorsi, iliocostalis, and levator costae). Muscle cross-sectional areas generally scaled with positive allometry, and most lever arms did not depart significantly from geometric similarity (isometry). The levator costae had lower cross-sectional area than the four epaxial muscles, which did not differ significantly from each other in cross-sectional area. Lever arm total magnitudes and components differed among muscles. We found some evidence for regional variation, indicating that functional regionalization merits further investigation. Our results contribute to knowledge of snake muscles specifically and multiarticular muscle systems generally, providing a foundation for future comparisons across species and bioinspired multiarticular systems.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
7.
J Morphol ; 284(5): e21584, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36976835

RESUMO

This work reports on the structural characteristics of the respiratory gas bladder of the osteoglossiform fish Heterotis niloticus. The bladder-vertebrae relationships are also analyzed. A slit-shaped orifice in the mediodorsal pharyngeal wall is surrounded by a muscle sphincter and serves as a glottis-like opening to the gas bladder. The dorsolateral internal surface of the gas bladder is lined by a parenchyma of highly vascularized trabeculae and septa displaying an alveolar-like structure. The trabeculae contain, in addition to vessels, numerous eosinophils probably involved in immune responses. The air spaces are endowed with a thin exchange barrier indicating a good potential for respiratory gas exchange. The ventral wall of the gas bladder is a well-vascularized membrane that exhibits an exchange barrier in the luminal face and an inner structure dominated by the presence of a layer of richly innervated smooth muscle. This is suggestive of an autonomous adjustability of the gas bladder ventral wall. The trunk vertebrae show large transverse processes (parapophyses) and numerous surface openings that lead into intravertebral spaces that become invaded by the bladder parenchyma. Curiously, the caudal vertebrae show a regular teleost morphology with neural and hemal arches, but have similar surface openings and intravertebral pneumatic spaces. The African Arowana hence rivals the freshwater butterfly fish Pantodon in its exceptional role of displaying postcranial skeletal pneumaticity outside of Archosauria. The possible significance of these findings is discussed.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esponjoso , Faringe
8.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 306(10): 2466-2483, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36753432

RESUMO

This study reported the body mass (BM) estimates of the Middle Miocene fossil hominoid Nacholapithecus kerioi from Africa. The average BM estimates from all forelimb and hindlimb skeletal elements was 22.7 kg, which is slightly higher than the previously reported estimate of ~22 kg. This study revealed that Nacholapithecus has a unique body proportion with an enlarged forelimb relative to a smaller hindlimb, suggesting an antipronograde posture/locomotion, which may be related to the long clavicle, robust ribs, and some hominoid-like vertebral morphology. Because the BM of Nacholapithecus in this study was estimated to be below 30 kg, Nacholapithecus probably did not have relatively shorter and robust femora, which may result from other mechanical constraints, as seen in extant African hominoids. The BM estimate of Nacholapithecus suggests that full substantial modifications of the trunk and forelimb anatomy for risk avoidance and foraging efficiency, as seen in extant great apes, would not be expected in Nacholapithecus. Because larger monkeys are less arboreal (e.g., Mandrillus sphinx or Papio spp.), and the maximum BM among extant constant arboreal cercopithecoids is ~24 kg (male Nasalis larvatus), Nacholapithecus would be a constant arboreal primate. Although caution should be applied because of targeting only males in this study, arboreal quadrupedalism with upright posture and occasional antipronograde locomotion (e.g., climbing, chambering, descending, arm-swing, and sway) using the powerful grasping capacity of the hand and foot may be assumed for positional behavior of Nacholapithecus.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Masculino , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia
9.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 306(8): 2081-2089, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250235

RESUMO

Identifying fish species from their bone remains is employed in identifying the prey of aquatic animals. However, diagnostic skeletal descriptions are scarce for fish species prey found in the food of piscivorous birds and other marine predators in New Zealand. The present article addresses this knowledge gap, providing a diagnostic description for the vertebral column and the skeleton of the caudal fin of the Australian anchovy Engraulis australis inhabiting coastal waters in and around the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. The vertebral column of E. australis is divided into four morphologically distinct regions more complicated than the classical division in abdominal and caudal parts only and the drawing of characteristic-looking vertebral profiles. Each of these four regions is associated with characteristic vertebral profiles. These morphological descriptive parameters express a morphotype that may be linked with the swimming mode of the Australian anchovy. The skeleton of the caudal fin of E. australis showed distinctive characteristics that will be useful as diagnostic criteria to identify specimens of the Australian anchovy and separate them from the skeletal elements of other fish species found in the food of gannets and other marine predators in future studies.


Assuntos
Morus , Animais , Nova Zelândia , Austrália , Peixes , Aves , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Esqueleto
10.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 52(2): 289-299, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345666

RESUMO

The incidence of spinal cord (SC) injury in developed and undeveloped countries is alarming. The pig (Sus scrofa) has been recommended as a suitable research model for translational studies because of its morphophysiological similarities of organ systems with humans. There is a dearth of information on the SC anatomy of the large white and landrace crossbreed (LW-LC) pigs. We therefore aim to describe the gross morphology and morphometry of its SC. Twelve juvenile LW-LC pigs (six males and six females) were used. The skin and epaxial muscles were dissected to expose the vertebral column. The SC was carefully harvested by laminectomy, and 13 gross SC morphometric parameters were evaluated. Thirty-three spinal nerves were seen emanating from either side of the SC by means of dorsal and ventral spinal roots. The overall average of SC length and weight was 36.23 ± 1.01 cm and 16.60 ± 0.58 g, respectively. However, the mean SC length and weight were higher in females compared with males, with SC weight being statistically significant. A positive relationship between SC length and weight was significant for males (p = 0.0435) but not for females (p = 0.42). Likewise, the strength of the relationship between SC length and weight was significant in males (r = 0.82) but not significant in females (r = 0.41). Baseline data for the morphometric features of the spinal cord in the LW-LC pigs were generated, which will contribute to the knowledge of this species anatomy and useful information on regional anaesthesia that should further strengthen the drive in adopting the pig as a suitable research model for biomedical research.


Assuntos
Medula Espinal , Sus scrofa , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medula Espinal/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Suínos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22257, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564413

RESUMO

The development of the vertebral column has been studied extensively in modern amniotes, yet many aspects of its evolutionary history remain enigmatic. Here we expand the existing data on four major vertebral developmental patterns in amniotes based on exceptionally well-preserved specimens of the early Permian mesosaurid reptile Mesosaurus tenuidens: (i) centrum ossification, (ii) neural arch ossification, (iii) neural arch fusion, and (iv) neurocentral fusion. We retrace the evolutionary history of each pattern and reconstruct the ancestral condition in amniotes. Despite 300 million years of evolutionary history, vertebral development patterns show a surprisingly stability in amniotes since their common ancestor. We propose that this stability may be linked to conservatism in the constraints posed by underlying developmental processes across amniotes. We also point out that birds, mammals, and squamates each show specific trends deviating from the ancestral condition in amniotes, and that they remain rather unchanged within these lineages. The stability of their unique patterns demonstrates a certain homogeneity of vertebral developmental constraints within these lineages, which we suggest might be linked to their specific modes of regionalization. Our research provides a framework for the evolution of axial development in amniotes and a foundation for future studies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Osteogênese , Animais , Mamíferos , Répteis , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20844, 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36494410

RESUMO

The origin of the air sac system present in birds has been an enigma for decades. Skeletal pneumaticity related to an air sac system is present in both derived non-avian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. But the question remained open whether this was a shared trait present in the common avemetatarsalian ancestor. We analyzed three taxa from the Late Triassic of South Brazil, which are some of the oldest representatives of this clade (233.23 ± 0.73 Ma), including two sauropodomorphs and one herrerasaurid. All three taxa present shallow lateral fossae in the centra of their presacral vertebrae. Foramina are present in many of the fossae but at diminutive sizes consistent with neurovascular rather than pneumatic origin. Micro-tomography reveals a chaotic architecture of dense apneumatic bone tissue in all three taxa. The early sauropodomorphs showed more complex vascularity, which possibly served as the framework for the future camerate and camellate pneumatic structures of more derived saurischians. Finally, the evidence of the absence of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in the oldest dinosaurs contradicts the homology hypothesis for an invasive diverticula system and suggests that this trait evolved independently at least 3 times in pterosaurs, theropods, and sauropodomorphs.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Sacos Aéreos , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Aves , Osso e Ossos , Fósseis , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia
13.
PeerJ ; 10: e13818, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046504

RESUMO

In 2009, the historical mount of the holotype of Nothosaurus mirabilis from the Upper Muschelkalk of Oschenberg (Laineck Mountain Range, near Bayreuth, southern Germany) was disassembled and the original postcranial skeleton was reworked and remounted in find position. Its morphology is described and figured for the first time in detail. Further on, a thorough overview of the sedimentary environment and the historical activities around the Upper Muschelkalk quarries in the vicinity of Bayreuth is given. The holotype of N. mirabilis is one out of only two fairly complete nothosaur skeletons known from the Bayreuth Upper Muschelkalk and greatly emends our knowledge of the morphology of the species and the genus. It will further allow an assignment of isolated elements to this taxon. The specimen consists of an articulated and complete neck and anterior trunk vertebral column as well as several articulated parts of the anterior tail region. The sacral region is partially preserved but disarticulated. Besides vertebrae, ribs and gastral fragments, both humeri, the right femur, few zeugopodial and autopodial elements, and the right pelvic girdle are preserved. The very high neural spines of the holotype are stabilized by a supersized zygosphene-zygantrum articulation reaching far dorsally. Together with the large intercentral spaces this character suggests lateral undulation of the trunk region during fast swimming whereas propelling with the broad and wing-shaped humerus and the flat ulna was used during slower swimming. The total body length for this not fully grown individual is reconstructed as between 290 to 320 cm. Preservation, degree of completeness, and articulation of the individual is unique. The skull and shoulder girdle are both lost, whereas articulated strings of the vertebral column have turned and appendicular bones have shifted posteriorly or anteriorly, respectively, indicating water movements and possibly also scavenging.


Assuntos
Mirabilis , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Úmero , Fêmur
14.
J Anat ; 241(6): 1387-1398, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981708

RESUMO

Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity, air-filled bones of the trunk and limbs, is exclusive to birds among extant tetrapods and exhibits significant variation in its expression among different species. Such variation is not random but exhibits relationships with both body mass and locomotor specializations. Most species-level comparative research to date has focused on aquatic-oriented taxa (e.g., Anseriformes). The lack of data from non-aquatic birds constrains our ability to characterize global (i.e., avian-wide) patterns of this trait complex. To address this gap, the study conducted herein quantified postcranial pneumaticity in Accipitrimorphae, a mostly terrestrial clade composed of species that span a range of body sizes and exhibit diverse flight/foraging behaviors. All examined species (n = 88) invariably pneumatized the postaxial through pre-caudal vertebrae, sternum, coracoid, humerus, vertebral and sternal ribs, and pelvic girdle, a pattern herein referred to as the accipitrimorph baseline. Of the 88 sampled species, 41 expanded upon this pattern, whereas 10 species exhibited a reduction. No species deviated from the accipitrimorph baseline by more than two anatomical regions. A phylogenetically-informed regression analysis failed to identify a significant relationship between body mass and pneumaticity. However, specific pneumaticity phenotypes deviating from the baseline were correlated with aspects of wing morphology, tail length, and home range size. Results from this and previous studies provide clarity on two hypotheses: (1) aquatic taxa display distinct pneumaticity expression patterns relative to non-aquatic birds, notably with reductions in the proportion of the skeleton filled with air in diving specialists and (2) contemporary comparative studies, including the one herein, that explicitly account for phylogenetic relationships consistently fail to support the oft-cited positive relationship between pneumaticity and body mass. Instead, historical relationships and functional/ecological attributes (e.g., diving, specialized flight behaviors) appear to be the primary drivers underlying patterns of variation in this trait complex.


Assuntos
Aves , Osso e Ossos , Animais , Filogenia , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal , Evolução Biológica
15.
J Anat ; 241(3): 716-728, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488423

RESUMO

Caecilians are elongate, limbless and annulated amphibians that, as far as is known, all have an at least partly fossorial lifestyle. It has been suggested that elongate limbless vertebrates show little morphological differentiation throughout the postcranial skeleton. However, relatively few studies have explored the axial skeleton in limbless tetrapods. In this study, we used µCT data and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to explore regional differences in vertebral shape across a broad range of caecilian species. Our results highlight substantial differences in vertebral shape along the axial skeleton, with anterior vertebrae being short and bulky, whereas posterior vertebrae are more elongated. This study shows that despite being limbless, elongate tetrapods such as caecilians still show regional heterogeneity in the shape of individual vertebrae along the vertebral column. Further studies are needed, however, to understand the possible causes and functional consequences of the observed variation in vertebral shape in caecilians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Coluna Vertebral , Anfíbios/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
J Anat ; 240(6): 1005-1019, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332552

RESUMO

Dicraeosaurid sauropods are iconically characterized by the presence of elongate hemispinous processes in presacral vertebrae. These hemispinous processes can show an extreme degree of elongation, such as in the Argentinean forms Amargasaurus cazaui, Pilmatueia faundezi and Bajadasaurus pronuspinax. These hyperelongated hemispinous processes have been variably interpreted as a support structure for a padded crest/sail as a display, a bison-like hump or as the internal osseous cores of cervical horns. With the purpose to test these hypotheses, here we analyze, for the first time, the external morphology, internal microanatomy and bone microstructure of the hemispinous processes from the holotype of Amargasaurus, in addition to a second dicraeosaurid indet. (also from the La Amarga Formatin; Lower Cretaceous, Argentina). Transverse thin-sections sampled from the proximal, mid and distal portions of both cervical and dorsal hemispinous processes reveal that the cortical bone is formed by highly vascularized fibrolamellar bone interrupted with cyclical growth marks. Obliquely oriented Sharpey's fibres are mostly located in the medial and lateral portions of the cortex. Secondary remodelling is evidenced by the presence of abundant secondary osteons irregularly distributed within the cortex. Both anatomical and histological evidence does not support the presence of a keratinized sheath (i.e. horn) covering the hyperelongated hemispinous processes of Amargasaurus, and either, using a parsimonious criterium, in other dicraeosaurids with similar vertebral morphology. The spatial distribution and relative orientation of the Sharpey's fibres suggest the presence of an important system of interspinous ligaments that possibly connect successive hemispinous processes in Amargasaurus. These ligaments were distributed along the entirety of the hemispinous processes. The differential distribution of secondary osteons indicates that the cervical hemispinous processes of Amargasaurus were subjected to mechanical forces that generated higher compression strain on the anterior side of the elements. Current data support the hypothesis for the presence of a 'cervical sail' in Amargasaurus and other dicraeosaurids.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Ósteon , Ligamentos/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 47-54, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365749

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To study the parameters related to the insertion path of cortical screws and to describe this technique. Methods Computed tomography (CT) scans of 30 patients, as well as the measurements from the L1 to the L5 vertebrae, were studied. A second observer evaluated ten randomly-selected exams. The parameters studied included the lateral angle (LA) and the screw diameter (SD) as axial variables, and the cranial angle (CA) and screw length (SL) as sagittal variables. Results We studied 15 male patients (mean age: 31.33 years) and 15 female patients (mean age: 32.01 years). The LA varied between 13.8° and 20.89°, with a tendency to increase in the proximal to distal direction. The CA varied from 17.5° to 24.9°, with a tendency to decrease in the caudal direction. The SD ranged from 2.3 mm to 7.2 mm, with a tendency to increase as we progressed from proximal to distal. The SL varied from 19 mm to 45 mm, with a tendency to decrease as we proceeded from proximal (L1) to distal (L5). No statistical difference was observed between the genders or in the interobserver agreement regarding the values studied when comparing the sides. Conclusion The path of insertion of the cortical screw shows a variation in different populations. Therefore, we recommend a preoperative imaging study to reduce the surgical risks related to the technique.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar os parâmetros anatômicos do trajeto de inserção do parafuso cortical e descrever sua técnica. Métodos Analisaram-se exames de tomografia computadorizada de 30 pacientes, e as medidas nas vértebras de L1 a L5 bilateralmente. Um segundo observador avaliou dez exames aleatoriamente. Os parâmetros incluíram o ângulo lateral (AL) e o diâmetro do parafuso (DP) como variáveis axiais, e o ângulo cranial (AC) e o comprimento do parafuso (CP) como variáveis sagitais. Resultados No total, havia 15 pacientes do sexo masculino (média de idade de 31,33 anos) e 15 do sexo feminino (média de idade de 32,01 anos). O AL variou de 13,8° a 20,89°, com uma tendência de aumento no sentido de proximal a distal. O AC variou de 17,5° a 24,9°, com tendência de diminuição no sentido caudal. O DP variou de 2,3 mm a 7,2 mm, havendo uma tendência ao aumento conforme avançamos de proximal a distal. O CP variou de 19 mm a 45 mm, havendo uma tendência de diminuição conforme avançamos de proximal (L1) a distal (L5). Não houve diferença estatística entre os sexos, nem diferenças na confiabilidade interobservador, quanto aos valores estudados quando comparados os lados. Conclusão A trajetória do parafuso de trajeto cortical apresenta variações em diferentes populações. Assim, recomendamos o estudo pré-operatório de imagens para reduzir os riscos cirúrgicos relacionados à técnica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Parafusos Ósseos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos
19.
J Anat ; 240(4): 639-646, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761388

RESUMO

The salamander vertebral column is largely undifferentiated with a series of more or less uniform rib-bearing presacral vertebrae traditionally designated as the trunk region. We explored regionalization of the salamander trunk in seven species and two subspecies of the salamander genus Lissotriton by the combination of microcomputed tomography scanning and geometric morphometrics. The detailed information on trunk vertebral shape was subjected to a multidimensional cluster analysis and a phenotypic trajectory analysis. With these complementary approaches, we observed a clear morphological regionalization. Clustering analysis showed that the anterior trunk vertebrae (T1 and T2) have distinct morphologies that are shared by all taxa, whereas the subsequent, more posterior vertebrae show significant disparity between species. The phenotypic trajectory analysis revealed that all taxa share a common pattern and amount of shape change along the trunk region. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis of a conserved anterior-posterior developmental patterning which can be associated with different functional demands, reflecting (sub)species' and, possibly, regional ecological divergences within species.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral , Tronco , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Salamandridae , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
Eur Spine J ; 31(2): 233-240, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463863

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the normal values of the sagittal spinal parameters and analyze the distribution of the global spinal profiles in a Chinese population with age over 75. METHODS: Two hundred and twelve sets of the whole spine lateral radiographs were obtained from a database of an asymptomatic elderly population. Global and regional spinal parameters were measured. Sagittal profiles were determined according to the Roussouly classification compared with previous studies involving different populations. RESULTS: A total of 102 elderly subjects (≥ 75 years) were enrolled with an average age of 79.24 ± 3.53 years. The mean values of the spinopelvic parameters were 42.89 ± 11.64° for TK, 13.84 ± 10.78° for TLK, 44.48 ± 12.88° for LL, 44.76 ± 9.84° for PI, 17.19 ± 8.08° for PT, 28.35 ± 7.94° for SS, 3.47 ± 3.56 cm for SVA, 14.75 ± 7.85° for TPA, -0.27 ± 11.95° for PI-LL, respectively. Subjects ≥ 75 years were found to have significantly smaller LL and SS, but greater TLK, PT, SVA, TPA, and PI-LL than those 60-74 years (p < 0.05). Significant age- and sex-dependent differences were found in the Roussouly classification's distribution between the two subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The normal values of the sagittal parameters were presented in the elderly Chinese asymptomatic population (≥ 75 years). Ethnic, age, and sex displayed significant effects on the behaviors of the sagittal spinal balance and profiles. These results could be served as physiological references for the planning of surgical strategies in elderly Chinese patients over 75 years.


Assuntos
Lordose , Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Povo Asiático , China , Humanos , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares , Radiografia , Valores de Referência , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
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