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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-17, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765409

RESUMO

Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species' behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.(AU)


O comportamento é uma característica útil para estudos comparativos que fornecem a compreensão das relações filogenéticas entre as espécies. Apresentamos aqui uma descrição do repertório comportamental de duas espécies de ratos-de-espinho Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). Os padrões comportamentais afiliativos e agonísticos foram amostrados durante um estudo de três anos em populações de animais silvestres em cativeiro. Os dados foram coletados em duas fases sob diferentes arranjos de indivíduos em grupos sociais. Comparamos as características comportamentais de T. setosus e C. laticeps com as da espécie mais conhecida, T. yonenagae. Adicionamos categorias às descrições anteriores de T. setosus, e um etograma padrão para C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus mostrou uma exibição visual e vocal que chamamos de saltitar, que não foi descrito nesta forma e função para outras espécies do gênero estudado até agora. Discutimos diferenças nos níveis de socialidade e similaridades e diferenças entre os padrões comportamentais e repertórios.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Roedores , Comportamento Animal
2.
Stress ; 25(1): 276-290, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920240

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms of trauma-related disorders are challenging to discover and the disorders are difficult to treat, in part due to the complex and varied expressions of response to traumatic stress. These challenges will be easier to overcome as more is understood about the variability in response to trauma. Incorporating assessment of variability into animal models of traumatic stress may allow better translation to clinical research and treatment development. In this study, we characterized variability in behavioral responses following traumatic stress exposure using a predator exposure (PE) animal model. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (SR) were used to study avoidance and arousal symptoms in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Behavioral data were compared between control (n = 31) and predator-exposed (n = 30) rats. PE behavior was clustered using k-means principal components analysis. Four clusters and three distinct subgroups were identified and were characterized as avoidant (Cluster 4, 30%), moderately avoidant (Clusters 2 and 3, 49%), and unaffected (Cluster 1, 17%). These results demonstrate that rodent responses to PE are varied, similar to human presentations following traumatic stress, suggesting it may be possible to develop treatment strategies for varied symptom presentations using a preclinical animal model.


Assuntos
Reflexo de Sobressalto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
3.
Can Vet J ; 63(8): 835-840, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919461

RESUMO

This case study describes a severe tail-biting event on a multi-site swine operation in Ontario and outlines the management strategies implemented in an attempt to control the problem. An established social order was clearly present before the tail-biting event occurred. Over 40% of tail-docked pigs in 3 of 8 grower-finisher barns were severely affected, leading to higher mortality and increased numbers of pigs re-housed in hospital pens. Environmental factors, management practices, and animal health in the barns experiencing the tail-biting event are described, including detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in corn at > 2 ppm. Changes implemented in response to tail-biting included altering the phase-feeding schedule, adding enrichment devices, and increasing surveillance. The subsequent cohort of pigs was followed through the finisher barns and did not engage in the same severity or prevalence of tail-biting as the previous cohort of pigs which experienced the tail-biting event. Key clinical message: No single factor was identified as the initiating cause for the severe tail-biting event. The subsequent cohort of pigs in 4 barns of the same operation were monitored for tail-biting from entry until market, and the incidence of tail-biting was very low.


Un cas de caudophagie dans une exploitation porcine à sites multiples en Ontario. Cette étude de cas décrit un cas grave de caudophagie dans une exploitation porcine à sites multiples en Ontario et décrit les stratégies de gestion mises en oeuvre pour tenter de limiter le problème. Un ordre social établi était clairement présent avant que l'événement de mordillage de queue ne se produise. Plus de 40 % des porcs à la queue coupée dans trois des huit élevages de type croissance-finition ont été gravement touchés, ce qui a entraîné une mortalité plus élevée et un nombre accru de porcs relogés dans des enclos hospitaliers. Les facteurs environnementaux, les pratiques de gestion et la santé animale dans les porcheries où sévissaient la caudophagie sont décrits, y compris la détection de la mycotoxine désoxynivalénol dans le maïs à > 2 ppm. Les changements mis en oeuvre en réponse à la caudophagie comprenaient la modification du calendrier d'alimentation par phases, l'ajout de dispositifs d'enrichissement et l'augmentation de la surveillance. La cohorte suivante de porcs a été suivie dans les porcheries de finition et n'a pas eu la même gravité ou prévalence de caudophagie que la cohorte précédente de porcs qui ont subi l'événement de caudophagie.Message clinique clé :Aucun facteur unique n'a été identifié comme la cause initiale de l'événement grave de caudophagie. La cohorte suivante de porcs dans quatre porcheries de la même exploitation a été surveillée pour la caudophagie depuis l'entrée jusqu'au marché, et l'incidence de la caudophagie était très faible.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças dos Suínos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Humanos , Incidência , Ontário , Suínos , Cauda/cirurgia
4.
Cell Rep ; 40(5): 111161, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926455

RESUMO

Gestational exposure to environmental toxins and socioeconomic stressors is epidemiologically linked to neurodevelopmental disorders with strong male bias, such as autism. We model these prenatal risk factors in mice by co-exposing pregnant dams to an environmental pollutant and limited-resource stress, which robustly activates the maternal immune system. Only male offspring display long-lasting behavioral abnormalities and alterations in the activity of brain networks encoding social interactions. Cellularly, prenatal stressors diminish microglial function within the anterior cingulate cortex, a central node of the social coding network, in males during early postnatal development. Precise inhibition of microglial phagocytosis within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of wild-type (WT) mice during the same critical period mimics the impact of prenatal stressors on a male-specific behavior, indicating that environmental stressors alter neural circuit formation in males via impairing microglia function during development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia , Gravidez
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806185

RESUMO

The present study investigates whether predator scent-stress (PSS) shifts the microglia from a quiescent to a chronically activated state and whether morphological alterations in microglial activation differ between individuals displaying resilient vs. vulnerable phenotypes. In addition, we examined the role that GC receptors play during PSS exposure in the impairment of microglial activation and thus in behavioral response. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to PSS or sham-PSS for 15 min. Behaviors were assessed with the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) paradigms 7 days later. Localized brain expression of Iba-1 was assessed, visualized, and classified based on their morphology and stereological counted. Hydrocortisone and RU486 were administered systemically 10 min post PSS exposure and behavioral responses were measured on day 7 and hippocampal expression of Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was subsequently evaluated. Animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (PTSD-phenotype) selectively displayed excessive expression of Iba-1 with concomitant downregulation in the expression of CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in hippocampal structures as compared with rats whose behavior was minimally or partially disrupted. Changes in microglial morphology have also been related only to the PTSD-phenotype group. These data indicate that PSS-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus serves as a critical mechanistic link between the HPA-axis and PSS-induced impairment in behavioral responses.


Assuntos
Reflexo de Sobressalto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Microglia/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2602276, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813234

RESUMO

Depression is a serious public health problem and an important factor leading to disease-related disability. Influenced by many factors, such as psychological, hormonal, and genetic factors, the incidence rate of depression in females is approximately two times that in males. However, in preclinical neuroscience research, the selection of the animals' sex for use in depression models has been controversial. At present, in most preclinical studies, the animals generally chosen in depression models have been male rodents rather than female rodents. It remains doubtful whether the data obtained from male animals can be generalized to female animals. The performance of female animals in preclinical studies of depression has been inconclusive. Based on a review of a large number of original studies in the PubMed database, it was found that although male rodents are more commonly used in the study of depression, the use of female animals also shows good modeling of depression and has its advantages. The influence of the animals' sex in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model needs further research.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9943598, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818443

RESUMO

Objective: Red raspberry serves as a proven natural product to produce anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer functions, but limited findings are available on its effects on depression. This study, by using a chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS-) induced depression model, thus investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of red raspberry extract (RRE) on depressive behavior, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Methods: Different treatments were given after random grouping of Sprague-Dawley rats, including no intervention (control), CUMS induction, and CUMS+different concentrations of RRE, and subsequently, depression-like behavior tests were performed. HE staining was designed to observe the pathological damage of the hippocampal tissue in rats. The levels of oxidative stress, endocrine hormones, and inflammatory factors were determined by biochemical assay and ELISA, and gene expression (mRNA and protein) in the hippocampal tissue by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results: On completion of CUMS treatment, the rats showed severe depression-like behavior, with obvious hippocampal tissue damage, oxidative inflammatory response, and endocrine imbalance. Importantly, RRE treatment significantly improved such depression-like behavior and attenuated histopathological damage in CUMS rats when reducing inflammation and oxidative stress and endocrine imbalance with upregulation of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and interleukin- (IL-) 10 and downregulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1ß, cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and human macrophage chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1. In addition, for CUMS rats, RRE was a contributor to increasingly expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 2 (TrkB), and p-mTOR but inhibited p-GSK-3ß expression in the hippocampal tissue. All the above antidepressant effects of RRE were concentration-dependent. Conclusion: By regulating neuroinflammation, oxidative stress response, endocrine level, and BDNF/TrkB level, RRE showed potential efficacy in alleviating depression-like behavior and histopathological damage of hippocampal tissue in CUMS rats by regulating the GSK3ß and mTOR signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Rubus , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12128, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840600

RESUMO

Humans' individual differences including their demographics, personality, attitudes and experiences are often associated with important outcomes for the animals they interact with. This is pertinent to companion animals such as cats and dogs, given their social and emotional importance to humans and degree of integration into human society. However, the mechanistic underpinnings and causal relationships that characterise links between human individual differences and companion animal behaviour and wellbeing are not well understood. In this exploratory investigation, we firstly quantified the underlying structure of, and variation in, human's styles of behaviour during typical human-cat interactions (HCI), focusing on aspects of handling and interaction known to be preferred by cats (i.e. 'best practice'), and their variation. We then explored the potential significance of various human individual differences as predictors of these HCI styles. Seven separate HCI styles were identified via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) from averaged observations for 119 participants, interacting with sociable domestic cats within a rehoming context. Using General Linear Models (GLMs) and an Information Theoretic (IT) approach, we found these HCI PC components were weakly to strongly predicted by factors including cat-ownership history, participant personality (measured via the Big Five Inventory, or BFI), age, work experience with animals and participants' subjective ratings of their cat behaviour knowledge. Paradoxically, greater cat ownership experiences and self-assessed cat knowledge were not positively associated with 'best practice' styles of HCI, but were instead generally predictive of HCI styles known to be less preferred by cats, as was greater participant age and Neuroticism. These findings have important implications regarding the quality of human-companion animal relationships and dyadic compatibility, in addition to the role of educational interventions and their targeting for optimal efficacy. In the context of animal adoption, these results strengthen the (limited) evidence base for decision making associated with cat-adopter screening and matching. In particular, our results suggest that greater cat ownership experiences and self-reports of cat knowledge might not necessarily convey advantages for cats in the context of HCI.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Propriedade , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Gatos , Cães , Emoções , Humanos , Personalidade
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(6): 3703, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778194

RESUMO

The active space is a central bioacoustic concept to understand communication networks and animal behavior. Propagation of biological acoustic signals has often been studied in homogeneous environments using an idealized circular active space representation, but few studies have assessed the variations of the active space due to environment heterogeneities and transmitter position. To study these variations for mountain birds like the rock ptarmigan, we developed a sound propagation model based on the parabolic equation method that accounts for the topography, the ground effects, and the meteorological conditions. The comparison of numerical simulations with measurements performed during an experimental campaign in the French Alps confirms the capacity of the model to accurately predict sound levels. We then use this model to show how mountain conditions affect surface and shape of active spaces, with topography being the most significant factor. Our data reveal that singing during display flights is a good strategy to adopt for a transmitter to expand its active space in such an environment. Overall, our study brings new perspectives to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of communication networks.


Assuntos
Aves , Som , Acústica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Reprodução
10.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 82(2): 217-225, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833821

RESUMO

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) sends neural pathways to structures involved on predator­related defensive behaviours, escape and antinociception. The aim of this study was to investigate the role played by µ-opioid receptors located on LH neurons in defensive behaviour and unconditioned fear­induced antinociception elicited by electric stimulation of LH. To achieve the goals, the µ1-opioid receptor selective antagonist naloxonazine was administered at different concentrations in the LH, and the defensive behaviour and fear­induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of LH were evaluated. The electrical stimulation of LH caused escape behaviour followed by defensive antinociception. Microinjections of naloxonazine in a concentration of 5.0 µg/0.2 µL in the LH decreased the aversive stimulus­induced escape behaviour thresholds, but diminished defensive antinociception. These findings suggest that µ-opioid receptors of LH can be critical to panic attack­related symptoms and facilitate the unconditioned fear­induced antinociception produced by LH neurons activation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral , Transtorno de Pânico , Receptores Opioides mu , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bicuculina/farmacologia , Medo/fisiologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/metabolismo , Naloxona/análogos & derivados , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Nociceptividade , Pânico/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/metabolismo , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Opioides mu/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo
11.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(8): 1061-1076, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842551

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant that is widely prescribed to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, but it is abused recreationally as well. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is part of the motivation circuit implicated in drug-seeking behaviors. The NAc neuronal activity was recorded alongside the behavioral activity from young and adult rats to determine if there are significant differences in the response to MPD. The same dose of MPD elicits behavioral sensitization in some animals and behavioral tolerance in others. In adult animals, higher doses of MPD resulted in a greater ratio of tolerance/sensitization. Animals who responded to chronic MPD with behavioral sensitization usually exhibited further increases in their NAc neuronal firing rates as well. Different upregulations of transcription factors (ΔFOSB/CREB), variable proportions of D1/D2 dopamine receptors, and modulation from other brain areas may predispose certain animals to express behavioral and neuronal sensitization versus tolerance to MPD.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Metilfenidato , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 45(8): 1124-1132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908894

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms, including impairments in social behavior and repetitive interests. Recent studies have revealed that individuals with ASD also display decreased empathy, ultimately leading to difficulties in social relationships; however, another report indicated that individuals with ASD have enhanced emotional empathy. Nonetheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying altered empathy in individuals with ASD remain unclear. In this study, we assessed empathy-like behaviors in valproic acid (VPA)-treated mice-a mouse model of ASD with observational fear learning. We then investigated the brain regions and signaling systems responsible for the altered empathy-like behaviors in VPA-treated mice. As a result, mice prenatally exposed to VPA displayed increased empathy-like behaviors, which were not attributed to altered sensitivity to auditory stimuli or enhanced memory for pain-related contexts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of c-Fos positive oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was significantly higher in VPA-treated mice after observational fear learning. Finally, we found that pretreatment with L-368899, an antagonist of the oxytocin receptor, repressed the empathetic behavior in VPA-treated mice. These results suggest that VPA-treated ASD model animals showed increased emotional empathy-like behaviors through the hyperactivation of PVN oxytocinergic neurons for the first time. Further investigation of this hyperactivity will help to identify extrinsic stimuli and the condition which are capable of activation of PVN oxytocinergic neurons and to identify novel approach to enhance oxytocin signaling, which ultimately pave the way to development of novel therapy for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Social , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia
13.
Anim Cogn ; 25(4): 975-990, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781584

RESUMO

Emotional states of animals influence their cognitive processes as well as their behavior. Assessing emotional states is important for animal welfare science as well as for many fields of neuroscience, behavior science, and biomedicine. This can be done in different ways, e.g. through assessing animals' physiological states or interpreting their behaviors. This paper focuses on the so-called cognitive judgment bias test, which has gained special attention in the last 2 decades and has become a highly important tool for measuring emotional states in non-human animals. However, less attention has been given to the epistemology of the cognitive judgment bias test and to disentangling the relevance of different steps in the underlying cognitive mechanisms. This paper sheds some light on both the epistemology of the methods and the architecture of the underlying cognitive abilities of the tested animals. Based on this reconstruction, we propose a scheme for classifying and assessing different cognitive abilities involved in cognitive judgment bias tests.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Julgamento , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Viés , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 286, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851573

RESUMO

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) have been major targets in medication development for the treatment of substance use disorders. However, clinical trials with rimonabant, a CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist, failed due to severe side effects. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of PIMSR, a neutral CB1R antagonist lacking an inverse agonist profile, against cocaine's behavioral effects in experimental animals. We found that systemic administration of PIMSR dose-dependently inhibited cocaine self-administration under fixed-ratio (FR5), but not FR1, reinforcement, shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve downward, decreased incentive motivation to seek cocaine under progressive-ratio reinforcement, and reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. PIMSR also inhibited oral sucrose self-administration. Importantly, PIMSR alone is neither rewarding nor aversive as assessed by place conditioning. We then used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to explore the possible involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system in PIMSR's action. We found that PIMSR dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-enhanced ICSS maintained by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle in rats. PIMSR itself failed to alter electrical ICSS, but dose-dependently inhibited ICSS maintained by optical stimulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in transgenic DAT-Cre mice, suggesting the involvement of dopamine-dependent mechanisms. Lastly, we examined the CB1R mechanisms underlying PIMSR's action. We found that PIMSR pretreatment attenuated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)- or ACEA (a selective CB1R agonist)-induced reduction in optical ICSS. Together, our findings suggest that the neutral CB1R antagonist PIMSR deserves further research as a promising pharmacotherapeutic for cocaine use disorder.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cocaína/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Dopamina , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Autoadministração
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 288, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859084

RESUMO

Maternal immune activation (MIA) is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing mental illness in adulthood, which often co-occurs with alcohol misuse. The current study aimed to begin to determine whether MIA, combined with adolescent alcohol exposure (AE), could be used as a model with which we could study the neurobiological mechanisms behind such co-occurring disorders. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with polyI:C or saline on gestational day 15. Half of the offspring were given continuous access to alcohol during adolescence, leading to four experimental groups: controls, MIA, AE, and Dual (MIA + AE). We then evaluated whether MIA and/or AE alter: (1) alcohol consumption; (2) locomotor behavior; and (3) cortical-striatal-hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) in adult offspring. Dual rats, particularly females, drank significantly more alcohol in adulthood compared to all other groups. MIA led to reduced locomotor behavior in males only. Using machine learning to build predictive models from LFPs, we were able to differentiate Dual rats from control rats and AE rats in both sexes, and Dual rats from MIA rats in females. These data suggest that Dual "hits" (MIA + AE) increases substance use behavior and disrupts activity in reward-related circuits, and that this may be a valuable heuristic model we can use to study the neurobiological underpinnings of co-occurring disorders. Our future work aims to extend these findings to other addictive substances to enhance the translational relevance of this model, as well as determine whether amelioration of these circuit disruptions can reduce substance use behavior.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo , Humanos , Masculino , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12796, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896574

RESUMO

Honey bees are vital pollinators and can be used to monitor the landscape. Consequently, interest in mounting technologies onto bees to track foraging behaviors is increasing. The barrier to entry is steep, in part because the methodology for fastening tags to bees, and the success rates, are often missing from publications. We tested six factors suspected to influence the presence and tag retention rates of nurse honey bees after their introduction to hives, and followed bees until foraging age. We also compared reintroducing foragers to their maternal colony using the best method for nurse bees to releasing them in front of their maternal hive and allowing them to fly back unaided. Nurses were most likely to be present in the hive with their tag still attached when introduced using an introduction cage at night. Glue type was important, but may further be influenced by tag material. Foragers were most likely to be present with a tag attached if released in front of their colony. Preparation and introduction techniques influence the likelihood of tagged honey bee survival and of the tags remaining attached, which should be considered when executing honey bee tagging and tracking experiments.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Abelhas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Humanos
17.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 173(3): 326-329, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852685

RESUMO

We studied the effects of bioresonance application on mice with depressive-like behavior induced by stress. A chronic mild stress model was developed in mice to monitor the effects of bioresonance application. After that, behavioral tests were performed. In the forced swimming test, the animals of the long bioresonance therapy demonstrated shorter group immobility time in comparison with mice of the stress group and stress group without therapy (animals of this group were sacrificed at the same time point as therapy groups in order to reveal a possibility of spontaneously recover in animals after stress without therapy). In the tail suspension test, a decrease in immobility time was observed in the long bioresonance therapy group, stress group, and stress without therapy group. These changes in behavioral test results can indicate that the application of bioresonance in mice can be an effective method of treating depressive-like behavior, but these conclusions should be supported by additional experimental studies and the use of different frequencies.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico , Natação
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1979): 20220658, 2022 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35855605

RESUMO

Parental care has been gained and lost evolutionarily multiple times. While many studies have focused on the origin of care, few have explored the evolutionary loss of care. Understanding the loss of parental care is important as the conditions that favour its loss will not necessarily be the opposite of those that favour the evolution of care. Evolutionary hysteresis (the case in which evolution depends on the history of a system) could create a situation in which it is relatively challenging to lose care once it has evolved. Here, using a mathematical approach, we explore the evolutionary loss of parental care in relation to basic life-history conditions. Our results suggest that parental care is most likely to be lost when egg and adult death rates are low, eggs mature quickly, and the level of care provided is high. We also predict evolutionary hysteresis with respect to egg maturation rate: as egg maturation rate decreases, it becomes increasingly more costly to lose care than to gain it. This suggests that once care is present, it will be particularly challenging for it to be lost if eggs develop slowly.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Reprodução , Animais , Comportamento Animal
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806264

RESUMO

Stress susceptibility could play a role in developing premenstrual anxiety due to abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impairments in the GABAA receptors' benzodiazepine (BDZ) site. Hence, we studied the stress-vulnerable Wistar Kyoto rat strain (WKY) to evaluate progesterone withdrawal (PW) effects on anxiety, HPA axis response, and to explore indicators of GABAA functionality in the BDZ site. For five days, ovariectomized WKY rats were administered 2.0 mg/kg of progesterone. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, rats were tested in the anxiety-like burying behavior test (BBT) or elevated plus maze test (EPM), and corticosterone was determined. [3H]Flunitrazepam binding autoradiography served as the BDZ binding site index of the GABAA receptor in amygdala nuclei and hippocampus's dentate gyrus (DG). Finally, different doses of diazepam in PW-WKY rats were tested in the BBT. PW induced anxiety-like behaviors in both BBT and EPM compared with No-PW rats. PW increased corticosterone, but was blunted when combined with PW and BBT. PW increased [3H]Flunitrazepam binding in the DG and central amygdala compared with No-PW rats. Diazepam at a low dose induced an anxiogenic-like response in PW rats, suggesting a paradoxical response to benzodiazepines. Overall, PW induced anxiety-like behavior, a blunted HPA axis response, and higher GABAAR/BZD binding site sensitivity in a stress-vulnerable rat strain. These findings demonstrate the role of stress-susceptibility in GABAAR functionality in a preclinical approximation of PMDD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal , Progesterona , Receptores de GABA-A , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Diazepam/farmacologia , Feminino , Flunitrazepam/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo
20.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 61(4): 322-332, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840316

RESUMO

Isoflurane has been characterized as a distressing agent for rodents, causing both physiologic and behavioral effects. Using a "darkened home cage" has been recommended during CO2 administration for rodent euthanasia; this is arguably a similar animal experience to anesthetic induction with isoflurane. Based on the premise that rodents perceive red light as darkness via the primary optic tract, we compared physiologic and behavioral markers of stress in 2 inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ) anesthetized with isoflurane in either a red-tinted (dark) induction chamber or a traditional translucent induction chamber. Physiologic stress was assessed based on plasma levels of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and corticosterone. Stress-related behaviors (rearing, face wiping, and jumping) were recorded on video and scored from initiation of induction to loss of consciousness. No significant correlations were found between chamber type and physiologic stress hormones. As compared with the translucent chamber, stress-related behaviors were more frequent in the red-tinted chamber, including: 1) significantly higher rearing frequencies in BALB/cJ mice; 2) higher behavioral stress scores in BALB/cJ and male C57BL/6J mice; and 3) more face wiping behavior when considering all mice combined. These findings suggest that mice do not experience significant alleviation of physiologic indices of stress when anesthetized in a red-tinted induction chamber. Furthermore, isoflurane induction in the red-tinted chamber appeared to increase the expression of stress-related behaviors, particularly in BALB/cJ mice. Based on our findings and a growing body of literature on the unintended effects of red light, we do not recommend using red-tinted chambers for induction of anesthesia in mice.


Assuntos
Isoflurano , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Corticosterona , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Fisiológico
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