Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.916
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121677, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963955

RESUMO

Composting additives can significantly enhance green waste (GW) composting. However, their effectiveness is limited due to the short action duration of a single-period addition. Therefore, this study proposes that multi-period additive modes to prolong the action duration, expedite lignocellulose degradation, reduce composting time, and enhance product quality. This study conducted six treatments (T1-T6), introducing a compound additive (BLP) during the mesophilic (MP) and cooling periods (CP). Each treatment consistently maintained 25% total BLP addition of GW dry weight, with variations only in the BLP distribution in different periods. The composition of BLP consists of Wbiochar: Wlactic acid: Wpond sediment in a ratio of 10:1:40. Specifically, T1 added 25% BLP in CP, T2 added 5% in MP and 20% in CP, T3 added 10% in MP and 15% in CP, T4 added 15% in MP and 10% in CP, T5 added 20% in MP and 5% in CP, and T6 added 25% in MP. In this study, composting temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, total porosity, the contents of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and nutrient, scanning electron microscopy images, germination index, and the successions of different bacteria and fungi at the phylum and genus levels were detailed. Results showed T4 achieved two thermophilic periods and matured in just 25 days. T4 enhanced lignocellulose degradation rates (lignin: 16-53%, cellulose: 14-23%, hemicellulose: 9-48%) and improved nutrient content. The above results, combined with correlation analysis and structural equation model, indicated that T4 may promote the development of dominant bacteria (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes) by regulating compost physicochemical properties and facilitate the growth of dominant fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) by modulating nutrient supply capacity. This ultimately leads to a microbial community structure more conducive to lignocellulose degradation and nutrient preservation. In summary, this study reveals the comprehensive effects of single-period and multi-period addition methods on GW composting, providing a valuable basis for optimizing the use of additives and enhancing the efficiency and quality of GW composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lignina , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Temperatura
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15542, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969698

RESUMO

There are numerous species in the Erwiniaceae family that are important for agricultural and clinical purposes. Here we described the Erwiniaceae bacterium PD-1 isolated from mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) compost. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that the strain PD-1 was assigned to a new genus and species, Paramixta manurensis gen. nov., sp. nov. in the family Erwiniaceae. From the average amino acid index, we identified the five AroBEKAC proteins in the shikimate pathway as a minimal set of molecular markers to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of the Erwiniaceae species. The strain PD-1 containing annotated genes for ubiquinone and menaquinone produced a higher level of ubiquinone (Q8) than demethylmenaquinone (DMK8) and menaquinone (MK8) in anaerobic condition compared to aerobic condition, as similarly did the reference strains from the genera Mixta and Erwinia. Results from fatty acid methyl ester and numerical analyses of strain PD-1 showed a similarity to species of the genera Mixta and Winslowiella. This study revealed that the strain's ability to utilize polyols, such as glycerol, erythritol, and D-arabitol, distinguished the strain PD-1 from the nearest relative and other type strains. The analyzed genetic markers and biochemical properties of the strain PD-1 suggest its potential role in the process of mushroom compost through the degradation of carbohydrates and polysaccharides derived from fungi and plants. Additionally, it can produce a high concentration of indole-3-acetic acid as a plant growth-promoting agent.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Filogenia , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricales/classificação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Compostagem , Microbiologia do Solo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999063

RESUMO

As part of the multifaceted strategies developed to shape the common environmental policy, considerable attention is now being paid to assessing the degree of environmental degradation in soil under xenobiotic pressure. Bisphenol A (BPA) has only been marginally investigated in this ecosystem context. Therefore, research was carried out to determine the biochemical properties of soils contaminated with BPA at two levels of contamination: 500 mg and 1000 mg BPA kg-1 d.m. of soil. Reliable biochemical indicators of soil changes, whose activity was determined in the pot experiment conducted, were used: dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and ß-glucosidase. Using the definition of soil health as the ability to promote plant growth, the influence of BPA on the growth and development of Zea mays, a plant used for energy production, was also tested. As well as the biomass of aerial parts and roots, the leaf greenness index (SPAD) of Zea mays was also assessed. A key aspect of the research was to identify those of the six remediating substances-molecular sieve, zeolite, sepiolite, starch, grass compost, and fermented bark-whose use could become common practice in both environmental protection and agriculture. Exposure to BPA revealed the highest sensitivity of dehydrogenases, urease, and acid phosphatase and the lowest sensitivity of alkaline phosphatase and catalase to this phenolic compound. The enzyme response generated a reduction in the biochemical fertility index (BA21) of 64% (500 mg BPA) and 70% (1000 mg BPA kg-1 d.m. of soil). The toxicity of BPA led to a drastic reduction in root biomass and consequently in the aerial parts of Zea mays. Compost and molecular sieve proved to be the most effective in mitigating the negative effect of the xenobiotic on the parameters discussed. The results obtained are the first research step in the search for further substances with bioremediation potential against both soil and plants under BPA pressure.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Zea mays , Fenóis/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Zea mays/química , Solo/química , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Arilsulfatases/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Zeolitas/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Urease/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Silicatos de Magnésio/química , Amido/química , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000980

RESUMO

Exposure to high concentrations of odours can result in health effects associated with direct health risks and irritation from nuisance. This investigation aimed to correlate aspects of the waste composting process with the emission levels of malodourous compounds. An essential optimisation criterion is the reduction of negative environmental impacts, particularly odour emissions. This study characterises odour concentration variations across various technological variants over different weeks of the composting process. A secondary objective is evaluating the efficacy of these variants, which differ in inoculation substances and compost heap composition. Olfactometric analyses were conducted using portable field olfactometers, enabling precise dilutions by mixing contaminated and purified air. The primary aim was to examine the correlation between selected odour parameters, determined via sensory analysis, and ammonia concentration during different composting weeks. Ammonia levels were measured using an RAE electrochemical sensor. Research shows that odour concentration is a significant indicator of compost maturity. In situ, olfactometric testing can effectively monitor the aerobic stabilisation process alone or with other methods. The most effective technological solution was identified by combining olfactometric and ammonia measurements and monitoring composting parameters, ensuring minimal odour emissions and the safety of employees and nearby residents.


Assuntos
Amônia , Compostagem , Odorantes , Olfatometria , Odorantes/análise , Amônia/análise , Compostagem/métodos , Olfatometria/métodos , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo/química
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(9): 306, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39002030

RESUMO

This study examined plastics and toxic metals in municipal solid waste compost from various regions in Sri Lanka. Plastics were extracted using density separation, digested using wet peroxidation, and identified using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection mode. Compost and plastics were acid-digested to quantify total Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations and analyzed for the bioavailable fraction using 0.01 M CaCl2. Notably, plastics were highly abundant in most compost samples. The main plastic types detected were polyethylene, polypropylene, and cellophane. However, the average Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels were 0.727, 60.78, 3.670, 25.44, 18.95, and 130.7 mg/kg, respectively, which are well below the recommended levels. Zn was the most bioavailable (2.476 mg/kg), and Cd was the least bioavailable (0.053 mg/kg) metal associated with compost. The Contamination factor data show that there is considerable enhancement of Cd and Cu, however, Cr, Cu, Co, and Pb are at low contamination levels. Mean geo accumulation index values were 1.39, 1.07, - 1.06, - 0.84, - 0.32, and 0.08 for Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Therefore, the contamination level of compost samples with Cd and Cu ranges from uncontaminated to contaminated levels, whereas Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn are at uncontaminated levels. Despite no direct metal-plastic correlation, plastics in compost could harm plants, animals, and humans due to ingestion. Hence, reducing plastic and metal contamination in compost is crucial.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Plásticos , Poluentes do Solo , Resíduos Sólidos , Sri Lanka , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eliminação de Resíduos
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(32): 45341-45352, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963624

RESUMO

This study demonstrated the effects of adding specific proportions of vermiculite (VMT: 0%, 10%, and 20%) and earthworm casts (EWCs: 0%, 10%, and 20%) on the physico-chemical properties of composted green waste (CGW), and the impacts of amended CGW as growth media on the growth of three common ornamental plants (Dahlia pinnata Cav. [dahlia], Centaurea cyanus L. [cornflower], and Consolida ajacis [L.] Schur [delphinium]). Compared with Treatment T1 (CK), the addition of 10% VMT and 20% EWCs greatly (p < 0.05) increased the total porosity, aeration porosity, water-holding porosity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matter of CGW by 9%, 35%, 4%, 18%, 27%, 13%, and 33%, respectively. In addition, this pattern increased (p < 0.05) the total fresh biomass, total chlorophyll content, and root length of dahlias by 9%, 19%, and 27%, respectively; those of cornflowers by 17%, 30%, and 29%, respectively (p < 0.05); and those of delphiniums by 23%, 14%, and 63%, respectively. Therefore, the amended CGW supplemented with 10% VMT and 20% EWCs was an ideal growth medium for the three plants.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Animais , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Solo/química
7.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 94, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008061

RESUMO

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an essential food staple and source of income for small-holder farmers across Africa. However, yields are greatly threatened by fungal diseases like root rot induced by Rhizoctonia solani. This study aimed to evaluate an integrated approach utilizing vermicompost tea (VCT) and antagonistic microbes for effective and sustainable management of R. solani root rot in common beans. Fourteen fungal strains were first isolated from infected common bean plants collected across three Egyptian governorates, with R. solani being the most virulent isolate with 50% dominance. Subsequently, the antagonistic potential of vermicompost tea (VCT), Serratia sp., and Trichoderma sp. was assessed against this destructive pathogen. Combinations of 10% VCT and the biocontrol agent isolates displayed potent inhibition of R. solani growth in vitro, prompting in planta testing. Under greenhouse conditions, integrated applications of 5 or 10% VCT with Serratia marcescens, Trichoderma harzianum, or effective microorganisms (EM1) afforded up to 95% protection against pre- and post-emergence damping-off induced by R. solani in common bean cv. Giza 6. Similarly, under field conditions, combining VCT with EM1 (VCT + EM1) or Trichoderma harzianum (VCT + Trichoderma harzianum) substantially suppressed disease severity by 65.6% and 64.34%, respectively, relative to untreated plants. These treatments also elicited defense enzyme activity and distinctly improved growth parameters including 136.68% and 132.49% increases in pod weight per plant over control plants. GC-MS profiling of Trichoderma harzianum, Serratia marcescens, and vermicompost tea (VCT) extracts revealed unique compounds dominated by cyclic pregnane, fatty acid methyl esters, linoleic acid derivatives, and free fatty acids like oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids with confirmed biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activities. The results verify VCT-mediated delivery of synergistic microbial consortia as a sustainable platform for integrated management of debilitating soil-borne diseases, enhancing productivity and incomes for smallholder bean farmers through regeneration of soil health. Further large-scale validation can pave the adoption of this climate-resilient approach for securing food and nutrition security.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Serratia marcescens , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Serratia marcescens/metabolismo , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Antibiose , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Egito , Compostagem , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(3): e20221063, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865506

RESUMO

This study evaluated the influence of milk production, number of lactations, and days in milk (DIM) on the quality and composition of milk from dairy cows housed in a compost barn (CB) system. The study was carried out using a six-year database, counting 31,268 observations from 2,037 cows of European breeds. Multiparous cows showed higher fat and protein production. Lactose showed high levels for primiparous and the initial stage of lactation (4.65%) and was negatively influenced by somatic cell count (SCC). Milk urea nitrogen was higher (14.01%) from 106 to 205 days in milk, and the other components were higher at >305 days. Therefore, the solids content was higher in the first and second lactations due to the high contents of lactose, fat, and milk protein, but lactose was reduced over lactations. In contrast, high DIM increased SCC and concentrated solids due to lower milk production. The effect of milk production, stage, and lactation order on the composition and milk quality of herds housed in CB showed the same pattern as in other production systems.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Leite , Animais , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Leite/citologia , Feminino , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Compostagem , Lactose/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Proteínas do Leite/análise
9.
Waste Manag ; 185: 55-63, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843757

RESUMO

Composted materials serve as an effective soil nutrient amendment. Organic matter in compost plays an important role in quantifying composted materials overall quality and nutrient content. Measuring organic matter content traditionally takes considerable time, resources, and various laboratory equipment (e.g., oven, muffle furnace, crucibles, precision balance). Much like the quantitative color indices (e.g., sRGB R, sRGB G, sRGB B, CIEL*a* b*) derived from the low-cost NixPro2 color sensor have proven adept at predicting soil organic matter in-situ, the NixPro2 color sensor has the potential to be effective for predicting organic matter in composted materials without the need for traditional laboratory methods. In this study, a total of 200 compost samples (13 different compost types) were measured for organic matter content via traditional loss-on-ignition (LOI) and via the NixPro2 color sensor. The NixPro2 color sensor showed promising results with an LOI-prediction model utilizing the CIEL*a* b* color model through the application of the Generalized Additive Model (GAM) algorithm yielding an excellent prediction accuracy (validation R2 = 0.87, validation RMSE = 4.66 %). Moreover, the PCA scoreplot differentiated the three lowest organic matter compost types from the remaining 10 compost types. These results have valuable practical significance for the compost industry by predicting compost organic matter in real time without the need for laborious, time-consuming methods.


Assuntos
Cor , Compostagem , Solo , Compostagem/métodos , Solo/química
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 404: 130914, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823563

RESUMO

As a new technology for accurate utilization of sludge resources, sludge inorganic-organic matter separation (IOMS) has attracted wide attention. This study examined the impact of this pretreatment on environmental and economic performance of sludge composting and incineration using life cycle assessment (LCA) and whole life costing (WLC). LCA results indicated that IOMS pretreatment reduced the energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) values of composting and incineration by 56 % and 76 %, respectively. Meanwhile, WLC exhibited that IOMS pretreatment could cut the break-even year of incineration from 11 years to 4 years. The combination of organic sludge incineration/composting with inorganic sludge sintering ceramsite reveals excellent environmental and economic performance. The application optimization hypothesis analysis of these two routes in various provinces of China indicates that Jiangsu has the greatest development potential and should become a major promotion region.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Compostagem/métodos , Incineração , Meio Ambiente , China
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 545, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872089

RESUMO

The accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain poses a significant health concern in Bangladesh. To address this, we investigated the efficacy of various organic amendments and phytoremediation techniques in reducing As buildup in O. sativa. We evaluated the impact of five doses of biochar (BC; BC0.1: 0.1%, BC0.28: 0.28%, BC0.55: 0.55%, BC0.82: 0.82% and BC1.0: 1.0%, w/w), vermicompost (VC; VC1.0: 1.0%, VC1.8: 1.8%, VC3.0: 3.0%, VC4.2: 4.2% and VC5.0: 5.0%, w/w), and floating duckweed (DW; DW100: 100, DW160: 160, DW250: 250, DW340: 340 and DW400: 400 g m- 2) on O. sativa cultivated in As-contaminated soil. Employing a three-factor five-level central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the application rates of BC-VC-DW. Our findings revealed that As contamination in the soil negatively impacted O. sativa growth. However, the addition of BC, VC, and DW significantly enhanced plant morphological parameters, SPAD value, and grain yield per pot. Notably, a combination of moderate BC-DW and high VC (BC0.55VC5DW250) increased grain yield by 44.4% compared to the control (BC0VC0DW0). As contamination increased root, straw, and grain As levels, and oxidative stress in O. sativa leaves. However, treatment BC0.82VC4.2DW340 significantly reduced grain As (G-As) by 56%, leaf hydrogen peroxide by 71%, and malondialdehyde by 50% compared to the control. Lower doses of BC-VC-DW (BC0.28VC1.8DW160) increased antioxidant enzyme activities, while moderate to high doses resulted in a decline in these activities. Bioconcentration and translocation factors below 1 indicated limited As uptake and translocation in plant tissues. Through RSM optimization, we determined that optimal doses of BC (0.76%), VC (4.62%), and DW (290.0 g m- 2) could maximize grain yield (32.96 g pot- 1, 44% higher than control) and minimize G-As content (0.189 mg kg- 1, 54% lower than control). These findings underscore effective strategies for enhancing yield and reducing As accumulation in grains from contaminated areas, thereby ensuring agricultural productivity, human health, and long-term sustainability. Overall, our study contributes to safer food production and improved public health in As-affected regions.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arsênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Araceae/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 548, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872106

RESUMO

Enhancing wheat productivity by implementing a comprehensive approach that combines irrigation, nutrition, and organic amendments shows potential for collectively enhancing crop performance. This study examined the individual and combined effects of using irrigation systems (IS), foliar potassium bicarbonate (PBR) application, and compost application methods (CM) on nine traits related to the growth, physiology, and yield of the Giza-171 wheat cultivar. Analysis of variance revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) main effects of IS, PBR, and CM on wheat growth, physiology, and yield traits over the two growing seasons of the study. Drip irrigation resulted in a 16% increase in plant height, leaf area index, crop growth rate, yield components, and grain yield compared to spray irrigation. Additionally, the application of foliar PBR at a concentration of 0.08 g/L boosted these parameters by up to 22% compared to the control. Furthermore, the application of compost using the role method resulted in enhanced wheat performance compared to the treatment including mix application. Importantly, the combined analysis revealed that the three-way interaction between the three factors had a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on all the studied traits, with drip irrigation at 0.08 g PBR rate and role compost application method (referred as Drip_0.08g_Role) resulting in the best performance across all traits, while sprinkle irrigation without PBR and conventional mixed compost method (referred as sprinkle_CK_Mix) produced the poorest results. This highlights the potential to synergistically improve wheat performance through optimized agronomic inputs.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Triticum , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Compostos de Potássio , Solo/química
13.
Chemosphere ; 361: 142520, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834092

RESUMO

Organic fertilizers have become a vector for the transport of microplastics (MPs), which pose human health concerns through the food chain. This study aimed to quantify and characterize MPs in eight different compost samples of various raw materials and their subsequent translocation to lettuce (Lacuta sativa) grown on contaminated composts. The results revealed that the MP abundance ranged from 3810 to 16530 MP/kg. Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) had highest abundance (16082 ± 632 MP/kg), followed by leaf compost (LC) and organic compost (OC) (6299 ± 1011 and 3680 ± 419 MP/kg, respectively). MPs of <100 µm in size were most dominant in MSWC and LC. Fragments and fibers were the prevalent shape types, with white/transparent colored MPs being more abundant. Polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were the dominant polymers. MPs accumulation in the lettuce leaves was greatest in the lettuce plants grown on MSWC, followed by those grown on LC and OC, indicating that MSWC grown lettuce is not suitable for human consumption. The decrease in the growth (leaf length, number of leaves, leaf fresh and weights) and physiological (membrane stability index, relative water contents) parameters of lettuce was in line with the trend of MP accumulations. Hence, it is highly important to regulate the plastic contents in compost because it is a threat to ecosystems and human health.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lactuca , Microplásticos , Poluentes do Solo , Microplásticos/análise , Lactuca/metabolismo , Lactuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactuca/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Polímeros/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Polietileno , Fertilizantes/análise , Polipropilenos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 174033, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885708

RESUMO

Disturbed soils, including manufactured topsoils, often lack physical and chemical properties conducive to vegetation establishment. As a result, efforts to stabilize disturbed soils with vegetation are susceptible to failure. Urban organic waste products such as wood mulch, composted leaf and yard waste, and biosolids are widely distributed as organic amendments that enhance sustainability and plant establishment. Correct use can be determined by examining soil properties such as pH; the concentration of soluble salts (SS); and plant available nutrients - particularly N, C and P; as well as root and shoot growth. This research examined the effects of three typical organic amendments on fertility, establishment, and nutrient loss. A manufactured topsoil was used as the base soil for all treatments, including a control unamended soil (CUT), and soil amended with either mulch (MAT), composted leaf and yard waste (LAT), or biosolids (BAT). A 2 % organic matter concentration increase was sought but not achieved due to difficulty in reproducing lab results at a larger scale. Results showed that LAT improved soil fertility, particularly N-P-K concentrations while maintaining a good C:N ratio, pH, and SS concentration. BAT was the most effective at enhancing shoot growth but results suggest that improved growth rates could result in increased maintenance. Additionally, biosolids were an excellent source of nutrients, especially N-P-K and S, but diminished root growth and N leachate losses indicate that N was applied in excess of turfgrass requirements. Therefore, biosolids could be used as fertilizer, subject to recommended rates for turfgrass establishment to prevent poor root growth and waterborne N pollution. To ensure establishment efforts are successful, MAT is not recommended without a supplemental source of soluble N. Altogether, study results and conclusions could inform others seeking to improve specifications for disturbed soil where turfgrass establishment is needed to stabilize soil.


Assuntos
Solo , Solo/química , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Compostagem/métodos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 174139, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38901577

RESUMO

Hyperthermophilic composting (HTC) is a recently developed and highly promising organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) treatment technology. Investigation of organic matter (OM) dynamics in compost particle is thus crucial for the understanding of humification of HTC process. Herein, this work aimed to study the chemical and structural changes of OM at the molecular level during HTC of OFMSW using EEM and SR-FTIR analyses. Additionally, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) was also utilized to probe and identify the changes in chemical constituents and functional groups of organic compounds on the surface of compost particles during different composting periods. Results show that SR-FTIR can detect fine-scale (~µm) changes in functional groups from the edges to the interior of compost particles during different composting periods by mapping the particles in situ. In the hyperthermophilic stage (day 9), the extracted µ-FTIR spectrum reveals a distinct boundary between anaerobic and aerobic regions within the compost particle, with a thickness of anaerobic zone (1460 cm-1) of approximately 30 µm inside the particle's core. This provides direct evidence of anaerobic trends at compost microscales level within compost particles. 2D-COS analysis indicated that organic functional groups gradually agglomerated in the order of 1330 > 2930 > 3320 > 1600 > 1030 > 895 cm-1 to the core skeleton of cellulose degradation residues, forming compost aggregates with well physicochemical properties. Overall, the first combination of SR-FTIR and EEM provides complementary explanations for the humification mechanism of HTC, potentially introducing a novel methodology for investigating the environmental behaviors and fates of various organic contaminants associated with OM during the in-situ composting biochemical process.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Compostagem/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Síncrotrons , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Solo/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 213: 108807, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38905730

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of nano selenium (N-Se) and compost on the growth, photosynthesis, enzymes activity, compatible solutes and metals accumulation in soybean grown under tannery effluent polluted soil. The plants were exposed to compost application (no compost and compost addition) and foliar application of N-Se (0, 25, 50, and 75 mg L-1). The results showed the addition of compost in soil and foliar applied N-Se alleviated the toxic effect of tannery effluent polluted soil. Furthermore, foliar application of N-Se with basal compost supply significantly improved antoxidant enzymes activity in soybean grown in tannery effluent polluted soil. Addition of compost increased the root dry weight (46.43%) and shoot dry weight (33.50 %), relative water contents by (13.74 %), soluble sugars (15.99 %), stomatal conductance (gs) (83.33 %), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) (23.34 %), transpiration rate (E) (12.10 %) and decreased the electrolyte leakage (27.96 %) and proline contents by (20.34 %). The foliage application of N-Se at the rate of 75 mg L-1 showed the most promising results in control and compost amended tannery effluent polluted soil. The determined health risk index (HRI) values were recorded less than 1 for both adults and children under the application of compost and N-Se. In summary, the combined use of N-Se at 75 mg L⁻1 and basal supply of compost is an effective strategy for enhancing soybean productivity while minimizing the potential risks of metal accumulation in soybean grains grown in tannery effluent polluted soil.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Compostagem , Glycine max , Selênio , Poluentes do Solo , Glycine max/metabolismo , Glycine max/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Curtume , Resíduos Industriais
17.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121634, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38943752

RESUMO

The impact of NaOH-modified biochar on the release of NH3 and H2S from laying hens' manure was examined for 44 days, using a small-scale simulated aerobic composting system. The findings revealed that the NaOH-modified biochar reduced NH3 and H2S emissions by 40.63% and 77.78%, respectively, compared to the control group. Moreover, the emissions of H2S were significantly lower than those of the unmodified biochar group (p < 0.05). The increased specific surface area and microporous structure of the biochar, as well as the higher content of alkaline and oxygenated functional groups, were found to facilitate the adsorption of NH3 and H2S. This enhanced adsorption capability was the primary reason for the significant reduction in NH3 emissions. Furthermore, during the high-temperature phase of composting, there was a notable alteration in the microbial community. The abundance of Limnochordaceae, Savagea, and IMCC26207 increased significantly which aided in the conversion of H2S to stable sulfate. These microorganisms also influenced the abundance of functional genes involved in sulfur metabolism, thereby inhibiting cysteine synthesis, along with the decomposition and conversion of sulfate to sulfite. This led to a significant decrease in H2S emissions. This study provides valuable data for the selection of deodorizers in the composting process of egg-laying hens. The results have significant implications for the application of NaOH-modified biochar for odor reduction in aerobic composting processes.


Assuntos
Amônia , Carvão Vegetal , Galinhas , Compostagem , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Esterco , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/química , Amônia/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Feminino
18.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121613, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944964

RESUMO

Composting is a biological reaction caused by microorganisms. Composting efficiency can be adequately increased by adding biochar and/or by inoculating with exogenous microorganisms. In this study, we looked at four methods for dewatered sludge waste (DSW) and wheat straw (WS) aerobic co-composting: T1 (no additive), T2 (5% biochar), T3 (5% of a newly isolated strain, Xenophilus azovorans (XPA)), and T4 (5% of biochar-immobilized XPA (BCI-XPA)). Throughout the course of the 42-day composting period, we looked into the carbon dynamics, humification, microbial community succession, and modifications to the driving pathways. Compared to T1 and T2, the addition of XPA (T3) and BCI-XPA (T4) extended the thermophilic phase of composting without negatively affecting compost maturation. Notably, T4 exhibited a higher seed germination index (132.14%). Different from T1 and T2 treatments, T3 and T4 treatments increased CO2 and CH4 emissions in the composting process, in which the cumulative CO2 emissions increased by 18.61-47.16%, and T3 and T4 treatments also promoted the formation of humic acid. Moreover, T4 treatment with BCI-XPA addition showed relatively higher activities of urease, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, as well as a higher diversity of microorganisms compared to other processes. The Functional Annotation of Prokaryotic Taxa (FAPROTAX) analysis showed that microorganisms involved in the carbon cycle dominated the entire composting process in all treatments, with chemoheterotrophy and aerobic chemoheterotrophy being the main pathways of organic materials degradation. Moreover, the presence of XPA accelerated the breakdown of organic materials by catabolism of aromatic compounds and intracellular parasite pathways. On the other hand, the xylanolysis pathway was aided in the conversion of organic materials to dissolved organics by the addition of BCI-XPA. These findings indicate that XPA and BCI-XPA have potential as additives to improve the efficiency of dewatered sludge and wheat straw co-composting.


Assuntos
Carbono , Compostagem , Esgotos , Triticum , Esgotos/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Substâncias Húmicas , Carvão Vegetal
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(30): 43396-43404, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884932

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution from compost is one of the most concerned environmental problems, which poses a threat to the ecosystem and human health. This study aims to reveal the heavy metal tolerance and detoxification mechanism mediated by heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) in compost habitat through metagenomics combined with chemical speciation analysis of heavy metals. The results showed that there were 37 HMRGs corresponding to 7 common heavy metal(loid)s in composting, and they had the ability to transform heavy metals into stable or low-toxic speciation by regulating enzyme transport, redox, methylation, etc. This study summarized the heavy metal metabolism pathway mediated by HMRGs, providing a new perspective for understanding the transformation of heavy metals in the composting process.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Ecossistema , Solo/química
20.
Waste Manag ; 186: 236-248, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941734

RESUMO

Proper management of wastewater treatment plant side streams in pulp and paper mills is a matter of great interest. This study evaluates the environmental impact of different strategies in the management of biosludge from pulp and paper mills in Finland through a Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The base industrial standard practice, biosludge incineration for energy recovery and ash landfill disposal (Scenario 1), was compared to the alternative process of hydrothermal carbonization. The hydrochar generated from hydrothermal carbonization was evaluated for energy recovery through incineration (Scenario 2), or for use in composting for nutrient recovery (Scenario 3). The results showed that the hydrothermal process improved the overall environmental performance of the sludge management, particularly in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The use of hydrochar as a soil amendment in composting also resulted in a significant reduction on the environmental impact compared to the other two scenarios. Overall, this study highlights the potential of hydrothermal carbonization and hydrochar utilization as sustainable options for managing biosludge from pulp mills.


Assuntos
Incineração , Resíduos Industriais , Papel , Esgotos , Finlândia , Incineração/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Compostagem/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA