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1.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 183: 107623, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052281

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are a group of microorganisms that have potential for replacing synthetic chemical pesticides. However, EPF virulence is often insufficient, and therefore adoption of EPF biopesticides has been relatively limited. Previous studies have shown that herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) promoted the virulence of Lecanicillium lecanii, and that extracellular proteases and chitinases are important virulence factors of entomopathogenic fungi. We therefore put forward the hypothesis that HIPVs promote L. lecanii virulence by inducing extracellular protease or/and chitinase activity. Lecanicillium lecanii was treated with tomato HIPVs induced by various numbers/densities of Bemisia tabaci, the effect of HIPVs on L. lecanii virulence and activities of virulence-related enzymes (extracellular proteases and chitinases) was analyzed. Changes in enzyme activities were confirmed by measuring the variations in Pr1 and Chit II genes expression of virulence-related enzymes under the influence of HIPVs. Finally, the correlation between virulence and virulence-related enzymes or genes was analyzed to explore the mechanism of promoting HIPVs in L. lecanii virulence enhancement. The results showed that volatiles produced by the tomato plants induced by 50 B. tabaci adults (50-HIPVs) significantly enhanced the virulence of L. lecanii. When exposed to both 50-HIPVs and L. lecanii, the mortality rate of B. tabaci reached 79.0% within 7 days compared to 28.87% in the control group. Additionally, 50-HIPVs significantly promoted the activity of chitinase and the relative expression of Chit II genes, which consequently increased by 62.74% and 48.55%, respectively. However, each group of HIPVs had no promoting effect on extracellular protease and Pr1 gene expression. Correlation analysis results showed that the virulence of L. lecanii is significantly correlated with the activity of chitinase and relative expression of Chit II genes. Thus, HIPVs induced virulence of L. lecanii by increasing chitinase activity. This study demonstrates important methods to enhance the virulence of L. lecanii. Moreover, from the perspective of chemical ecology, the findings provide theoretical support for field application of EPF, and also reveal the impact of HIPVs on EPF from a biochemical perspective.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Virulência
2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803611

RESUMO

Cordyceps fumosorosea, an insect pathogenic fungus, produces different toxins/secondary metabolites which can act as pest control agents. This study reports the extraction and characterization of crude mycelial extracts of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 along with their bio-efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis craccivora. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometery and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 extracts showed the presence of five major compounds-Trichodermin, 5-Methylmellein, Brevianamide F, Enniatin and Beauvericin-which all may potentially be involved in insecticidal activity. The HPLC analysis of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts and Beauvericin standard showed similar chromatographic peaks, with the content of Beauvericin in the crude toxin being calculated as 0.66 mg/ml. The median lethal concentrations of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts towards first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs of A. craccivora were 46.35, 54.55, 68.94, and 81.92 µg/mL, respectively. The median lethal concentrations of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts towards first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs of B. tabaci were 62.67, 72.84, 77.40, and 94.40 µg/mL, respectively. Our results demonstrate that bioactive compounds produced by C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 have insecticidal properties and could, therefore, be developed into biopesticides for the management of B. tabaci and A. craccivora.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/farmacologia , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3076, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542249

RESUMO

The larval stages of Carmenta theobromae Busck (1910) and Simplicivalva ampliophilobia Davis, Gentili-Poole and Mitter (2008) attack the subcortical zone and pith in guava trees, respectively, in the first productive nucleus of fruit trees in Colombia: Hoya del Río Suárez (HRS). The presence of pest insects has been reported in 98% of the farms sampled in HRS (n = 124), with up to 96 and 11 simultaneous larvae per tree, respectively. Although the aspects of the basic biology and life cycle of both pests have been resolved, there are no strategies for managing populations in the field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate different management alternatives under laboratory and field conditions in HRS. In laboratory conditions, a completely randomized design was used in two separate experiments, each with six treatments: T1: Spinosad (a mixture of Spinosad A and D); T2: S-1,2-di(ethoxycarbonyl) ethyl 0,0-dimethylphosphorodithioate (chemical control); T3: Lecanicillium lecanii; T4: Beauveria bassiana; T5: Mix of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, and T6: distilled water (control). The number of dead larvae per replicate per treatment was evaluated (DL), with experimental units of five and three larvae, respectively. In the field, to the two best alternatives found for each pest in the laboratory, pruning and keeping the area around the plants free of weeds were added as cultural management, in two separate additional experiments, each with three larvae as experimental unit per treatment. For C. theobromae, the best laboratory alternatives were chemical control (DL: 3.78) and L. lecanii (DL: 2.33), followed without statistical differences by B. bassiana (DL: 1.67). In the field, the virulence of B. bassiana improved (DL: 3), and together with pruning and keeping the area around the plants clear of weeds (DL: 3), they stood out as the best alternatives. For S. ampliophilobia under laboratory conditions, the best alternatives were Spinosad (2.74) and chemical control (DL: 2.66), without significant difference. In the field, there were no statistical differences between the alternatives, except for the control. This statistical parity of cultural practices, and biological and chemical management is an argument in favor of the use of the former to the detriment of the third, especially when the harmful effects of the molecule S-1,2 di (ethoxycarbonyl) ethyl 0, 0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate have been proven in air, water and agricultural soils, in addition to its association with thyroid cancer in humans. This is a strong argument to favor the use of synergies of cultural and biological management methods framed in IPM, as opposed to the use of chemical agents whose harmful effects are strongly documented, and whose use is becoming increasingly prohibited.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Psidium/parasitologia , Animais , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Colômbia , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hypocreales , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/patogenicidade , Metarhizium , Psidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(1): 100-113, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398854

RESUMO

The susceptibility of 1st to 4th instars of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1989) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to three isolates of Cordyceps sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) was evaluated in screenhouse experiments under variable temperatures and moisture conditions. No differences in susceptibility to the Cordyceps sp. isolates were observed among 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instar nymphs with respect to median lethal time (LT50) values. Confirmed mortalities ranged from 63.7 to 87.8% when the isolates were tested at 5 × 107 conidia mL-1. The 4th instar was the least susceptible to the fungal isolates (≤ 36.6% mortality). However, 60.0 to 99.5% of the adults that emerged from 4th instar nymphs previously treated with the fungus succumbed to the infection. Temperature was more detrimental to Cordyceps sp. virulence towards B. tabaci nymphs than relative humidity (RH). At similar RH, median LT50 for 1st instar (9.4 days) was higher than for 3rd instar (5.3 days) when the fungus was tested at 5 × 107 conidia mL-1; minimal temperatures of ≥ 12.6°C compared to ≥ 17.0°C were registered for experiments with 1st and 3rd instars, respectively. However, temperatures ≥ 35°C for 4 to 6 h daily did not affect the efficacy of the fungus against nymphs. Cordyceps sp. showed high virulence to all life stages of B. tabaci at relatively low RH, and an ability to grow extensively over the leaf surface and to produce high amounts of conidia on infected hosts. These attributes certainly boost its potential as an important pest control component of B. tabaci biotype B, especially for management of populations resistant to synthetic insecticides.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Ninfa/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Umidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Temperatura
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8257847, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908915

RESUMO

The ascomycete Cordyceps genus has been used as valued traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps kyushuensis is a unique species of Cordyceps, which parasitizes on the larvae of Clanis bilineata Walker, and its major component cordycepin and aqueous extract are known to have many pharmacological effects. However, the physiological function of water-soluble polysaccharides has not been explored in detail. In this study, to resolve these doubts, we extracted and separated Cordyceps-derived polysaccharides and then evaluated the immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. Four polysaccharide fractions were purified from Cordyceps-cultured stroma by DEAE-cellulose 23 and Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. Basic structural information was elucidated on the basis of physicochemical property and spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method and protective effect of DNA damage. The qualified immunologic activities were also determined in vivo and in vitro. The polysaccharides could stimulate the proliferation of mouse splenocytes whether concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) existed or not, strengthen peritoneal macrophages to devour neutral red, and increase the content of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in serum. The research provides the corresponding evidence for Cordyceps polysaccharides as a potential candidate for functional foods and therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucina-2/sangue , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Mariposas/microbiologia , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
6.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 142: 103415, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497577

RESUMO

SNF1/AMPK protein kinases play important roles in fungal development and activation of catabolite-repressed genes. In this study, we characterized the role of SNF1 ortholog in Cordyceps militaris (CmSnf1). The vegetative growth of a CmSnf1 deletion mutant was (ΔCmSnf1) reduced by 42.2% with arabinose as a sole carbon source. Most strikingly, the ΔCmSnf1 produced only a few conidia and exhibited delayed conidial germination. We found that CmSnf1 was necessary for mycelium to penetrate the insect cuticle to form the fruiting body on silkworm pupae, consistent with the down-regulation of chitinase- and protease-encoding genes in ΔCmSnf1. However, cordycepin content increased by more than 7 times in culture supernatants. Correspondingly, the relative expression levels of cordycepin gene cluster members were also elevated. In particular, the expression of cns4 associated with cordycepin transfer was up-regulated >10-fold. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis showed that CmSnf1 regulated the expression of genes involved in cell autophagy and oxidative stress tolerance. We speculated that under environmental stress, both the ATG and SNF1 pathways might collaborate to sustain adverse environments. Our study provides an initial framework to probe the diverse function and regulation of CmSnf1 in C. militaris, which will shed more light on the direction of molecular improvement of medicinal fungi.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Micélio/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Carpóforos/genética , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Genoma Fúngico/genética
7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(12): 3302-3311, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) identified and characterized in mammals, plants, and fungi have been found to play critical regulatory roles in biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in insect pathogenic fungi. RESULTS: By profiling the transcriptomes of sexual and asexual development in the insect-pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, 4140 lncRNAs were identified and found to be dynamically expressed during fungal development. The lncRNAs had shorter transcript lengths and lower numbers of exons compared to protein-coding genes. The expressed target genes (neighboring and cis-regulated) of various expressed lncRNAs were predicted, and these genes showed significant enrichment in energy metabolism and signaling pathways, such as 'Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis' and "MAPK signaling pathway". To better understand how lncRNAs function in the fungus, xrn1, the final gene of the NMD pathway, which determines the fate of lncRNAs, was disrupted. The Δxrn1 deletion mutant displayed significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of virulence and a lower growth rate in C. militaris. Quantitative RT-PCR results revealed 10 lncRNAs with significantly higher expression, while 8 of these 10 lncRNA target genes (virulence- and sexual development-related) showed significantly lower expression in Δxrn1 compared to in the wild-type, suggesting that lncRNA expression regulates fungal virulence and sexual development by affecting gene expression. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lncRNAs in C. militaris play important roles in the fungal infection progress and fruiting body production, providing a broad repertoire and resource for further studies of lncRNAs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Cordyceps/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Reprodução
8.
Microbiol Res ; 216: 12-22, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269851

RESUMO

Selecting entomopathogenic fungal isolates with resilience to environmental stresses, optimal mass production characteristics, and with high virulence to target pests favors the development of mycopesticides. A case in point, Cordyceps (= Isaria) javanica has been extensively investigated for non-chemical control of whiteflies worldwide. We phylogenetically characterized 11 native C. javanica isolates from Northeastern and Central Brazil. These isolates were screened for tolerance to heat-shock, UV-B radiation, osmotic and oxidative stresses, as well as conidial production on cereal grain and insecticidal activity against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1) in the laboratory. All isolates were pathogenic to whiteflies and significant (3-fold) differences in median lethal concentration were observed among isolates. Furthermore, pronounced differences among isolates were found for stress factors and conidial production. Using principal component analysis, our results highlighted three major clusters formed by isolates (i) resistant to osmotic and oxidative stress, (ii) resilient to UV-B, and (iii) with high virulence, conidial production and heat tolerance. Overall, isolate CG1228 performed best based on multi-stress resistance, mass production and virulence attributes in the laboratory. This study highlights the importance of exploring natural variation in entomopathogenic fungi for selection of appropriate isolates for effective biocontrol of insect pests coupled with mass production characteristics and abiotic stress tolerances.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/isolamento & purificação , Cordyceps/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Reprodução Assexuada/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Brasil , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Cordyceps/efeitos da radiação , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Inseticidas , Análise Multivariada , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Oxidativo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Filogenia , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raios Ultravioleta , Virulência
9.
Fungal Biol ; 122(9): 891-899, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115323

RESUMO

Cordyceps tenuipes is an entomopathogenic fungus that infects mostly pupae of several lepidopteran families. In Colombia the species has been reported in non-disturbed tropical rain forests and more recently in butterfly gardens. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity in populations of C. tenuipes present in natural (forests) and artificial (e.g. butterfly gardens) environments in the department of Quindío, Colombia, using three molecular nuclear markers ITS, TEF-1α and RPB1. All the samples evaluated corresponded morphologically and phylogenetically to C. tenuipes. The butterfly garden of Quindio Botanical Garden (QBG) showed the highest genetic diversity among all sampling localities and was very similar to that of its adjacent forest. The Amaranta Butterfly Garden (ABG), located north of QBG, showed lower genetic diversity as well as little genetic differentiation with QBG, consistent with the hypothesis of a pathogen transfer from QBG to ABG. Higher FST values were observed for TEF-1α and ITS, revealing genetic differentiation between all demes and the southern forest population. Our research constitutes the first study of the intraspecific diversity of C. tenuipes in Colombia and can serve as the first step in identifying diversity reservoirs and management of epizootic episodes caused by this fungal species.


Assuntos
Borboletas/microbiologia , Cordyceps/genética , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Florestas , Jardins , Animais , Colômbia , Variação Genética , Filogenia
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9896, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967469

RESUMO

Development of alternative vector control strategies are becoming more pressing given the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance and the rise of vector borne pathogens affecting public health such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Fungal-based biopesticides are promising alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they are ecofriendly and are highly effective at infecting insects through contact. This study evaluated the susceptibility of the yellow fever mosquito Ae. aegypti to a range of entomopathogenic fungal strains from the genus Isaria. We observed a diverse variation in the virulence of the Isaria strains tested, with two strains showing high pathogenicity towards adult mosquitoes. Mosquito susceptibility to fungal infection was further corroborated through the molecular quantification of fungal loads and the transcript evaluation of a fungal-specific pathogen recognition molecule in the mosquito body. Moreover, quantitative analysis of transcript abundance coupled with enzymatic assays revealed strain-specific subversion of the melanization cascade, an important immune response component. Our study contributes critical insights for a better understanding of fungal-mosquito interactions.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Aedes/imunologia , Aedes/metabolismo , Animais , Cordyceps/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7789, 2017 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798416

RESUMO

For more than one thousand years, Cordyceps sinensis has been revered as a unique halidom in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for its mysterious life history and predominant medicinal values. This mysterious fungus-larva symbiote also attracted the over-exploitation, while several problems on the initial colonization of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the host larva have constrained artificial cultivation. In this work, stable carbon isotope analysis was employed to analyse the subsamples of C. sinensis from 5 representative habitats. The results demonstrated that these samples possessed similar δ13C profiles, i.e., a steady ascending trend from the top to the bottom of stroma, occurrence of the δ13C maximum at the head, a slight decrease from the head to the end of thorax, a sharply descent trend from the end of thorax to the forepart of abdomen, and maintenance of lower δ13C values in the rest parts of abdomen. Based on the data, we consider that the site near the head of the host larva may be the initial target attacked by O. sinensis, and the fungus growth is closely related to the digestive tract of its host larva. The growth stages of O. sinensis are accordingly speculated as the symptom-free, symptom-appearing, and stroma-germinating stages.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
12.
Gene ; 626: 132-139, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512059

RESUMO

The first genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris (iWV1170) was constructed representing its whole metabolisms, which consisted of 894 metabolites and 1,267 metabolic reactions across five compartments, including the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, peroxisome and extracellular space. The iWV1170 could be exploited to explain its phenotypes of growth ability, cordycepin and other metabolites production on various substrates. A high number of genes encoding extracellular enzymes for degradation of complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins were existed in C. militaris genome. By comparative genome-scale analysis, the adenine metabolic pathway towards putative cordycepin biosynthesis was reconstructed, indicating their evolutionary relationships across eleven species of entomopathogenic fungi. The overall metabolic routes involved in the putative cordycepin biosynthesis were also identified in C. militaris, including central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism (glycine, l-glutamine and l-aspartate) and nucleotide metabolism (adenosine and adenine). Interestingly, a lack of the sequence coding for ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor was observed in C. militaris that might contribute to its over-production of cordycepin.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Desoxiadenosinas/biossíntese , Desoxiadenosinas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/genética , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
13.
Adv Genet ; 94: 67-105, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27131323

RESUMO

Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Genômica/métodos , Insetos/microbiologia , Animais , Beauveria/genética , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Evolução Biológica , Cordyceps/genética , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Metarhizium/genética , Metarhizium/patogenicidade
14.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 77: 95-107, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25896956

RESUMO

Intra-specific comparison of mitochondrial genomes can help elucidate the evolution of a species, however it has not been performed for hypocrealean fungi that form diverse symbiotic associations with other organisms. In this study, comparative analyses of three completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes of a hypocrealean fungus, Cordyceps militaris, the type species of Cordyceps genus, revealed that the introns were the main contributors to mitochondrial genome size variations among strains. Mitochondrial genes in C. militaris have been invaded by group I introns in at least eight positions. PCR assays of various C. militaris isolates showed abundant variations of intron presence/absence among strains at seven of the eight intronic loci. Although the ancestral intron pattern was inferred to contain all eight introns, loss and/or gain events occurred for seven of the eight introns. These introns invaded the C. militaris mitochondrial genome probably by horizontal transfer from other fungi, and intron insertions into intronless genes in C. militaris were accompanied by co-conversions of upstream exon sequences especially for those introns targeting protein-coding genes. We also detected phylogenetic congruence between the intron and exon trees at each individual locus, consistent with the ancestral mitochondria of C. militaris as having all eight introns. This study helps to explain the evolution of C. militaris mitochondrial genomes and will facilitate population genetic studies of this medicinally important fungus.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial , Íntrons , Animais , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Cordyceps/ultraestrutura , Éxons , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Larva/microbiologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Filogenia
15.
PLoS One ; 7(11): e49737, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23185420

RESUMO

Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general?


Assuntos
Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Fungos/patogenicidade , Tisanópteros/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Cordyceps/fisiologia , Feminino , Fungos/fisiologia , Insetos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 4(3): e4835, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19279680

RESUMO

Parasites are likely to play an important role in structuring host populations. Many adaptively manipulate host behaviour, so that the extended phenotypes of these parasites and their distributions in space and time are potentially important ecological variables. The fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, which is pan-tropical in distribution, causes infected worker ants to leave their nest and die under leaves in the understory of tropical rainforests. Working in a forest dynamic plot in Southern Thailand we mapped the occurrence of these dead ants by examining every leaf in 1,360 m(2) of primary rainforest. We established that high density aggregations exist (up to 26 dead ants/m(2)), which we coined graveyards. We further established that graveyards are patchily distributed in a landscape with no or very few O. unilateralis-killed ants. At some, but not all, spatial scales of analysis the density of dead ants correlated with temperature, humidity and vegetation cover. Remarkably, having found 2243 dead ants inside graveyards we only found 2 live ants of the principal host, ant Camponotus leonardi, suggesting that foraging host ants actively avoid graveyards. We discovered that the principal host ant builds nests in high canopy and its trails only occasionally descend to the forest floor where infection occurs. We advance the hypothesis that rare descents may be a function of limited canopy access to tree crowns and that resource profitability of such trees is potentially traded off against the risk of losing workers due to infection when forest floor trails are the only access routes. Our work underscores the need for an integrative approach that recognises multiple facets of parasitism, such as their extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Formigas/microbiologia , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Clima Tropical
17.
Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci ; 73(3): 395-403, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19226778

RESUMO

In biological control, different benefit organisms have to combine for an effective management. If entomopathogenic fungi will be integrated, than it has to be considered also the effect on non-target organisms Like beneficial arthropods. Because of the high importance of predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in biological control it was to determine side effects of Leconicillium muscarium on this species. In two standardised biotests in petri dish and on plants (P. vulgaris) individuals were dipped in suspension or set down on leafs after spraying with L. muscarium at different spore density. Results indicate pathogenicity for the predatory mite in principle. But the dimension of infection risk decrease, all the more conditions approach to practical sequence. Under practical conditions on plants and in practical relevant concentration of 10(6) and 10(7) sp./ml no risk is to expect on the plant.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Ácaros/microbiologia , Animais , Cordyceps/fisiologia , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Fabaceae/parasitologia , Germinação , Ácaros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/ultraestrutura
18.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 55(2): 304-7, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17268106

RESUMO

Two novel diphenyl ether glycosides and a new diphenyl ether, cordyol A-C (1-3), were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. BCC 1861. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS spectral analyses. Cordyol C (3) exhibited significant anti-HSV-1 activity with an IC50 value of 1.3 microg/ml, and cytotoxic activity against BC and NCI-H187 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 8.65 and 3.72 microg/ml, respectively. Cordyol A (1) displayed weak antimycobacterial activity with a MIC value of 100 microg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Insetos/microbiologia , Éteres Fenílicos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Éteres Fenílicos/química , Éteres Fenílicos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 152(Pt 9): 2843-2854, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16946278

RESUMO

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana holds much promise as a pest biological control agent. B. bassiana produces at least three in vitro single cell infectious propagules, including aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores and submerged conidia, that display different morphological, biochemical and virulence properties. Populations of aerial conidia, blastospores and submerged conidia were produced on agar plates, rich liquid broth cultures and under conditions of nutrient limitation in submerged cultures, respectively. cDNA libraries were generated from mRNA isolated from each B. bassiana cell type and approximately 2,500 5' end sequences were determined from each library. Sequences derived from aerial conidia clustered into 284 contigs and 963 singlets, with those derived from blastospores and submerged conidia forming 327 contigs with 788 singlets, and 303 contigs and 1,079 contigs, respectively. Almost half (40-45 %) of the sequences in each library displayed either no significant similarity (e value >10(-4)) or similarity to hypothetical proteins found in the NCBI database. The expressed sequence tag dataset also included sequences representing a significant portion of proteins in cellular metabolism, information storage and processing, transport and cell processes, including cell division and posttranslational modifications. Transcripts encoding a diverse array of pathogenicity-related genes, including proteases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases and enzymes producing toxic secondary metabolites, were also identified. Comparative analysis between the libraries identified 2,416 unique sequences, of which 20-30 % were unique to each library, and only approximately 6 % of the sequences were shared between all three libraries. The unique and divergent representation of the B. bassiana transcriptome in the cDNA libraries from each cell type suggests robust differential gene expression profiles in response to environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Biblioteca Gênica , Insetos/microbiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Animais , Cordyceps/genética , DNA Fúngico/análise , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas In Vitro , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
20.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 152(Pt 9): 2855-2864, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16946279

RESUMO

In the accompanying paper [Cho, E.-M., Liu, L., Farmerie, W. & Keyhani, N. O. (2006). Microbiology 152, 2843-2854], the analysis of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries derived from homogeneous single-cell populations of aerial conidia, in vitro blastospores and submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana has been reported. Here an extended EST analysis is presented of complex cell mixtures derived from fungal cells sporulating on chitin or grown under culture conditions inducing the production of the B. bassiana secondary metabolite, oosporein. Fungal material used for the construction of the libraries included germinating conidia and blastospores, mycelia, as well as cells in various developmental stages. Approximately 2,500 5' end sequences were determined from random sequencing of clones from each library, and were clustered into 277 contigs with 1,069 singlets, and 306 contigs with 1,064 singlets, for the chitin and oosporein libraries, respectively. Almost half (45-50 %) of the sequences in each library displayed either no significant similarity (e value >10(-4)) or similarity to hypothetical proteins found in the NCBI database. Approximately 20-25 % of the sequences in each library could be annotated by gene ontology terms. A comparative analysis between the two libraries, as well as the libraries in the accompanying paper, is presented. A set of 4,360 clustered and unique sequences was characterized. The data are indicative of a highly plastic gene expression repertoire being available to B. bassiana for growth during different environmental and developmental conditions, and provides a dataset for gene discovery and genome annotation.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Cordyceps/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Biblioteca Gênica , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Cordyceps/citologia , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cordyceps/patogenicidade , DNA Complementar , Bases de Dados Genéticas
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