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1.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 23-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672836

RESUMO

The impact of public health measures on the coronavirus-2019 pandemic was analyzed by comparing mandatory versus voluntary nonpharmaceutical interventions between 2 comparable European countries and among 3 U.S. states. Using an ecological retrospective cohort study design, we examine differences in mortality, economic impact, and equity. Compared to voluntary policies, mandatory shelter-in-place policies were associated with a 3- to 5-fold lower population-adjusted mortality in the U.S. model and between 11- to 12-fold lower in the European one. Voluntary shelter-in-place measures were associated with overall increased mortality cost, as measured by value of a statistical life; somewhat greater decreases in gross domestic product; and substantial negative impacts on minority communities, who experienced markedly increased mortality rates (the percentage of minority deaths was 2.3 and 4 times greater in the U.S. model and 14.5 times higher in the European one) and mortality cost (2.7- and 4.5-fold higher in the U.S. model and 11.1-fold higher in the European one). We conclude that voluntary policies are less effective than mandatory ones, based on historical precedent and the current analysis. Negative effects on health equity mirrored the increased mortality outcomes of voluntary policies, and there was no apparent economic benefit associated with voluntary measures.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J. Health NPEPS ; 6(2): 1-17, dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1342832

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze survival and factors associated with increased risk of death for older adults diagnosed with COVID-19, living in the Northeast region of Brazil. Method: retrospective observational study developed with secondary data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, between June 14 and December 26, 2020. The Kaplan-Meyer method, the time-dependent cox regression model was used, including covariates (age, sex, skin color, comorbidities, admission to the ICU, ventilatory support). Results: out of 9,306 individuals analyzed, 55.9% died and 44.1% survived. The highest risk of death was observed for those aged 80-89 (HR=1.95), brown-skinned (HR=1.99), with immunodeficiency (HR=1.259) or kidney disease (HR=1.147), admitted to the ICU (HR=1,795) and in use of ventilatory support (HR=1606). Conclusion: among older adults residing in the Northeast region of Brazil, there was a higher risk of death from COVID-19 for octogenarians, brown-skinned, with comorbidities, hospitalization in the ICU, followed by the use of ventilatory support. The creation of health prevention strategies that identify older adults with these profiles is suggested to prevent deaths in future pandemic situations.


RESUMENObjetivo: analizar la supervivencia y los factores asociados con un mayor riesgo de muerte en ancianos diagnosticados con COVID-19, residentes en la región Nordeste de Brasil. Método: estudio observacional retrospectivo desarrollado con datos secundarios proporcionados por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, entre el 14 de junio y el 26 de diciembre de 2020. Se utilizó el método de Kaplan-Meyer, modelo de regresión de Cox-tempo-dependiente, incluyendo covariables (edad, sexo, color de piel, comorbilidades, ingreso en UCI, soporte ventilatorio). Resultados: 9.306 personas analizadas, el 55,9% falleció y el 44,1% sobrevivió. El mayor riesgo de muerte se observó en las personas de 80 a 89 años (HR=1,95), color de piel morena (HR=1,99), inmunodeficiencia (HR=1,259), enfermedad renal (HR=1,147), con ingreso en UCI (HR=1.795) y uso de soporte ventilatorio (HR=1606). Conclusión: entre los ancianos residentes en la región Nordeste de Brasil, hubo mayor riesgo de muerte por COVID-19 para los octogenarios, color de piel morena, que tenían comorbilidades, hospitalización en la UCI, seguido del uso de soporte ventilatorio. Se sugiere la creación de estrategias de prevención en salud que identifiquen a las personas mayores con estos perfiles para prevenir muertes en futuras situaciones pandémicas.


RESUMOObjetivo: analisar a sobrevida e os fatores associados ao maior risco de morte para idosos com diagnóstico de COVID-19, residentes na região Nordeste do Brasil. Método: estudo observacional retrospectivo desenvolvido com dados secundários fornecidos pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, entre 14 dejunho a 26 de dezembro de 2020. Utilizou-se o método de Kaplan-Meyer, o modelo de regressão de cox tempo-dependente, incluindo covariáveis (idade, sexo, cor da pele, comorbidades, admissão na UTI, suporte ventilatório). Resultados: 9.306 indivíduos foram analisados; 55,9% morreram e 44,1% sobreviveram. O maior risco de ocorrência de óbitos foi observado para aqueles entre 80-89 anos (HR=1,95), cor da pele parda (HR=1,99), imunodeficiência (HR=1,259), doença renal (HR=1,147), com admissão em UTI (HR=1,795) e uso de suporte ventilatório (HR=1.606). Conclusão: entre idosos residentes na região Nordeste do Brasil, constatou-se maior risco de óbitos por COVID-19 para octogenários, cor parda, que apresentaram comorbidades, internação em UTI, seguido do uso de suporte ventilatório. Sugere-se a criação de estratégias de prevenção em saúde que identifiquem idosos com esses perfis para prevenir óbitos em futuras situações de pandemia.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Infectio ; 25(4): 296-299, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286726

RESUMO

Resumen La identificación del nuevo Coronavirus tipo 2 en marzo de 2020 en Colombia ha generado paradigmas e incógnitas en la epidemiología nacional con respecto a la llegada aproximada del virus y sus mecanismos de diseminación local en los departamentos y ciudades principales. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con COVID-19 que tuvo su inicio de síntomas dos semanas antes de la declaración del primer caso en Colombia, lo que sugiere circulación del virus y transmisión local en Colombia previo a la declaración de la epidemia.


Abstract The identification of Coronavirus type 2 in March 2020 in Colombia has generated paradigms and unknows in the national epidemiology regarding the approxi mate arrival of the virus and its mechanisms of local dissemination in the main departments and cities. We present the case of a patient with COVID-19 that had its onset of symptoms two weeks before the declaration of the first case in Colombia, wich moves the circulation of the virus and local transmission in Colombia prior the declaration of the epidemic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Vírus , Epidemiologia , Colômbia , Epidemias , Infecções
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213555, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254634

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated, by the application of questionnaires, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical routine and inspection by the competent authorities, on the flow of patients in the office, as well as on possible changes in Endodontic treatment costs and the amounts charged to patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2nd, 2020 to May 6th, 2020, using an online questionnaire with a convenience sample. The inclusion criterion was professionals who perform endodontic treatments in daily clinical practice and who professional setting is private practice. The questionnaire brought questions about the impact on costs and the amount charged to the patient. Results: A total of 1042 questionnaires were answered from all the different states of Brazil, by professional who usually perform Endodontic treatment, and who is working in private practice. A total of 1010 (96.9%) respondents affirm it was necessary to modify the protective equipment in endodontic treatment due to pandemic and longer intervals between appointments was cited by 922 (88.5%), economically affecting the dental practice. There was no association between routine changes and economic impacts with gender, professional experience, area of residence or education level. Conclusion: In conclusion, most dental professionals recognized changes in the routine of endodontic treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have a perception of increase in endodontic costs, and reduction in the volume of patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Coronavirus , Consultórios Odontológicos , Endodontia
5.
Infectio ; 25(4): 289-292, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286724

RESUMO

Resumen La trombosis de senos venosos cerebrales es un evento infrecuente en la población pediátrica y sus manifestaciones clínicas pueden variar dependiendo de la localización y extensión de la lesión, etiología o grupo etario (1); así mismo, la asociación de esta patología con virus es poco común, sin embargo, se han repor tado casos de trombosis de senos venosos en pacientes adultos con SARS-CoV-2 en relación con los mecanismos de lesión endotelial y respuesta inflamatoria que desencadena mecanismos procoagulantes. A continuación se presenta el primer caso reportado en Colombia de un caso de trombosis venosa cerebral en un lactante previamente sano, que debuta con un cuadro infeccioso gastrointestinal que resuelve y una semana después se presenta con cefalea y paralisis del VI par craneal derecho. Se documentó por angioto mografía trombosis del seno venoso sagital con extensión a senos transversos; los laboratorios fueron negativos para otras causas sistémicas y con prueba de anticuerpos para coronavirus positiva.


Abstract Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is infrequent in the pediatric population and its clinical manifestations may vary depending on the anatomical location and the extent of the lesion, etiology or age group(1). The association of this pathology with viruses is uncommon, however, cases in adults with SARS-Cov2 have been reported triggered by procoagulant mechanisms due to endothelial injury and inflammatory response. The following article is the first reported case in Colombia of cerebral venous thrombosis in a previously healthy child, who debuted with gastrointestinal infectious disease and a week later with headache and sixth right cranial nerve palsy . The diagnosis of sagittal venous sinus thrombosis with extension to transverse sinuses was documented in a computed tomography angiography; laboratories for systemic diseases were negative and antibodies for coronavirus were positive.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Trombose , Vírus , Coronavirus , Trombose Venosa , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos , Seios Transversos , Cefaleia
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1321-1327, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749476

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human coronavirus (HCoV) in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection in Hebei region, providing evidence for the diagnosis and prevention of children with respiratory tract infection. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 1 062 HCoV positive children hospitalized for respiratory tract infection in Children's Hospital of Hebei Province from January 2015 to December 2020, aged from 33 days to 14 years, with a median age of 2 years. 27 932 (60.9%) were males and 17 944(39.1%) were females. And the gender, ages, seasonal distribution, HCoV-positive rates, co-detection distribution and clinical diagnosis of HCoV positive cases were analyzed by SPSS 25.0. Enumeration data were expressed by frequency and percentage; categorical variable were compared by the Pearson χ2test. Results: The overall HCoV-positive rate was 2.31% (1 062/45 876), which was 2.37% (662/27 932) in male children and 2.23% (400/17 944) in female children. There was no statistically significant difference between genders (χ²=0.916, P=0.339). Children at age groups<1 years (2.44%) and 1-<3 years (2.63%) had higher HCoV-positive rates than those at age groups 3-<5 years (1.97%) and ≥5 years (1.38%) (χ²=27.332,P<0.01). The HCoV-positive rates from 2015 to 2018 were 2.13%, 2.45%, 2.28% and 2.23%. The HCoV-positive rate of 2019 (1.71%) was significantly lower than in 2016 (χ²=12.05, P<0.01), 2017 (χ²=7.34, P=0.01) and 2018 (χ²=6.78, P=0.01), but there was no significant difference compared with 2015 (χ²=2.84, P=0.09). The HCoV-positive rate of 2020 (3.37%) was significantly higher than in 2015 (χ²=13.636, P<0.01), 2016 (χ²=11.099, P<0.01), 2017 (χ²=15.482, P<0.01), 2018(χ²=18.601, P<0.01) and 2019(χ²=45.580, P<0.01). The positive rate was highest in spring (March to May) in 2015 and 2017 to 2018. February to April and July to September of 2016 were the peak periods of positive detection. No obvious seasonal change was observed in 2019 and the HCoV-positive rate of 2020 was extremely low from January to July, following significantly increased from August to December. 26.37% (280/1 062) of HCoV were co-detected with other respiratory pathogens and the most frequently identified mixed detection was RSV. Three or more pathogens were detected in 7.34% (78/1 062) of the HCoV-positive samples. Bronchopneumonia and bronchiolitis were more frequently observed in the single HCoV positive (61.89% and 16.75%) children compared to co-detected children(34.29% and 9.64%)(χ²=63.394 and 8.228, P<0.01). However, compared to those with HCoV mono-detection, co-detected children were more likely to have severe pneumonia (4.6% and 47.14%) (χ²=280.171, P<0.01). Conclusions: HCoV is one of the respiratory pathogens in children in Hebei region and more prevalent in spring. The susceptible population of HCoV is mainly children under the age of 3 years old. HCoV often co-detects with other respiratory pathogens, and the co-infection is one of the risk factors of severe pneumonia in children with respiratory infection.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
8.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770863

RESUMO

A novel human coronavirus prompted considerable worry at the end of the year 2019. Now, it represents a significant global health and economic burden. The newly emerged coronavirus disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the primary reason for the COVID-19 global pandemic. According to recent global figures, COVID-19 has caused approximately 243.3 million illnesses and 4.9 million deaths. Several human cell receptors are involved in the virus identification of the host cells and entering them. Hence, understanding how the virus binds to host-cell receptors is crucial for developing antiviral treatments and vaccines. The current work aimed to determine the multiple host-cell receptors that bind with SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses for the purpose of cell entry. Extensive research is needed using neutralizing antibodies, natural chemicals, and therapeutic peptides to target those host-cell receptors in extremely susceptible individuals. More research is needed to map SARS-CoV-2 cell entry pathways in order to identify potential viral inhibitors.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Receptores de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 855-868, out.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343989

RESUMO

Covid-19's worldwide research effort was reflected in the increase in scientific publications. To investigate and describe how Brazil's international scientific collaboration on the subject has been taking place, a bibliometric analysis was carried out, using the Scopus database as a data source, with a search strategy that included terms referring to the virus and the disease. 3,255 publications were recovered, between 1989 and 2020, of which 1,310 are in international scientific collaboration that was described in terms of nationality, institutional affiliation, journals that published the works, and their thematic area. These co-authored publications on covid-19 involved 148 countries, 104 of which are new partners. Over the period analyzed, new areas of knowledge were incorporated into the discussion on the topic.


O esforço mundial de pesquisa sobre covid-19 tem refletido no aumento de publicações científicas. A fim de investigar e descrever como vem se dando a colaboração científica internacional do Brasil no tema, foi realizada análise bibliométrica, que utilizou a base de dados Scopus como fonte de dados, com uma estratégia de busca que incluiu termos referentes ao vírus e à doença. Foram recuperadas 3.255 publicações, entre 1989 e 2020, das quais 1.310 são em colaboração científica internacional, que foram descritas em relação à nacionalidade, afiliação institucional, periódicos que publicaram os trabalhos e sua área temática. Essas publicações em coautoria sobre covid-19, envolveram 148 países, sendo que 104 deles são novos parceiros. Ao longo do período analisado, novas áreas de conhecimento foram incorporadas na discussão sobre o tema.


El esfuerzo de investigación mundial sobre covid-19 se ha reflejado en el aumento de publicaciones científicas. Para investigar y describir cómo se ha venido desarrollando la colaboración científica internacional de Brasil en el tema, se realizó un análisis bibliométrico, que utilizó como fuente de datos la base de datos Scopus, con una estrategia de búsqueda que incluyó términos referentes al virus y la enfermedad. Se recuperaron 3.255 publicaciones, entre 1989 y 2020, de las cuales 1.310 se encuentran en colaboración científica internacional, las cuales fueron descritas en relación a nacionalidad, filiación institucional, revistas que publicaron los trabajos y su área temática. Estas publicaciones en coautoría sobre covid-19 involucraron a 148 países, 104 de los cuales son nuevos socios. Durante el período analizado, se incorporaron nuevas áreas de conocimiento a la discusión sobre el tema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Coronavirus , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Publicações , Bibliometria , Ciência da Informação , Publicação Periódica
10.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 36(100853): 1-7, Oct. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1283815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may present high risk features during hospitalization, including cardiovascular manifestations. However, less is known about the factors that may further increase the risk of death in these patients. METHODS: We included patients with COVID-19 and high risk features according to clinical and/or laboratory criteria at 21 sites in Brazil from June 10th to October 23rd of 2020. All variables were collected until hospital discharge or in-hospital death. RESULTS: A total of 2546 participants were included (mean age 65 years; 60.3% male). Overall, 70.8% were admitted to intensive care units and 54.2% had elevated troponin levels. In-hospital mortality was 41.7%. An interaction among sex, age and mortality was found (p = 0.007). Younger women presented higher rates of death than men (30.0% vs 22.9%), while older men presented higher rates of death than women (57.6% vs 49.2%). The strongest factors associated with in-hospital mortality were need for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR] 8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.4­12.7), elevated C-reactive protein (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7­2.9), cancer (OR 1.8, 95 %CI 1.2­2.9), and elevated troponin levels (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4­2.3). A risk score was developed for risk assessment of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort showed that patients with COVID-19 and high risk features have an elevated rate of in-hospital mortality with differences according to age and sex. These results highlight unique aspects of this population and might help identifying patients who may benefit from more careful initial surveillance and potential subsequent interventional therapies


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Coronavirus , Medição de Risco
11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696406

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Gatos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Cães/virologia , Gado/virologia , Fusão de Membrana/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos/virologia , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia
12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696497

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses are known to be the most frequent causative mediators of lung infections in humans, bearing significant impact on the host cell signaling machinery due to their host-dependency for efficient replication. Certain cellular functions are actively induced by respiratory viruses for their own benefit. This includes metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, among others, which are modified during viral infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of metabolic pathway modifications mediated by the acute respiratory viruses respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), influenza virus (IV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), coronavirus (CoV) and adenovirus (AdV), and highlight potential targets and compounds for therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Glicólise/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/metabolismo , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/metabolismo , Rhinovirus/metabolismo
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630377

RESUMO

The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China, has become a worldwide pandemic affecting almost 204 million people and causing more than 4.3 million deaths as of August 11 2021. This pandemic has placed a substantial burden on the global healthcare system and the global economy. Availability of novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are crucially needed to prevent development of severe disease leading to major complications both acutely and chronically. The success in fighting this virus results from three main achievements: (a) Direct killing of the SARS-CoV-2 virus; (b) Development of a specific vaccine, and (c) Enhancement of the host's immune system. A fundamental necessity to win the battle against the virus involves a better understanding of the host's innate and adaptive immune response to the virus. Although the role of the adaptive immune response is directly involved in the generation of a vaccine, the role of innate immunity on RNA viruses in general, and coronaviruses in particular, is mostly unknown. In this review, we will consider the structure of RNA viruses, mainly coronaviruses, and their capacity to affect the lungs and the cardiovascular system. We will also consider the effects of the pattern recognition protein (PRP) trident composed by (a) Surfactant proteins A and D, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement component 1q (C1q), (b) C-reactive protein, and (c) Innate and adaptive IgM antibodies, upon clearance of viral particles and apoptotic cells in lungs and atherosclerotic lesions. We emphasize on the role of pattern recognition protein immune therapies as a combination treatment to prevent development of severe respiratory syndrome and to reduce pulmonary and cardiovascular complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and summarize the need of a combined therapeutic approach that takes into account all aspects of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 disease to allow mankind to beat this pandemic killer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Pulmão/virologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/patologia
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090821, 2021 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612687

RESUMO

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A)/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteólise , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Suínos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Células Vero
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1313: 59-83, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661891

RESUMO

Respiratory viral infections often lead to severe illnesses varying from mild or asymptomatic upper respiratory tract infections to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia or/and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Common viral infections, including but not limited to influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus and coronavirus, are often the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Since the lungs are continuously exposed to foreign particles, including respiratory pathogens, it is also well equipped for recognition and antiviral defense utilizing the complex network of innate and adaptive immune cells. Immediately upon infection, a range of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and an interferon response is generated, thereby making the immune response a two edged sword, on one hand it is required to eliminate viral pathogens while on other hand it's prolonged response can lead to chronic infection and significant pulmonary damage. Since vaccines to all respiratory viruses are not available, a better understanding of the virus-host interactions, leading to the development of immune response, is critically needed to design effective therapies to limit the severity of inflammatory damage, enhance viral clearance and to compliment the current strategies targeting the virus. In this chapter, we discuss the host responses to common respiratory viral infections, the key players of adaptive and innate immunity and the fine balance that exists between the viral clearance and immune-mediated damage.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48469-48477, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623127

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of developing surfaces and coatings with antiviral activity. Here, we present, for the first time, peptide-based assemblies that can kill viruses. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the assemblies is in the range tens of micrograms per milliliter. This value is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the MIC of metal nanoparticles. When applied on a surface, by drop casting, the peptide spherical assemblies adhere to the surface and form an antiviral coating against both RNA- and DNA-based viruses including coronavirus. Our results show that the coating reduced the number of T4 bacteriophages (DNA-based virus) by 3 log, compared with an untreated surface and 6 log, when compared with a stock solution. Importantly, we showed that this coating completely inactivated canine coronavirus (RNA-based virus). This peptide-based coating can be useful wherever sterile surfaces are needed to reduce the risk of viral transmission.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Peptídeos/química , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bacteriófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/química , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 128, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses can be isolated from bats, civets, pangolins, birds and other wild animals. As an animal-origin pathogen, coronavirus can cross species barrier and cause pandemic in humans. In this study, a deep learning model for early prediction of pandemic risk was proposed based on the sequences of viral genomes. METHODS: A total of 3257 genomes were downloaded from the Coronavirus Genome Resource Library. We present a deep learning model of cross-species coronavirus infection that combines a bidirectional gated recurrent unit network with a one-dimensional convolution. The genome sequence of animal-origin coronavirus was directly input to extract features and predict pandemic risk. The best performances were explored with the use of pre-trained DNA vector and attention mechanism. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the area under precision-recall curve (AUPR) were used to evaluate the predictive models. RESULTS: The six specific models achieved good performances for the corresponding virus groups (1 for AUROC and 1 for AUPR). The general model with pre-training vector and attention mechanism provided excellent predictions for all virus groups (1 for AUROC and 1 for AUPR) while those without pre-training vector or attention mechanism had obviously reduction of performance (about 5-25%). Re-training experiments showed that the general model has good capabilities of transfer learning (average for six groups: 0.968 for AUROC and 0.942 for AUPR) and should give reasonable prediction for potential pathogen of next pandemic. The artificial negative data with the replacement of the coding region of the spike protein were also predicted correctly (100% accuracy). With the application of the Python programming language, an easy-to-use tool was created to implements our predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Robust deep learning model with pre-training vector and attention mechanism mastered the features from the whole genomes of animal-origin coronaviruses and could predict the risk of cross-species infection for early warning of next pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Animais , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
Enferm Clin ; 31: S84-S88, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629855

RESUMO

Objective: To synthesize the available evidence on the use of antiseptics and disinfectants in the face of VIDOC-19 infection. Method: Bibliographic search in the main databases (WOS, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, SCIELO, PubMed, BMJ Best Practice, Cochrane Library, UptoDate) and on the web of official bodies in March 2020, using descriptors and truncations. The search was limited to reviews published between 2016-2020. Results: Thirty-six papers were identified (no duplicates) of which 17 were selected for relevance and specificity and one paper was added from the literature review. In the documents finally used, no evidence was located, but experiences and recommendations of interest were found, highlighting the importance of material, environmental and, very significantly, hand disinfection. Conclusion: There is no clear evidence, nor are there clear recommendations for the use of one or another antiseptic, although the action of sodium hypochlorite, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide is highlighted in comparison to others such as benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine digluconate, povidoeyodine and diluted ethyl alcohol. Particular importance is attached to their use in hand hygiene, the use of protective equipment and environmental disinfection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Desinfetantes , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos
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