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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126714, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325293

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a critical waterborne protozoan pathogen found in water resources that have been a major cause of death and serious illnesses worldwide, costing millions of dollars annually for its detection and treatment. Over the past several decades, substantial efforts have been made towards developing techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Early diagnostic techniques were established based on the existing tools in laboratories, such as microscopes. Advancements in fluorescence microscopy, immunological, and molecular techniques have led to the development of several kits for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. However, these methods have several limitations, such as long processing times, large sample volumes, the requirement for bulky and expensive laboratory tools, and the high cost of reagents. There is an urgent need to improve these existing techniques and develop low-cost, portable and rapid detection tools for applications in the water quality industry. In this review, we compare recent advances in nanotechnology, biosensing and microfluidics that have facilitated the development of sophisticated tools for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp.Finally, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages, of these state-of-the-art detection methods compared to current analytical methodologies and discuss the need for future developments to improve such methods for detecting Cryptosporidium in the water supply chain to enable real-time and on-site monitoring in water resources and remote areas.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium , Abastecimento de Água , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Qualidade da Água
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131767, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399254

RESUMO

The efficiency of microalgae harvesting on the removal of Giardia spp. cysts, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium spp. was assessed in lab-scale experiments (Jartest and Flotatest) using effluent from a flat panel photobioreactor used for Chlorella sorokiniana cultivation. Three harvesting methods were evaluated: (1) flocculation induced by pH modulation followed by sedimentation (pH-SED), (2) flocculation induced by pH modulation followed by dissolved air flotation (pH-DAF), and (3) coagulation using an organic coagulant (Tanfloc SG) followed by dissolved air flotation (Coag-DAF). The results indicated that the three harvesting methods were efficient in removing protozoan (oo)cysts and bacteria, achieving percentages of removal higher than 97% for all the analyzed pathogens. Among the three methods, pH-SED showed the best removal performance: 99.60% (2.5 log) for Giardia spp. cysts, 100% (>6.3 log) for total coliforms, 100% (>4.6 log) for Escherichia coli, 100% (>5.8 log) for Enterococcus spp. and 99.96% (3.6 log) for Clostridium spp. Clostridium spp. seemed to be more tolerant to the harvesting methods than the other groups of bacteria analyzed in the study, and its presence was positively correlated to the presence of Giardia spp. cysts.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Cistos , Microalgas , Animais , Bactérias , Giardia , Oocistos
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 770612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733797

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp., the causative agent of cryptosporidiosis, can infect a variety of hosts. So far, there has been limited information regarding Cryptosporidium spp. infection in yaks (Bos grunniens). Here, we performed the first systematic review and meta-analysis for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in yaks in China. To perform the meta-analysis, five databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Chinese journal database, WanFang Data, PubMed, and ScienceDirect) were employed to search for studies related to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks in China. The total number of samples was 8,212, and the pooled Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence in yaks was estimated to be 10.52% (1192/8012). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks was 13.54% (1029/5277) and 4.49% (148/2132) in northwestern and southwestern China, respectively. In the sampling year subgroups, the prevalence before 2012 (19.79%; 650/2662) was significantly higher than that after 2012 (6.07%; 437/4476). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cold seasons (20.55%; 188/794) was higher than that in warm seasons (4.83%; 41/1228). In the age subgroup, the yaks with age < 12 months had a higher prevalence (19.47%; 231/1761) than that in yaks with age ≥12 months (16.63%; 365/2268). Among 12 Cryptosporidium spp. species/genotypes, the C. bovis had the highest prevalence. Moreover, the effects of geography (latitude, longitude, precipitation, temperature, and altitude) and climate on Cryptosporidium spp. infection in yaks were evaluated. Through analyzing the risk factors correlated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., we recommend that effective management measures should be formulated according to the differences of different geographical factors, in order to prevent cryptosporidiosis and reduce economic losses in yaks in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
Open Vet J ; 11(3): 500-507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722215

RESUMO

Background: Diarrhea in newborn small ruminants continues to be the cause of significant financial loss in sheep and goat farms worldwide. Commercial immunochromatographic (IC) assays have been designed and evaluated to be used for the diagnosis of diarrhea in cattle; however, there are no trials to use rapid tests in small ruminants. Aim: This study was carried out in Kuwait to evaluate the performance of the rapid immunochromatography test (BoviD-4, BioNote, Inc, Korea) for diagnostics of Cryptosporidium, rotavirus A (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and Escherichia coli K99 (E. coli K99) in fecal samples of sheep and goats. Methods: A total of 85 samples were examined using BoviD-4, and the results were compared with that of polymerase chain reaction for Cryptosporidium, RVA, and BCoV, whereas for E. coli K99 it was by isolation and identification as reference tests. Results: The kappa test agreement results between the BoviD-4 and reference tests were 0.870 (perfect), 0.783 (substantial), 0.728 (substantial), and 0.281 (fair) for the detection of E. coli K99, Cryptosporidium, RVA, and BCoV, respectively. The sensitivity of BoviD-4 kit was 91.2%, 80.0%, 90.0%, and 37.5% and the specificity was 88.2%, 96.0%, 96.4%, and 92.2% for Cryptosporidium, RVA, E. coli K99, and BCoV, respectively. Conclusion: The Bovid-4 kit can be used as a rapid pen-side test for Cryptosporidium spp., E. coli K99, and RVA in the field. Nonetheless, care must be taken while interpreting the BCoV results of the kit.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Cryptosporidium , Escherichia coli , Rotavirus , Animais , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Cabras , Kuweit , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644726

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 741, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674049

RESUMO

Urban wastewater is a resource that can be reused, but its management must be carefully executed, considering its potential impact on public and environmental health. Unfortunately, marked differences in the quality of treatment, management, collection, and the monitoring of wastewater exist among low-, middle-, and high-income countries. This is the case of the Mezquital Valley, a semi-rural area that is composed of agricultural and industrial communities on the outskirts of Mexico City. For over 100 years, wastewater from Mexico City and its areas of conurbation has been sent to the Mezquital Valley, with few studies having been conducted to assess the existence and severity of bacterial and pathogen infiltration into the local aquifer. In this research, we present an assessment of wastewater infiltration transported from Mexico City, used for irrigation, with potential infiltration into the Mezquital Valley aquifer. We utilized stable isotope analysis of deuterium and oxygen-18 to determine whether a mixture of untreated wastewater from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) flows into the Mezquital aquifer. Also, tests for adenovirus, rotavirus, fecal coliform, fecal enterococci, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum were employed to determine the presence of fecal indicators and pathogens in different water sources in the study area. The results show the presence of indicators and pathogens in local wells used as water supply in Mezquital Valley. The presence of such indicators suggests that pathogens can reach the water consumed by the inhabitants, posing a hazard to persons exposed to these waters during their normal daily-life activities.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Subterrânea , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
7.
Water Res ; 205: 117675, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600226

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum is waterborne parasite that can cause potentially life-threatening gastrointestinal disease and is resistant to conventional water treatment processes, including chlorine disinfection. The current Environmental Protection Agency-approved method for oocyst detection and quantification is expensive, limiting the ability of water utilities to monitor complex watersheds thoroughly to understand the fate and transport of C. parvum oocysts. In this work, whole cell imprinting was used to create selective and sensitive surfaces for the capture of C. parvum oocysts in water. Cell-imprinted Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was manufactured using a modified stamping approach, and sensitivity and selectivity were analyzed using different water chemistries and different surrogate biological and non-biological particles. The overall binding affinity was determined to be less than that of highly specific antibodies, but on par with standard antibodies and immune-enabled technologies. These initial results demonstrate the potential for developing devices using cell-imprinting for use in waterborne pathogen analysis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Oocistos , Polímeros
8.
Water Res ; 205: 117707, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619609

RESUMO

Minimum treatment requirements are set in response to established or anticipated levels of enteric pathogens in the source water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). For surface water, contamination can be determined directly by monitoring reference pathogens or indirectly by measuring fecal indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the latter case, a quantitative interpretation of E. coli for estimating reference pathogen concentrations could be used to define treatment requirements. This study presents the statistical analysis of paired E. coli and reference protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia) data collected monthly for two years in source water from 27 DWTPs supplied by rivers in Canada. E. coli/Cryptosporidium and E. coli/Giardia ratios in source water were modeled as the ratio of two correlated lognormal variables. To evaluate the potential of E. coli for defining protozoa treatment requirements, risk-based critical mean protozoa concentrations in source water were determined with a reverse quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model. Model assumptions were selected to be consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. The sensitivity of mean E. coli concentration trigger levels to identify these critical concentrations in source water was then evaluated. Results showed no proportionalities between the log of mean E. coli concentrations and the log of mean protozoa concentrations. E. coli/protozoa ratios at DWTPs supplied by small rivers in agricultural and forested areas were typically 1.0 to 2.0-log lower than at DWTPs supplied by large rivers in urban areas. The seasonal variations analysis revealed that these differences were related to low mean E. coli concentrations during winter in small rivers. To achieve the WHO target of 10-6 disability-adjusted life year (DALY) per person per year, a minimum reduction of 4.0-log of Cryptosporidium would be required for 20 DWTPs, and a minimum reduction of 4.0-log of Giardia would be needed for all DWTPs. A mean E. coli trigger level of 50 CFU 100 mL-1 would be a sensitive threshold to identify critical mean concentrations for Cryptosporidium but not for Giardia. Treatment requirements higher than 3.0-log would be needed at DWTPs with mean E. coli concentrations as low as 30 CFU 100 mL-1 for Cryptosporidium and 3 CFU 100 mL-1 for Giardia. Therefore, an E. coli trigger level would have limited value for defining health-based treatment requirements for protozoa at DWTPs supplied by small rivers in rural areas.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Microbiologia da Água
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 332, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Captive wild animals in zoos infected with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. can be sources of zoonotic infections and diseases. Therefore, to investigate the distribution of these pathogens in captive wild animals of zoos in Henan, China, a total of 429 fresh fecal samples were collected from six zoos in Henan, China. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. were determined by PCR analysis of corresponding loci. Positive results for Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. hominis) were subtyped based on the (gp60) gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence was 43.1% (185/429), and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. were 2.8% (12/429), 0.5% (2/429), 20.8% (89/429), and 19.1% (82/429), respectively. Five Cryptosporidium species, namely, C. hominis, C. parvum, C. muris, C. andersoni, and C. macropodum, were identified in this study. Cryptosporidium parvum was further subtyped as IIdA19G1. Two Giardia duodenalis assemblages (A and E) were also identified. A total of 20 Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected, including 18 known (BEB6, D, HND-1, CD7, SDD1, Henan-IV, KIN-1, CHK1, Peru8, Henan-V, CHG11, CHG-1, CHS9, CHG21, Type-IV, CHC9, CM5, and CHB1) and 2 novel genotypes (CHWD1 and CHPM1). A total of nine subtypes of Blastocystis sp. (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST10, ST13, and ST14) were identified in captive wild animals in zoos in the present study. Cryptosporidium andersoni, nine Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and five Blastocystis subtypes were here first identified in new hosts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has expanded the host ranges of these four pathogens. The data indicate that animals in zoos can commonly be infected with these four zoonotic pathogens, and animals in zoos are potential sources of zoonotic infections in humans.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14758-14771, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669386

RESUMO

Urban sanitation infrastructure is inadequate in many low-income countries, leading to the presence of highly concentrated, uncontained fecal waste streams in densely populated areas. Combined with mechanisms of aerosolization, airborne transport of enteric microbes and their genetic material is possible in such settings but remains poorly characterized. We detected and quantified enteric pathogen-associated gene targets in aerosol samples near open wastewater canals (OWCs) or impacted (receiving sewage or wastewater) surface waters and control sites in La Paz, Bolivia; Kanpur, India; and Atlanta, USA, via multiplex reverse-transcription qPCR (37 targets) and ddPCR (13 targets). We detected a wide range of enteric targets, some not previously reported in extramural urban aerosols, with more frequent detections of all enteric targets at higher densities in La Paz and Kanpur near OWCs. We report density estimates ranging up to 4.7 × 102 gc per mair3 across all targets including heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., norovirus, and Cryptosporidium spp. Estimated 25, 76, and 0% of samples containing positive pathogen detects were accompanied by culturable E. coli in La Paz, Kanpur, and Atlanta, respectively, suggesting potential for viability of enteric microbes at the point of sampling. Airborne transmission of enteric pathogens merits further investigation in cities with poor sanitation.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Aerossóis , Cidades , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Humanos , Saneamento , Águas Residuárias
11.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(5): 293-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. is a protozoan parasite that infects many vertebrate animals, including humans. Since Cryptosporidium spp. can cause chronic life-threatening diarrhea and severe malabsorption in immunocompromised patients, we investigated the prevalence of this parasite among patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant solid tumors. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in stool samples. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Tertiary care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stool samples were collected from adult patients with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy and diarrhea. Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence was determined using Ziehl-Neelsen staining, ELISA, and real-time PCR targeting of the COWP gene. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant solid tumors. SAMPLE SIZE: 94 RESULTS: The prevalence was 2.1% (2/94), 5.3% (5/94), and 5.3% (5/94) as detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The prevalence reached 8.5% (8/94) using all results obtained from the three methods. Among eight positive stool samples, four were positive by at least two different methods (Ziehl-Neelsen staining-ELISA or ELISA-real-time PCR) whereas the remaining four were positive by either ELISA or real-time PCR. CONCLUSION: These findings show the risk of cryptosporidiosis in cancer patients and the necessity to use at least two diagnostic methods during the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis to reach more accurate and trustworthy results. LIMITATIONS: Further studies with a larger sample size are recommended. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Neoplasias , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
12.
Water Res ; 206: 117711, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637971

RESUMO

Globally, water-based bathing pastimes are important for both mental and physical health. However, exposure to waterborne organisms could present a substantial public health issue. Bathing waters are shown to contribute to the transmission of illness and disease and represent a reservoir and pathway for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) organisms. Current bathing water quality regulations focus on enumeration of faecal indicator organisms and are not designed for detection of specific waterborne organisms of public health concern (WOPHC), such as antimicrobial resistant (AMR)/pathogenic bacteria, or viruses. This investigation presents the first scoping review of the occurrence of waterborne organisms of public health concern (WOPHC) in identified natural bathing waters across the European Union (EU), which aimed to critically evaluate the potential risk of human exposure and to assess the appropriateness of the current EU bathing water regulations for the protection of public health. Accordingly, this review sought to identify and synthesise all literature pertaining to a selection of bacterial (Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas spp., AMR bacteria), viral (Hepatitis spp., enteroviruses, rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus), and protozoan (Giardia spp., and Cryptosporidium spp.) contaminants in EU bathing waters. Sixty investigations were identified as eligible for inclusion and data was extracted. Peer-reviewed investigations included were from 18 countries across the EU, totalling 87 investigations across a period of 35 years, with 30% published between 2011 and 2015. A variety of water bodies were identified, with 27 investigations exclusively assessing coastal waters. Waterborne organisms were classified into three categories; bacteria, viruses, and protozoa; amounting to 58%, 36% and 17% of the total investigations, respectively. The total number of samples across all investigations was 8,118, with detection of one or more organisms in 2,449 (30%) of these. Viruses were detected in 1281 (52%) of all samples where WOPHC were found, followed by bacteria (865(35%)) and protozoa (303(12%)). Where assessed (442 samples), AMR bacteria had a 47% detection rate, emphasising their widespread occurrence in bathing waters. Results of this scoping review highlight the potential public health risk of exposure to WOPHC in bathing waters that normally remain undetected within the current monitoring parameters.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516365

RESUMO

Introduction. The identification of enteropathogens is critical for the clinical management of patients with suspected gastrointestinal infection. The FLOW multiplex PCR system (FMPS) is a semi-automated platform (FLOW System, Roche) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. FMPS has greater sensitivity for the detection of enteric pathogens than standard methods such as culture, biochemical identification, immunochromatography or microscopic examination.Aim.The diagnostic performance of the FMPS was evaluated and compared to that of traditional microbiological procedures.Methodology. A total of 10 659 samples were collected and analysed over a period of 7 years. From 2013 to 2018 (every July to September), samples were processed using standard microbiological culture methods. In 2019, the FMPS was implemented using real-time PCR to detect the following enteropathogens: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidum spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus. Standard microbiological culture methods (2013-2018) included stool culture, microscopy and immunochromatography.Results. A total of 1078 stool samples were analysed prospectively using the FMPS from July to September (2019): bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens were identified in 15.3, 9.71 and 5.29 % of cases, respectively. During the same period of 6 years (2013-2018), the proportion of positive identifications using standard microbiological methods from 2013 to 2018 was significantly lower. A major significant recovery improvement was observed for all bacteria species tested: Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) (P <0.05), Salmonella spp. (P <0.05) and Campylobacter spp. (P <0.05). Marked differences were also observed for the parasites G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and D. fragilis.Conclusion. These results support the value of multiplex real-time PCR analysis for the detection of enteric pathogens in laboratory diagnosis with outstanding performance in identifying labile micro-organisms. The identification of unsuspected micro-organisms for less specific clinical presentations may also impact on clinical practice and help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Dientamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 299: 109574, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509876

RESUMO

This study was designed to test the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of clinoptilolite against Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum infection in lambs. Within the first day of life, three groups of 10 lambs were each inoculated with 1 × 106 oocysts of C. parvum. The prophylactic (PROP) group received orally clinoptilolite supplemented at a rate of 3% to the colostrum within the first day of life before inoculation and then to milk replacer for two weeks. The therapeutic (TREA) group was supplemented with the same rate, route and duration of clinoptilolite, starting from the day of the first appearance of oocysts in the faeces. The positive control group (pCON) was left untreated and fed only the basal diet. Disease development and clinoptilolite efficacy were assessed daily by evaluating oocyst per gram of faeces (OPG) counts, faecal consistent score (FCS), and clinical health score (CHS) from day -1 to 20 days post inoculation. A significantly (p < 0.001) lower OPG value was found in the PROP and TREA groups in comparison to the pCON group. The FCS and CHS were decreased in the PROP (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) and TREA (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001) groups compared to the pCON group, respectively. The percentage efficacy of clinoptilolite was calculated to be 97.4 % in the PROP group and 91.6 % in the TREA group. In conclusion, this study proved for the first time that clinoptilolite has promising prophylactic and therapeutic activities against C. parvum in experimentally infected lambs.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Fezes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Zeolitas
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 713873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552884

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an enteric apicomplexan parasite, which can infect multiple mammals including livestock and wildlife. Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is one of the most famous wildlife species, that belongs to the first class protected wild animals in China. However, it has not been known whether Tibetan Antelope is infected with Cryptosporidium so far. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium species infection in Tibetan Antelope and the corresponding species by using molecular biological method. In the current study, a total of 627 fecal samples were randomly collected from Tibetan Antelope in the Tibet Autonomous Region (2019-2020), and were examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Among 627 samples, 19 (3.03%, 19/627) were examined as Cryptosporidium-positive, with 7 (2.33%, 7/300) in females and 12 (3.67%, 12/327) in males. The analysis of SSU rRNA gene sequence suggested that only two Cryptosporidium species, namely, C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum, were identified in this study. This is the first evidence for an existence of Cryptosporidium in Tibetan Antelope. These findings extend the host range for Cryptosporidium spp. and also provide important data support for prevention and control of Cryptosporidium infection in Tibetan Antelope.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Tibet
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(4): 409-413, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470093

RESUMO

In this study, we have collected and screened a total of 268 stool samples from diarrheal patients admitted to an Infectious disease hospital in Kolkata for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. The initial diagnosis was carried out by microscopy followed by genus specific polymerase chain reaction assays based on 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70). DNA sequencing of the amplified locus has been employed for determination of genetic diversity of the local isolates. Out of 268 collected samples, 12 (4.48%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Sequences analysis of 70 kDa heat shock proteins locus in 12 Cryptosporidium local isolates revealed that 2.24% and 1.86% of samples were showing 99% to 100% identity with C. parvum and C. hominis. Along with the other 2 major species one recently described globally distributed pathogenic species Cryptosporidium viatorum has been identified. The HSP70 locus sequence of the isolate showed 100% similarity with a previously described isolate of C. viatorum (Accession No. JX978274.1, JX978273.1, and JN846706.1) present in GenBank.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia , Filogenia
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
18.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572068

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is caused by an opportunistic protozoan parasite (Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis) known as a parasite of humans, especially children and immunocompromised patients. The current study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a mixture of fig and olive leaf extracts as an alternative medicinal plant. Parasitological examination for oocysts in the stool and histopathological alterations in the small intestines were examined. Additionally, biochemical analyses of liver and kidney functions in addition to antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in the plasma were evaluated. Our results showed that marked reduction in oocysts shedding and amelioration in intestinal histopathological changes and hepatic or renal functions were detected in all treated groups compared to the control infected group. Additionally, the treated groups with tested extracts at ratios 1:3 and 1:5 showed a significant decrease in the number of oocysts compared to the other treated groups. Results exhibited a significant increase in the plasma SOD, CAT and GSH levels in treated groups compared to the infected control one. This study suggested that a mixture of fig and olive leaf extracts is a convenient promising therapeutic agent for Cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Cryptosporidium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ficus/química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/química
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies on gastroenteritis have focused on viral and bacterial infections, while gastroenteritis where intestinal protozoan parasites may have played a role has not been well studied. This study was therefore, designed to assess the frequency and several potential risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection among children suffering from acute gastroenteritis and presented to a tertiary hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Effectiveness of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for Cryptosporidium detection were evaluated as well. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during the period from July 2018 to December 2018, where 100 human diarrheic stool samples were collected from children aged 3 months up to 12 years old presented to Ain Shams University Pediatrics Hospital, Cairo, Egypt with acute gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the participants. Initial parasite screening was done using the MZN staining method, and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium infection, while genotyping was based on molecular diagnostic assays using nPCR and sequencing for selected samples. RESULTS: The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. Cryptosporidium hominis was the only detected genotype. Clinical picture among cases were not significant in comparison to patients with other causes of gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium infection is more common below 5 years of age; however, clinical data are not enough for suspicion of infection. Nucleic acid-based methods are more sensitive and specific despite the high cost in developing countries. However, real estimation of Cryptosporidium disease burden is of an outmost importance to achieve prevention and detection of the Cryptosporidium species genetic diversity. Lay summaryCryptosporidium is a protozoan, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. It is most common below 5 years of age; however, diarrhea and vomiting characteristics are not different from other causes of gastroenteritis. General diagnostic methods are inadequate for detection of these infections. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing are accurate methods for pathogen detection and species verification. Our study included 100 Egyptian children with acute gastroenteritis. The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. The clinical picture of the children presenting with this disease was not significantly different from those presenting with gastroenteritis due to other causes. This emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis to know the true burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Gastroenterite , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia , Egito/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
20.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 545-562, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371493

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan parasite, globally distributed and capable of infecting various vertebrate species, including humans as well as domestic and wild animals. Cryptosporidium is increasingly gaining attention as a human and an animal pathogen mainly due to its dominant involvement in worldwide waterborne outbreaks. The present paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. in terrestrial and water animals in Azerbaijan.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gado
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