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1.
Planta ; 255(6): 117, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513731

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The use of beneficial microorganisms improves the performance of in vitro - cultured plants through the improvement of plant nutrition, the biological control of microbial pathogens or the production of phytohormones that promote plant growth and development. Plant in vitro culture techniques are highly useful to obtain significant amounts of true-to-type and disease-free plant materials. One of these techniques is clonal micropropagation which consists on the establishment of shoot tip cultures, shoot multiplication, in vitro rooting and acclimatization to ex vitro conditions. However, in some cases, the existence of recalcitrant genotypes, with a compromised multiplication and rooting ability, or the difficulties to overcome the overgrowth of endophytic contaminations might seriously limit its efficiency. In this sense, the establishment of beneficial interactions between plants and plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) under in vitro culture conditions might represent a valuable approach to efficiently solve those restrictions. During the last years, significant evidence reporting the use of beneficial microorganisms to improve the yield of in vitro multiplication or rooting as well as their acclimatization to greenhouse or soil conditions have been provided. Most of these positive effects are strongly linked to the ability of these microorganisms to provide in vitro plants with nutrients such as nitrogen or phosphorous, to produce plant growth regulators, to control the growth of pathogens or to mitigate stress conditions. The culture of A. thaliana under aseptic conditions has provided high-quality knowledge on the root development signaling pathways, involving hormones, triggered in the presence of PGPMs. Overall, the present article offers a brief overview of the use of microorganisms to improve in vitro plant performance during the in vitro micropropagation stages, as well as the main mechanisms of plant growth promotion associated with these microorganisms.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Brotos de Planta
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2494: 3-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467196

RESUMO

Gravity is a powerful element in shaping plant development, with gravitropism, the oriented growth response of plant organs to the direction of gravity, leading to each plant's characteristic form both above and below ground. Despite being conceptually simple to follow, monitoring a plant's directional growth responses can become complex as variation arises from both internal developmental cues as well as effects of the environment. In this protocol, we discuss approaches to gravitropism assays, focusing on automated analyses of root responses. For Arabidopsis, we recommend a simple 90° rotation using seedlings that are 5-8 days old. If images are taken at regular intervals and the environmental metadata is recorded during both seedling development and gravitropic assay, these data can be used to reveal quantitative kinetic patterns at distinct stages of the assay. The use of software that analyzes root system parameters and stores this data in the RSML format opens up the possibility for a host of root parameters to be extracted to characterize growth of the primary root and a range of lateral root phenotypes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Gravitropismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Gravitropismo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas
3.
Curr Biol ; 32(7): R334-R340, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413265

RESUMO

The instructive role of mechanical cues during morphogenesis is increasingly being recognized in all kingdoms. Patterns of mechanical stress depend on shape, growth and external factors. In plants, the cell wall integrates these three parameters to function as a hub for mechanical feedback. Plant cells are interconnected by cell walls that provide structural integrity and yet are flexible enough to act as both targets and transducers of mechanical cues. Such cues may act locally at the subcellular level or across entire tissues, requiring tight control of both cell-wall composition and cell-cell adhesion. Here we focus on how changes in cell-wall chemistry and mechanics act in communicating diverse cues to direct growth asymmetries required for plant morphogenesis. We explore the role of cellulose microfibrils, microtubule arrays and pectin methylesterification in the transduction of mechanical cues during morphogenesis. Plant hormones can affect the mechanochemical composition of the cell wall and, in turn, the cell wall can modulate hormone signaling pathways, as well as the tissue-level distribution of these hormones. This also leads us to revisit the position of biochemical growth factors, such as plant hormones, acting both upstream and downstream of mechanical signaling. Finally, while the structure of the cell wall is being elucidated with increasing precision, existing data clearly show that the integration of genetic, biochemical and theoretical studies will be essential for a better understanding of the role of the cell wall as a hub for the mechanical control of plant morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Células Vegetais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Morfogênese , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Mecânico
4.
Mol Plant ; 15(4): 740-754, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381198

RESUMO

N-terminal acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes, and approximately 40% of human and plant proteomes are acetylated by ribosome-associated N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NatA) in a co-translational manner. However, the in vivo regulatory mechanism of NatA and the global impact of NatA-mediated N-terminal acetylation on protein fate remain unclear. Here, we identify Huntingtin Yeast partner K (HYPK), an evolutionarily conserved chaperone-like protein, as a positive regulator of NatA activity in rice. We found that loss of OsHYPK function leads to developmental defects in rice plant architecture but increased resistance to abiotic stresses, attributable to perturbation of the N-terminal acetylome and accelerated global protein turnover. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OsHYPK is also a substrate of NatA and that N-terminal acetylation of OsHYPK promotes its own degradation, probably through the Ac/N-degron pathway, which could be induced by abiotic stresses. Taken together, our findings suggest that the OsHYPK-NatA complex plays a critical role in coordinating plant development and stress responses by dynamically regulating NatA-mediated N-terminal acetylation and global protein turnover, which are essential for maintaining adaptive phenotypic plasticity in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Acetilação , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
Microbiol Res ; 259: 127016, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390741

RESUMO

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) is one of the most promising bacteria for plant growth promotion (PGP) without harmful side effects. As an excellent agent for biofertilizer and biocontrol in agriculture, the PGP mechanisms of BA have been studied extensively. However, these studies have been rarely summarized, although it could hinder a better understanding of BA strains' potential mechanisms and application in agriculture and other fields. Hence, we reviewed in this work the PGP mechanisms of BA and the current limits of BA application in agriculture. First, BA can improve soil nutrient availability, including improving nitrogen supply, solubilizing phosphate and potassium, and producing siderophores. Second, BA can change the soil microbial community and improve the availability of minerals and plant growth conditions. Third, BA can secrete hormones and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with plant cell growth and root development and further improve nutrient uptake by plants. Fourth, BA can enhance plant resistance against biotic stresses from soil pathogens through competition of niches and nutrients, producing substances such as cyclic lipopeptides, polyketides, and VOCs to antagonize pathogens directly, and induction of system resistance of the plants. Similarly, inoculation with BA can promote plant growth by inducing systematic tolerance to abiotic stresses by leading to genetic, chemical, and physical changes in the host plant. We further suggested that, in future studies, more attention should be paid to nutrient uptake mechanisms of plants with advanced techniques in different soil conditions and fields.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Agricultura , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5793, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388069

RESUMO

Winter field survival (WFS) in autumn-seeded winter cereals is a complex trait associated with low temperature tolerance (LTT), prostrate growth habit (PGH), and final leaf number (FLN). WFS and the three sub-traits were analyzed by a genome-wide association study of 96 rye (Secale cereal L.) genotypes of different origins and winter-hardiness levels. A total of 10,244 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified by genotyping by sequencing and 259 marker-trait-associations (MTAs; p < 0.01) were revealed by association mapping. The ten most significant SNPs (p < 1.49e-04) associated with WFS corresponded to nine strong candidate genes: Inducer of CBF Expression 1 (ICE1), Cold-regulated 413-Plasma Membrane Protein 1 (COR413-PM1), Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Protein 1 (IRIP1), Jasmonate-resistant 1 (JAR1), BIPP2C1-like protein phosphatase, Chloroplast Unusual Positioning Protein-1 (CHUP1), FRIGIDA-like 4 (FRL4-like) protein, Chalcone Synthase 2 (CHS2), and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase 8 (PAL8). Seven of the candidate genes were also significant for one or several of the sub-traits supporting the hypothesis that WFS, LTT, FLN, and PGH are genetically interlinked. The winter-hardy rye genotypes generally carried additional allele variants for the strong candidate genes, which suggested allele diversity was a major contributor to cold acclimation efficiency and consistent high WFS under varying field conditions.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Secale , Ligação Genética , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Secale/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409090

RESUMO

Plant hormones are critical chemicals that participate in almost all aspects of plant life by triggering cellular response cascades. FERONIA is one of the most well studied members in the subfamily of Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase1-like (CrRLK1Ls) hormones. It has been proved to be involved in many different processes with the discovery of its ligands, interacting partners, and downstream signaling components. A growing body of evidence shows that FERONIA serves as a hub to integrate inter- and intracellular signals in response to internal and external cues. Here, we summarize the recent advances of FERONIA in regulating plant growth, development, and immunity through interactions with multiple plant hormone signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Catharanthus , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Hormônios , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409091

RESUMO

Despite recent advancements in plant molecular biology and biotechnology, providing enough, and safe, food for an increasing world population remains a challenge. The research into plant development and environmental adaptability has attracted more and more attention from various countries. The transcription of some genes, regulated by transcript factors (TFs), and their response to biological and abiotic stresses, are activated or inhibited during plant development; examples include, rooting, flowering, fruit ripening, drought, flooding, high temperature, pathogen infection, etc. Therefore, the screening and characterization of transcription factors have increasingly become a hot topic in the field of plant research. BLH/BELL (BEL1-like homeodomain) transcription factors belong to a subfamily of the TALE (three-amino-acid-loop-extension) superfamily and its members are involved in the regulation of many vital biological processes, during plant development and environmental response. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of the function of BLH/BELL TFs in different plants and their involvement in the development of meristems, flower, fruit, plant morphogenesis, plant cell wall structure, the response to the environment, including light and plant resistance to stress, biosynthesis and signaling of ABA (Abscisic acid), IAA (Indoleacetic acid), GA (Gibberellic Acid) and JA (Jasmonic Acid). We discuss the theoretical basis and potential regulatory models for BLH/BELL TFs' action and provide a comprehensive view of their multiple roles in modulating different aspects of plant development and response to environmental stress and phytohormones. We also present the value of BLHs in the molecular breeding of improved crop varieties and the future research direction of the BLH gene family.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Fatores de Transcrição , Ácido Abscísico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409156

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) exists in eukaryotes to increase the complexity and adaptability of systems under biophysiological conditions by increasing transcriptional and protein diversity. As a classic hormone, abscisic acid (ABA) can effectively control plant growth, improve stress resistance, and promote dormancy. At the transcriptional level, ABA helps plants respond to the outside world by regulating transcription factors through signal transduction pathways to regulate gene expression. However, at the post-transcriptional level, the mechanism by which ABA can regulate plant biological processes by mediating alternative splicing is not well understood. Therefore, this paper briefly introduces the mechanism of ABA-induced alternative splicing and the role of ABA mediating AS in plant response to the environment and its own growth.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Processamento Alternativo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Nat Plants ; 8(4): 332-340, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411046

RESUMO

Homogalacturonan (HG) is the most abundant pectin subtype in plant cell walls. Although it is a linear homopolymer, its modification states allow for complex molecular encoding. HG metabolism affects its structure, chemical properties, mobility and binding capacity, allowing it to interact dynamically with other polymers during wall assembly and remodelling and to facilitate anisotropic cell growth, cell adhesion and separation, and organ morphogenesis. HGs have also recently been found to function as signalling molecules that transmit information about wall integrity to the cell. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the dual functions of HG as a dynamic structural component of the cell wall and an initiator of intrinsic and environmental signalling. We also predict how HG might interconnect the cell wall, plasma membrane and intracellular components with transcriptional networks to regulate plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Pectinas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Pectinas/metabolismo
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(5): 261, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426530

RESUMO

Vermicompost (VC) harbours diverse microbes, including plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM) that are beneficial for sustainable crop production. Hence, this study aimed to analyse bacterial diversity of VC samples as a first high-throughput screening step towards subsequent targeted isolation of potential bacterial inoculum candidates. To achieve this, bacterial communities in VC collected from five production farms were enriched in nutrient-rich media before high-throughput sequence (HTS) analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene. HTS analysis revealed 572 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) in all enriched VC samples. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla, while Lysinibacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Morganella, Vibrio and Aeromonas were the predominant genera across the enriched VC. The presence of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Escherichia-Shigella and Vibrio genera, which are potentially pathogenic species, suggests the need to improve vermicomposting efficiency and safety. Predicted functional profiling of the bacterial communities using PICRUSt2 showed abundance profiles of nitrogenases, phosphatases and sulfatases. In addition, the potential to produce siderophore, indole acetic acids (IAA) and phytohormone regulator 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) were predicted. Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas were major bacterial communities with potential plant growth-promoting traits and could serve as resources in bacterial inoculum production. The findings in this study provide insight into the community composition, abundance and the potential functional capability of cultivable bacterial species of enriched VC. This study also points to VC as a suitable source of potentially beneficial bacterial candidates for inoculum production.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Paenibacillus , Bacillus/genética , Bioprospecção , Paenibacillus/genética , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Dev Cell ; 57(8): 947-958, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417676

RESUMO

The dramatic temperature fluctuations spurred by climate change inhibit plant growth and threaten crop productivity. Unraveling how plants defend themselves against temperature-stress-induced cellular impairment is not only a crucial fundamental issue but is also of critical importance for agricultural sustainability and food security. Here, we review recent developments in elucidating the molecular mechanisms used by plants to sense and respond to cold and heat stress at multiple levels. We also describe the trade-off between plant growth and responses to high and low temperatures. Finally, we discuss possible strategies that could be used to engineer temperature-stress-tolerant, high-yielding crops.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Temperatura Baixa , Produtos Agrícolas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 433: 128769, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364535

RESUMO

Lead (Pb2+) is one of the most toxic heavy-metal contaminants. Fast-growing woody plants with substantial biomass are ideal for bioremediation. However, the transcriptional regulation of Pb2+ uptake in woody plants remains unclear. Here, we identified 226 Pb2+-induced, differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (DELs) in Populus tomentosa. Functional annotation revealed that these DELs mainly regulate carbon metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, energy metabolism, and signal transduction through their potential target genes. Association and epistasis analysis showed that the lncRNA PMAT (Pb2+-induced multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) antisense lncRNA) interacts epistatically with PtoMYB46 to regulate leaf dry weight, photosynthesis rate, and transketolase activity. Genetic transformation and molecular assays showed that PtoMYB46 reduces the expression of PtoMATE directly or indirectly through PMAT, thereby reducing the secretion of citric acid (CA) and ultimately promoting Pb2+ uptake. Meanwhile, PtoMYB46 targets auxin response factor 2 (ARF2) and reduces its expression, thus positively regulating plant growth. We concluded that the PMAT-PtoMYB46-PtoMATE-PtoARF2 regulatory module control Pb2+ tolerance, uptake, and plant growth. This study demonstrates the involvement of lncRNAs in response to Pb2+ in poplar, yielding new insight into the potential for developing genetically improved woody plant varieties for phytoremediating lead-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Populus , RNA Longo não Codificante , Biodegradação Ambiental , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Populus/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456909

RESUMO

Plant growth and crop yield highly depend on the availability of all required nutrients, ideally in well-balanced ratios [...].


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Cromatina , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Plantas/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456943

RESUMO

Plant growth and development are greatly affected by the environment. Many genes have been identified to be involved in regulating plant development and adaption of abiotic stress. Apart from protein-coding genes, more and more evidence indicates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small RNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), can target plant developmental and stress-responsive mRNAs, regulatory genes, DNA regulatory regions, and proteins to regulate the transcription of various genes at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic level. Currently, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of sRNAs and lncRNAs controlling plant development and abiotic response are being deeply explored. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress of small RNAs and lncRNAs in plants, focusing on the signal factors, expression characters, targets functions, and interplay network of ncRNAs and their targets in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The complex molecular regulatory pathways among small RNAs, lncRNAs, and targets in plants are also discussed. Understanding molecular mechanisms and functional implications of ncRNAs in various abiotic stress responses and development will benefit us in regard to the use of ncRNAs as potential character-determining factors in molecular plant breeding.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456977

RESUMO

Plants have remarkable plasticity due to their vast genetic potential which interacts with many external factors and developmental signals to govern development and adaptation to changing environments [...].


Assuntos
Plantas , Biologia de Sistemas , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457027

RESUMO

Plant fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases terminate the process of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates, and determine the chain length and levels of free fatty acids. They are of interest due to their roles in fatty acid synthesis and their potential to modify plant seed oils through biotechnology. Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterases (FAT) are divided into two families, i.e., FATA and FATB, according to their amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. The high oil content in Jatropha curcas L. seed has attracted global attention due to its potential for the production of biodiesel. However, the detailed effects of JcFATA and JcFATB on fatty acid biosynthesis and plant growth and development are still unclear. In this study, we found that JcFATB transcripts were detected in all tissues and organs examined, with especially high accumulation in the roots, leaves, flowers, and some stages of developing seeds, and JcFATA showed a very similar expression pattern. Subcellular localization of the JcFATA-GFP and JcFATB-GFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts showed that both JcFATA and JcFATB localized in chloroplasts. Heterologous expression of JcFATA and JcFATB in Arabidopsis thaliana individually generated transgenic plants with longer roots, stems and siliques, larger rosette leaves, and bigger seeds compared with those of the wild type, indicating the overall promotion effects of JcFATA and JcFATB on plant growth and development while JcFATB had a larger impact. Compositional analysis of seed oil revealed that all fatty acids except 22:0 were significantly increased in the mature seeds of JcFATA-transgenic Arabidopsis lines, especially unsaturated fatty acids, such as the predominant fatty acids of seed oil, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3. In the mature seeds of the JcFATB-transgenic Arabidopsis lines, most fatty acids were increased compared with those in wild type too, especially saturated fatty acids, such as 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0. Our results demonstrated the promotion effect of JcFATA and JcFATB on plant growth and development, and their possible utilization to modify the seed oil composition and content in higher plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Jatropha , Proteína de Transporte de Acila/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Jatropha/genética , Jatropha/metabolismo , Palmitoil-CoA Hidrolase/análise , Palmitoil-CoA Hidrolase/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética
18.
J Cell Sci ; 135(8)2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438169

RESUMO

The above-ground organs in plants display a rich diversity, yet they grow to characteristic sizes and shapes. Organ morphogenesis progresses through a sequence of key events, which are robustly executed spatiotemporally as an emerging property of intrinsic molecular networks while adapting to various environmental cues. This Review focuses on the multiscale control of leaf morphogenesis. Beyond the list of known genetic determinants underlying leaf growth and shape, we focus instead on the emerging novel mechanisms of metabolic and biomechanical regulations that coordinate plant cell growth non-cell-autonomously. This reveals how metabolism and mechanics are not solely passive outcomes of genetic regulation but play instructive roles in leaf morphogenesis. Such an integrative view also extends to fluctuating environmental cues and evolutionary adaptation. This synthesis calls for a more balanced view on morphogenesis, where shapes are considered from the standpoints of geometry, genetics, energy and mechanics, and as emerging properties of the cellular expression of these different properties.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Morfogênese/genética , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética
19.
Cells ; 11(8)2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35455982

RESUMO

Sugars are the major source of energy in living organisms and play important roles in osmotic regulation, cell signaling and energy storage. SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) are the most recent family of sugar transporters that function as uniporters, facilitating the diffusion of sugar molecules across cell membranes. In plants, SWEETs play roles in multiple physiological processes including phloem loading, senescence, pollen nutrition, grain filling, nectar secretion, abiotic (drought, heat, cold, and salinity) and biotic stress regulation. In this review, we summarized the role of SWEET transporters in plant development and abiotic stress. The gene expression dynamics of various SWEET transporters under various abiotic stresses in different plant species are also discussed. Finally, we discuss the utilization of genome editing tools (TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9) to engineer SWEET genes that can facilitate trait improvement. Overall, recent advancements on SWEETs are highlighted, which could be used for crop trait improvement and abiotic stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/metabolismo
20.
Development ; 149(6)2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285482

RESUMO

Understanding the development of tissues, organs and entire organisms through the lens of single-cell genomics has revolutionized developmental biology. Although single-cell transcriptomics has been pioneered in animal systems, from an experimental perspective, plant development holds some distinct advantages: cells do not migrate in relation to one another, and new organ formation (of leaves, roots, flowers, etc.) continues post-embryonically from persistent stem cell populations known as meristems. For a time, plant studies lagged behind animal or cell culture-based, single-cell approaches, largely owing to the difficulty in dissociating plant cells from their rigid cell walls. Recent intensive development of single-cell and single-nucleus isolation techniques across plant species has opened up a wide range of experimental approaches. This has produced a rapidly expanding diversity of information across tissue types and species, concomitant with the creative development of methods. In this brief Spotlight, we highlight some of the technical developments and how they have led to profiling single-cell genomics in various plant organs. We also emphasize the contribution of single-cell genomics in revealing developmental trajectories among different cell types within plant organs. Furthermore, we present efforts toward comparative analysis of tissues and organs at a single-cell level. Single-cell genomics is beginning to generate comprehensive information relating to how plant organs emerge from stem cell populations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Animais , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genômica/métodos , Meristema/genética , Raízes de Plantas
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