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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944488

RESUMO

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are the main detoxification enzymes in schistosomes. These parasitic enzymes tend to be upregulated during drug treatment, with Schistosoma haematobium being one of the species that mainly affect humans. There is a lack of complete sequence information on the closely related bovis and haematobium 26-kDa GST isoforms in any database. Consequently, we engineered a pseudo-26-kDa S. bovis/haematobium GST (Sbh26GST) to understand structure-function relations and ligandin activity towards selected potential ligands. Sbh26GST was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an MBP-fusion protein, purified to homogeneity and catalyzed 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation activity, with a specific activity of 13 µmol/min/mg. This activity decreased by ~95% in the presence of bromosulfophthalein (BSP), which showed an IC50 of 27 µM. Additionally, enzyme kinetics revealed that BSP acts as a non-competitive inhibitor relative to GSH. Spectroscopic studies affirmed that Sbh26GST adopts the canonical GST structure, which is predominantly α-helical. Further extrinsic 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) spectroscopy illustrated that BSP, praziquantel (PZQ), and artemisinin (ART) might preferentially bind at the dimer interface or in proximity to the hydrophobic substrate-binding site of the enzyme. The Sbh26GST-BSP interaction is both enthalpically and entropically driven, with a stoichiometry of one BSP molecule per Sbh26GST dimer. Enzyme stability appeared enhanced in the presence of BSP and GSH. Induced fit ligand docking affirmed the spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and molecular modelling results. In conclusion, BSP is a potent inhibitor of Sbh26GST and could potentially be rationalized as a treatment for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Schistosoma haematobium/enzimologia , Animais , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Glutationa Transferase/química , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Sulfobromoftaleína/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948227

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) appeared as promising antimicrobial candidates to face the development of antibiotic resistance. Although reported as toxic towards mammalian cells, their combination with biomolecules have shown reduced toxicity, while maintaining the antimicrobial function. Herein, hyaluronic acid (HA) with low (40 kDa), medium (200 and 600 kDa) and high (2 MDa) molecular weight (Mw) was modified with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) and used as reducing and capping agents to synthesise antimicrobial hybrid Ag NPs. The Mw of the polymer played a crucial role in the morphology, size and antibacterial activity of the Ag NPs. The 600 and 200 kDa HA-ADH-Ag NPs were able to reduce the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus concentration by more than 3 logs, while the 40 kDa NPs reached ~2 logs reduction. The 2 MDa HA-ADH failed to form homogenous NPs with strong bactericidal activity. A mechanistic study of the interaction with a model bacterial membrane using Langmuir isotherms confirmed the greater interaction between bacteria and higher Mw polymers and the effect of the NP's morphology. The nanocomposites low toxicity to human skin cells was demonstrated in vitro, showing more than 90% cell viability after incubation with the NPs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Hialurônico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Peso Molecular , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
3.
Elife ; 102021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751128

RESUMO

Bacteria commonly live in spatially structured biofilm assemblages, which are encased by an extracellular matrix. Metabolic activity of the cells inside biofilms causes gradients in local environmental conditions, which leads to the emergence of physiologically differentiated subpopulations. Information about the properties and spatial arrangement of such metabolic subpopulations, as well as their interaction strength and interaction length scales are lacking, even for model systems like Escherichia coli colony biofilms grown on agar-solidified media. Here, we use an unbiased approach, based on temporal and spatial transcriptome and metabolome data acquired during E. coli colony biofilm growth, to study the spatial organization of metabolism. We discovered that alanine displays a unique pattern among amino acids and that alanine metabolism is spatially and temporally heterogeneous. At the anoxic base of the colony, where carbon and nitrogen sources are abundant, cells secrete alanine via the transporter AlaE. In contrast, cells utilize alanine as a carbon and nitrogen source in the oxic nutrient-deprived region at the colony mid-height, via the enzymes DadA and DadX. This spatially structured alanine cross-feeding influences cellular viability and growth in the cross-feeding-dependent region, which shapes the overall colony morphology. More generally, our results on this precisely controllable biofilm model system demonstrate a remarkable spatiotemporal complexity of metabolism in biofilms. A better characterization of the spatiotemporal metabolic heterogeneities and dependencies is essential for understanding the physiology, architecture, and function of biofilms.


Assuntos
Alanina/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Transcriptoma , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Espacial
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5880, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620864

RESUMO

The evolution of microorganisms often involves changes of unclear relevance, such as transient phenotypes and sequential development of multiple adaptive mutations in hotspot genes. Previously, we showed that ageing colonies of an E. coli mutant unable to produce cAMP when grown on maltose, accumulated mutations in the crp gene (encoding a global transcription factor) and in genes involved in pyrimidine metabolism such as cmk; combined mutations in both crp and cmk enabled fermentation of maltose (which usually requires cAMP-mediated Crp activation for catabolic pathway expression). Here, we study the sequential generation of hotspot mutations in those genes, and uncover a regulatory role of pyrimidine nucleosides in carbon catabolism. Cytidine binds to the cytidine regulator CytR, modifies the expression of sigma factor 32 (RpoH), and thereby impacts global gene expression. In addition, cytidine binds and activates a Crp mutant directly, thus modulating catabolic pathway expression, and could be the catabolite modulating factor whose existence was suggested by Jacques Monod and colleagues in 1976. Therefore, transcription factor Crp appears to work in concert with CytR and RpoH, serving a dual role in sensing both carbon availability and metabolic flux towards DNA and RNA. Our findings show how certain alterations in metabolite concentrations (associated with colony ageing and/or due to mutations in metabolic or regulatory genes) can drive the evolution in non-growing cells.


Assuntos
Proteína Receptora de AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína Receptora de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fator sigma , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641314

RESUMO

The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and the increasing resistance developed by pathogenic bacteria to nearly all existing antibiotics should be taken as a wakeup call for the international authority as this represents a risk for global public health. The lack of antiviral drugs and effective antibiotics on the market triggers the need to search for safe therapeutics from medicinal plants to fight viral and microbial infections. In the present study, we investigated whether a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. (B. gymnorhiza) collected in Mauritius, possesses antimicrobial and antibiotic potentiating abilities and exerts anti-ZIKV activity at non-cytotoxic doses. Microorganisms Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70603, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 25933, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and Candida albicans ATCC 26555 were used to evaluate the antimicrobial properties. Ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin antibiotics were used for assessing antibiotic potentiating activity. ZIKVMC-MR766NIID (ZIKVGFP) was used for assessing anti-ZIKV activity. In silico docking (Autodock 4) and ADME (SwissADME) analyses were performed on collected data. Antimicrobial results revealed that Bruguiera twig ethyl acetate (BTE) was the most potent extract inhibiting the growth of all nine microbes tested, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.19-0.39 mg/mL. BTE showed partial synergy effects against MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when applied in combination with streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. By using a recombinant ZIKV-expressing reporter GFP protein, we identified both Bruguiera root aqueous and Bruguiera fruit aqueous extracts as potent inhibitors of ZIKV infection in human epithelial A549 cells. The mechanisms by which such extracts prevented ZIKV infection are linked to the inability of the virus to bind to the host cell surface. In silico docking showed that ZIKV E protein, which is involved in cell receptor binding, could be a target for cryptochlorogenic acid, a chemical compound identified in B. gymnorhiza. From ADME results, cryptochlorogenic acid is predicted to be not orally bioavailable because it is too polar. Scientific data collected in this present work can open a new avenue for the development of potential inhibitors from B. gymnorhiza to fight ZIKV and microbial infections in the future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/química , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antivirais/química , Brasil , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Maurício , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641315

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) have been used in cosmetics and food due to their antimicrobial and antiviral effects. However, the applications of EOs are compromised because of their poor aqueous solubility and high volatility. Qiai (Artemisia argyi Levl. et Van. var. argyi cv. Qiai) is a traditional Chinese herb and possesses strong antibacterial activity. Herein, we report an innovative formulation of EO as nanohydrogels, which were prepared through co-assembly of Qiai EO (QEO) and Pluronic F108 (PEG-b-PPG-b-PEG, or PF108) in aqueous solution. QEO was efficiently loaded in the PF108 micelles and formed nanohydrogels by heating the QEO/PF108 mixture solution to 37 °C, by the innate thermo-responsive property of PF108. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of QEO reached 80.2% and 6.8%, respectively. QEO nanohydrogels were more stable than the free QEO with respect to volatilization. Sustained QEO release was achieved at body temperature using the QEO nanohydrogels, with the cumulative release rate reaching 95% in 35 h. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that the QEO nanohydrogels showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli than the free QEO due to the enhanced stability and sustained-release characteristics. It has been attested that thermo-responsive QEO nanohydrogels have good potential as antibacterial cosmetics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Artemisia/química , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/síntese química , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Composição de Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Micelas , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Poloxâmero/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica
7.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641370

RESUMO

Pyrithione (2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide) is a metal binding modified pyridine, the antibacterial activity of which was described over 60 years ago. The formulation of zinc-pyrithione is commonly used in the topical treatment of certain dermatological conditions. However, the characterisation of the cellular uptake of pyrithione has not been elucidated, although an unsubstantiated assumption has persisted that pyrithione and/or its metal complexes undergo a passive diffusion through cell membranes. Here, we have profiled specific membrane transporters from an unbiased interrogation of 532 E. coli strains of knockouts of genes encoding membrane proteins from the Keio collection. Two membrane transporters, FepC and MetQ, seemed involved in the uptake of pyrithione and its cognate metal complexes with copper, iron, and zinc. Additionally, the phenotypes displayed by CopA and ZntA knockouts suggested that these two metal effluxers drive the extrusion from the bacterial cell of potentially toxic levels of copper, and perhaps zinc, which hyperaccumulate as a function of pyrithione. The involvement of these distinct membrane transporters contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of pyrithione specifically and highlights, more generally, the important role that membrane transporters play in facilitating the uptake of drugs, including metal-drug compounds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Tionas/farmacologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714855

RESUMO

We evaluated phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous (water) and organic extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) of Chenopodium glaucum. Highest phenolic content 45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g d.w was found in aqueous extract followed by ethyl acetate (41mg GAE/g d.w) and methanol extract (34.46 mg GAE/g d.w). Antibacterial potential of aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum was examined against Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aqueous, methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and S. epidermidis. However, against A. baumannii significantly higher inhibition zone (19 mm and 18.96 mm respectively) was shown by ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Aqueous extract possessed highest growth inhibition (11 mm) against E. coli. Aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed 9 mm, 10 mm, and 10.33 mm zone of inhibition against the K. pneumoniae. For antifungal activity, the extracts were less effective against Aspergillus niger but showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). The antioxidant activity was measured as DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), H2O2 and ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity of free radicals. All the organic extracts of C. glaucum possessed ABTS, DPPH and H2O2 scavenging properties. The highest cytotoxic activity measured as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) against human lungs carcinoma cells was recorded for methanolic (IC50 = 16 µg/mL) and n-hexane (IC50 = 25 µg/mL) extracts, respectively. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed 4 major and 26 minor compounds in n-hexane extract and 4 major and 7 minor compounds in methanol extract of the C. glaucum. It is concluded that aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum would be potential therapeutic agents and could be exploited on a pilot scale to treat human pathogenic diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chenopodium/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502473

RESUMO

Bacteria are one of the significant causes of infection in the body after scaffold implantation. Effective use of nanotechnology to overcome this problem is an exciting and practical solution. Nanoparticles can cause bacterial degradation by the electrostatic interaction with receptors and cell walls. Simultaneously, the incorporation of antibacterial materials such as zinc and graphene in nanoparticles can further enhance bacterial degradation. In the present study, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite/graphene was synthesized and characterized as a nanocomposite material possessing both antibacterial and bioactive properties for bone tissue engineering. After synthesizing the zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a mechanochemical process, they were composited with reduced graphene oxide. The nanoparticles and nanocomposite samples were extensively investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Their antibacterial behaviors against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. The antibacterial properties of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were found to be improved more than 2.7 and 3.4 times after zinc doping and further compositing with graphene, respectively. In vitro cell assessment was investigated by a cell viability test and alkaline phosphatase activity using mesenchymal stem cells, and the results showed that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the culture medium, in addition to non-toxicity, led to enhanced proliferation of bone marrow stem cells. Furthermore, zinc doping in combination with graphene significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells. The antibacterial activity along with cell biocompatibility/bioactivity of zinc-doped hydroxyapatite/graphene nanocomposite are the highly desirable and suitable biological properties for bone tissue engineering successfully achieved in this work.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Nanocompostos/química , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Durapatita/química , Durapatita/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grafite/química , Grafite/farmacologia , Camundongos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/química , Zinco/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575837

RESUMO

Labeling of proteins with deuterium (2H) is often necessary for structural biology techniques, such as neutron crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering. Perdeuteration in which all protium (1H) atoms are replaced by deuterium is a costly process. Typically, expression hosts are grown in a defined medium with heavy water as the solvent, which is supplemented with a deuterated carbon source. Escherichia coli, which is the most widely used host for recombinant protein production, can utilize several compounds as a carbon source. Glycerol-d8 is often used as a carbon source for deuterium labelling due to its lower cost compered to glucose-d7. In order to expand available options for recombinant protein deuteration, we investigated the possibility of producing a deuterated carbon source in-house. E. coli can utilize pyruvate as a carbon source and pyruvate-d3 can be made by a relatively simple procedure. To circumvent the very poor growth of E. coli in minimal media with pyruvate as sole carbon source, adaptive laboratory evolution for strain improvement was applied. E. coli strains with enhanced growth in minimal pyruvate medium was subjected to whole genome sequencing and the genetic changes were revealed. One of the evolved strains was adapted for the widely used T7 RNA polymerase overexpression systems. Using the improved strain E. coli DAP1(DE3) and in-house produced deuterated carbon source (pyruvic acid-d4 and sodium pyruvate-d3), we produce deuterated (>90%) triose-phosphate isomerase, at quantities sufficient enough for large volume crystal production and subsequent analysis by neutron crystallography.


Assuntos
Deutério/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Meios de Cultura , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Marcação por Isótopo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17415, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465818

RESUMO

Large-scale biochemical models are of increasing sizes due to the consideration of interacting organisms and tissues. Model reduction approaches that preserve the flux phenotypes can simplify the analysis and predictions of steady-state metabolic phenotypes. However, existing approaches either restrict functionality of reduced models or do not lead to significant decreases in the number of modelled metabolites. Here, we introduce an approach for model reduction based on the structural property of balancing of complexes that preserves the steady-state fluxes supported by the network and can be efficiently determined at genome scale. Using two large-scale mass-action kinetic models of Escherichia coli, we show that our approach results in a substantial reduction of 99% of metabolites. Applications to genome-scale metabolic models across kingdoms of life result in up to 55% and 85% reduction in the number of metabolites when arbitrary and mass-action kinetics is assumed, respectively. We also show that predictions of the specific growth rate from the reduced models match those based on the original models. Since steady-state flux phenotypes from the original model are preserved in the reduced, the approach paves the way for analysing other metabolic phenotypes in large-scale biochemical networks.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cinética
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473763

RESUMO

Rising incidents of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among catheterized patients is a noteworthy problem in clinic due to their colonization of uropathogens on abiotic surfaces. Herein, we have examined the surface modification of urinary catheter by embedding with eco-friendly synthesized phytomolecules-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to prevent the invasion and colonization of uropathogens. The preliminary confirmation of AgNPs production in the reaction mixture was witnessed by the colour change and surface resonance plasmon (SRP) band at 410nm by UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphology, size, crystalline nature, and elemental composition of attained AgNPs were further confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The functional groups of AgNPs with stabilization/capped phytochemicals were detected by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Further, antibiofilm activity of synthesized AgNPs against biofilm producers such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined by viability assays and micrographically. AgNPs coated and coating-free catheters performed to treat with bacterial pathogen to analyze the mat formation and disruption of biofilm formation. Synergistic effect of AgNPs with antibiotic reveals that it can enhance the activity of antibiotics, AgNPs coated catheter revealed that, it has potential antimicrobial activity and antibiofilm activity. In summary, C. carandas leaf extract mediated synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue and a promising template to embed on urinary catheter to control clinical pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Cateteres Urinários/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias
13.
Elife ; 102021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505573

RESUMO

Myxococcus xanthus, a soil bacterium, predates collectively using motility to invade prey colonies. Prey lysis is mostly thought to rely on secreted factors, cocktails of antibiotics and enzymes, and direct contact with Myxococcus cells. In this study, we show that on surfaces the coupling of A-motility and contact-dependent killing is the central predatory mechanism driving effective prey colony invasion and consumption. At the molecular level, contact-dependent killing involves a newly discovered type IV filament-like machinery (Kil) that both promotes motility arrest and prey cell plasmolysis. In this process, Kil proteins assemble at the predator-prey contact site, suggesting that they allow tight contact with prey cells for their intoxication. Kil-like systems form a new class of Tad-like machineries in predatory bacteria, suggesting a conserved function in predator-prey interactions. This study further reveals a novel cell-cell interaction function for bacterial pili-like assemblages.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Myxococcus xanthus/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana , Movimento , Myxococcus xanthus/genética , Myxococcus xanthus/patogenicidade , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Science ; 373(6556): 813-818, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385401

RESUMO

A Western-style, high-fat diet promotes cardiovascular disease, in part because it is rich in choline, which is converted to trimethylamine (TMA) by the gut microbiota. However, whether diet-induced changes in intestinal physiology can alter the metabolic capacity of the microbiota remains unknown. Using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, we show that chronic exposure to a high-fat diet escalates Escherichia coli choline catabolism by altering intestinal epithelial physiology. A high-fat diet impaired the bioenergetics of mitochondria in the colonic epithelium to increase the luminal bioavailability of oxygen and nitrate, thereby intensifying respiration-dependent choline catabolism of E. coli In turn, E. coli choline catabolism increased levels of circulating trimethlamine N-oxide, which is a potentially harmful metabolite generated by gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Colina/administração & dosagem , Colina/metabolismo , Colo/citologia , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilaminas/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Obesidade , Consumo de Oxigênio
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360723

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a worldwide health problem. Antimicrobial peptides have been recognized as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics, but still require optimization. The proline-rich antimicrobial peptide Bac7(1-16) is active against only a limited number of Gram-negative bacteria. It kills bacteria by inhibiting protein synthesis after its internalization, which is mainly supported by the bacterial transporter SbmA. In this study, we tested two different lipidated forms of Bac7(1-16) with the aim of extending its activity against those bacterial species that lack SbmA. We linked a C12-alkyl chain or an ultrashort cationic lipopeptide Lp-I to the C-terminus of Bac7(1-16). Both the lipidated Bac-C12 and Bac-Lp-I forms acquired activity at low micromolar MIC values against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, unlike Bac7(1-16), Bac-C12, and Bac-Lp-I did not select resistant mutants in E. coli after 14 times of exposure to sub-MIC concentrations of the respective peptide. We demonstrated that the extended spectrum of activity and absence of de novo resistance are likely related to the acquired capability of the peptides to permeabilize cell membranes. These results indicate that C-terminal lipidation of a short proline-rich peptide profoundly alters its function and mode of action and provides useful insights into the design of novel broad-spectrum antibacterial agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipoilação , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361717

RESUMO

The development of bio-based nanocomposites is of high scientific and industrial interest, since they offer excellent advantages in creating functional materials. However, dispersion and distribution of the nanomaterials inside the polymer matrix is a key challenge to achieve high-performance functional nanocomposites. In this context, for better dispersion, biobased triethyl citrate (TEC) as a dispersing agent in a liquid-assisted extrusion process was used to prepare the nanocomposites of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and chitin nanocrystals (ChNCs). The aim was to identify the effect of the TEC content on the dispersion of ChNCs in the PLA matrix and the manufacturing of a functional nanocomposite. The nanocomposite film's optical properties; microstructure; migration of the additive and nanocomposites' thermal, mechanical and rheological properties, all influenced by the ChNC dispersion, were studied. The microscopy study confirmed that the dispersion of the ChNCs was improved with the increasing TEC content, and the best dispersion was found in the nanocomposite prepared with 15 wt% TEC. Additionally, the nanocomposite with the highest TEC content (15 wt%) resembled the mechanical properties of commonly used polymers like polyethylene and polypropylene. The addition of ChNCs in PLA-TEC15 enhanced the melt viscosity, as well as melt strength, of the polymer and demonstrated antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Quitina/química , Citratos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Poliésteres/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Módulo de Elasticidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Reologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Tração , Viscosidade
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361848

RESUMO

The industrial processing of crude propolis generates residues. Essential oils (EOs) from propolis residues could be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds to replace antibiotics and synthetic antioxidants in pig production. In this study, we determined the antibacterial/antioxidant activity of EOs from crude organic propolis (EOP) and from propolis residues, moist residue (EOMR), and dried residue (EODR), and further elucidated their chemical composition. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their volatile profile was tentatively identified by GC-MS. All EOs had an antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum as they caused disturbances on the growth kinetics of both bacteria. However, EODR had more selective antibacterial activity, as it caused a higher reduction in the maximal culture density (D) of E. coli (86.7%) than L. plantarum (46.9%). EODR exhibited mild antioxidant activity, whereas EOMR showed the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS = 0.90 µmol TE/mg, FRAP = 463.97 µmol Fe2+/mg) and phenolic content (58.41 mg GAE/g). Each EO had a different chemical composition, but α-pinene and ß-pinene were the major compounds detected in the samples. Interestingly, specific minor compounds were detected in a higher relative amount in EOMR and EODR as compared to EOP. Therefore, these minor compounds are most likely responsible for the biological properties of EODR and EOMR. Collectively, our findings suggest that the EOs from propolis residues could be resourcefully used as natural antibacterial/antioxidant additives in pig production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Própole/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
19.
J Mol Biol ; 433(19): 167198, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391801

RESUMO

Mammalian ferritins are predominantly heteropolymeric species consisting of 24 structurally similar, but functionally different subunit types, named H and L, that co-assemble in different proportions. Despite their discovery more than 8 decades ago, recombinant human heteropolymer ferritins have never been synthesized, owing to the lack of a good expression system. Here, we describe for the first time a unique approach that uses a novel plasmid design that enables the synthesis of these complex ferritin nanostructures. Our study reveals an original system that can be easily tuned by altering the concentrations of two inducers, allowing the synthesis of a full spectrum of heteropolymer ferritins, from H-rich to L-rich ferritins and any combinations in-between (isoferritins). The H to L subunit composition of purified ferritin heteropolymers was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and capillary gel electrophoresis, and their iron handling properties characterized by light absorption spectroscopy. Our novel approach allows future investigations of the structural and functional differences of isoferritin populations, which remain largely obscure. This is particularly exciting since a change in the ferritin H- to L-subunit ratio could potentially lead to new iron core morphologies for various applications in bio-nanotechnologies.


Assuntos
Apoferritinas/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Apoferritinas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
20.
Elife ; 102021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382933

RESUMO

N1-methylation of G37 is required for a subset of tRNAs to maintain the translational reading-frame. While loss of m1G37 increases ribosomal +1 frameshifting, whether it incurs additional translational defects is unknown. Here, we address this question by applying ribosome profiling to gain a genome-wide view of the effects of m1G37 deficiency on protein synthesis. Using E coli as a model, we show that m1G37 deficiency induces ribosome stalling at codons that are normally translated by m1G37-containing tRNAs. Stalling occurs during decoding of affected codons at the ribosomal A site, indicating a distinct mechanism than that of +1 frameshifting, which occurs after the affected codons leave the A site. Enzyme- and cell-based assays show that m1G37 deficiency reduces tRNA aminoacylation and in some cases peptide-bond formation. We observe changes of gene expression in m1G37 deficiency similar to those in the stringent response that is typically induced by deficiency of amino acids. This work demonstrates a previously unrecognized function of m1G37 that emphasizes its role throughout the entire elongation cycle of protein synthesis, providing new insight into its essentiality for bacterial growth and survival.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Expressão Gênica , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Metilação , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
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