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1.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 15(1): 2, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paternal lifestyle choices and male exposure history have a critical influence on the health and fitness of the next generation. Accordingly, defining the processes of germline programming is essential to resolving how the epigenetic memory of paternal experiences transmits to their offspring. Established dogma holds that all facets of chromatin organization and histone posttranslational modification are complete before sperm exits the testes. However, recent clinical and animal studies suggest that patterns of DNA methylation change during epididymal maturation. In this study, we used complementary proteomic and deep-sequencing approaches to test the hypothesis that sperm posttranslational histone modifications change during epididymal transit. RESULTS: Using proteomic analysis to contrast immature spermatozoa and mature sperm isolated from the mouse epididymis, we find progressive changes in multiple histone posttranslational modifications, including H3K4me1, H3K27ac, H3K79me2, H3K64ac, H3K122ac, H4K16ac, H3K9me2, and H4K20me3. Interestingly, some of these changes only occurred on histone variant H3.3, and most involve chromatin modifications associated with gene enhancer activity. In contrast, the bivalent chromatin modifications, H3K4me3, and H3K27me3 remained constant. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing, we find that changes in histone h3, lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) involve sharpening broad diffuse regions into narrow peaks centered on the promoter regions of genes driving embryonic development. Significantly, many of these regions overlap with broad domains of H3K4me3 in oocytes and ATAC-seq signatures of open chromatin identified in MII oocytes and sperm. In contrast, histone h3, lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) becomes enriched within the promoters of genes driving meiosis and in the distal enhancer regions of tissue-specific genes sequestered at the nuclear lamina. Maturing sperm contain the histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC3, suggesting the NuRD complex may drive some of these changes. Finally, using Western blotting, we detected changes in chromatin modifications between caput and caudal sperm isolated from rams (Ovis aries), inferring changes in histone modifications are a shared feature of mammalian epididymal maturation. CONCLUSIONS: These data extend our understanding of germline programming and reveal that, in addition to trafficking noncoding RNAs, changes in histone posttranslational modifications are a core feature of epididymal maturation.


Assuntos
Epididimo , Epigenoma , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Masculino , Camundongos , Herança Paterna , Proteômica , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132395, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597628

RESUMO

Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is a widely used herbicide with emerging concern over its neural and reproductive toxicity. To uncover potential effects of GLA on male reproductive health in mammals, adult male C57BL/6J mice were administered 0.2 mg/kg·d GLA for 5 weeks. After examination on fertility, testis histology and semen quality in the GLA group, we performed deep sequencing to identify repressive epigenetic marks including DNA methylation and histone modifications (H3K27me3 and H3K9me3), together with mRNA transcript levels in sperm. Then, we integrated multi-omics sequencing data to comprehensively explore GLA-induced epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations. We found no significant difference either on fertility, testis histology or semen quality-related indicators. As for epigenome, the protein level of H3K27me3 was significantly increased in GLA sperm. Next generation sequencing showed alterations of these epigenetic marks and extensive transcription inhibition in sperm. These differential repressive marks were mainly distributed at intergenic regions and introns. According to results by Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, both differentially methylated and expressed genes were mainly enriched in pathways related to synapse organization. Subtle differences in genomic imprinting were also observed between the two groups. These results suggested that GLA predominantly impaired sperm epigenome and transcriptome in mice, with little effect on fertility, testis histology or semen quality. Further studies on human sperm using similar strategies need to be conducted for a better understanding of the male reproductive toxicity of GLA.


Assuntos
Epigenoma , Transcriptoma , Aminobutiratos , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Saúde Reprodutiva , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
3.
Endocrinology ; 163(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647995

RESUMO

Seminal plasma contains a high concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs). The heterogeneity of small EVs or the presence of nonvesicular extracellular matter (NV) pose major obstacles in understanding the composition and function of seminal EVs. In this study, we employed high-resolution density gradient fractionation to accurately characterize the composition and function of seminal EVs and NV. We found that the seminal EVs could be divided into 3 different subtypes-namely, high-density EV (EV-H), medium-density EV (EV-M), and low-density EV (EV-L)-after purification using iodixanol, while NV was successfully isolated. EVs and NV display different features in size, shape, and expression of some classic exosome markers. Both EV-H and NV could markedly promote sperm motility and capacitation compared with EV-M and EV-L, whereas only the NV fraction induced sperm acrosome reaction. Proteomic analysis results showed that EV-H, EV-M, EV-L, and NV had different protein components and were involved in different physiological functions. Further study showed that EV-M might reduce the production of sperm intrinsic reactive oxygen species through glutathione S-transferase mu 2. This study provides novel insights into important aspects of seminal EVs constituents and sounder footing to explore their functional properties in male fertility.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Motilidade Espermática , Reação Acrossômica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotinilação , Biologia Computacional , Exossomos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/química , Proteoma , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos/farmacologia
4.
Vet. Not. ; 27(2): 72-104, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-32079

RESUMO

The development of techniques to increase sperm longevity demands knowledge about cell metabolism. Sperm requires a constant supply of energy to maintain its cell functions. Approximately 500 metabolic reactions take place in somatic cells, and several of them require energy. Most of the produced energy goes for sperm motility, which is an ATP-dependent specialized process. Spermatozoa possess the required mechanisms to produce energy through glycolysis, citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and oxidative phosphorylation. Understanding these pathways provides knowledge on the interactions between the semen extender substrates and sperm cells. The aim of this review is to approach the major energy producing pathways of the sperm, as well as the substrates available for this metabolism.(AU)


Para o desenvolvimento de técnicas que visam o aumento da longevidade espermática, é necessário o entendimento metabólico desta célula. O espermatozoide exige um fornecimento constante de energia para a manutenção das funções celulares. Aproximadamente 500 reações metabólicas são conhecidas por ocorrer nas células somáticas, sendo que grande parte delas requer energia. Para atingir seu objetivo, grande parte da produção energética do espermatozoide é destinada à motilidade, o qual é um processo especializado e dependente de ATP. O espermatozoide possui os mecanismos necessários para produzir energia através da glicólise, Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico (Ciclo de Krebs) e Fosforilação Oxidativa. O entendimento destas vias torna-se indispensável para a compreensão das interações entre os substratos do meio diluente e o espermatozoide. O objetivo desta revisão é abordar as principais vias de produção energética do espermatozoide, assim como os substratos disponíveis para metabolização.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática , Glicólise , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948301

RESUMO

MFN1 (Mitofusin 1) and MFN2 (Mitofusin 2) are GTPases essential for mitochondrial fusion. Published studies revealed crucial roles of both Mitofusins during embryonic development. Despite the unique mitochondrial organization in sperm flagella, the biological requirement in sperm development and functions remain undefined. Here, using sperm-specific Cre drivers, we show that either Mfn1 or Mfn2 knockout in haploid germ cells does not affect male fertility. The Mfn1 and Mfn2 double knockout mice were further analyzed. We found no differences in testis morphology and weight between Mfn-deficient mice and their wild-type littermate controls. Spermatogenesis was normal in Mfn double knockout mice, in which properly developed TRA98+ germ cells, SYCP3+ spermatocytes, and TNP1+ spermatids/spermatozoa were detected in seminiferous tubules, indicating that sperm formation was not disrupted upon MFN deficiency. Collectively, our findings reveal that both MFN1 and MFN2 are dispensable for sperm development and functions in mice.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Maturação do Esperma/fisiologia , Espermatócitos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
6.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 50, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936029

RESUMO

Circular RNA (circRNA) biogenesis requires a backsplicing reaction, promoted by inverted repeats in cis-flanking sequences and trans factors, such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Among these, FUS plays a key role. During spermatogenesis and sperm maturation along the epididymis such a molecular mechanism has been poorly explored. With this in mind, we chose circCNOT6L as a study case and wild-type (WT) as well as cannabinoid receptor type-1 knock-out (Cb1-/-) male mice as animal models to analyze backsplicing mechanisms. Our results suggest that spermatozoa (SPZ) have an endogenous skill to circularize mRNAs, choosing FUS as modulator of backsplicing and under CB1 stimulation. A physical interaction between FUS and CNOT6L as well as a cooperation among FUS, RNA Polymerase II (RNApol2) and Quaking (QKI) take place in SPZ. Finally, to gain insight into FUS involvement in circCNOT6L biogenesis, FUS expression was reduced through RNA interference approach. Paternal transmission of FUS and CNOT6L to oocytes during fertilization was then assessed by using murine unfertilized oocytes (NF), one-cell zygotes (F) and murine oocytes undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA) to exclude a maternal contribution. The role of circCNOT6L as an active regulator of zygote transition toward the 2-cell-like state was suggested using the Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) system. Intriguingly, human SPZ exactly mirror murine SPZ.


Assuntos
RNA Circular/metabolismo , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/genética , Espermatozoides , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oócitos , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Zigoto/metabolismo
7.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1382-1390, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663978

RESUMO

Intergenerational inheritance of immune traits linked to epigenetic modifications has been demonstrated in plants and invertebrates. Here we provide evidence for transmission of trained immunity across generations to murine progeny that survived a sublethal systemic infection with Candida albicans or a zymosan challenge. The progeny of trained mice exhibited cellular, developmental, transcriptional and epigenetic changes associated with the bone marrow-resident myeloid effector and progenitor cell compartment. Moreover, the progeny of trained mice showed enhanced responsiveness to endotoxin challenge, alongside improved protection against systemic heterologous Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes infections. Sperm DNA of parental male mice intravenously infected with the fungus C. albicans showed DNA methylation differences linked to immune gene loci. These results provide evidence for inheritance of trained immunity in mammals, enhancing protection against infections.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Hereditariedade , Imunidade Inata/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Listeriose/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Animais , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/genética , Candidíase/metabolismo , Candidíase/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose/genética , Listeriose/metabolismo , Listeriose/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/imunologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639209

RESUMO

The process of freezing cells or tissues and depositing them in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C is called cryopreservation. Sub-zero temperature is not a physiological condition for cells and water ice crystals represent the main problem since they induce cell death, principally in large cells like oocytes, which have a meiotic spindle that degenerates during this process. Significantly, cryopreservation represents an option for fertility preservation in patients who develop gonadal failure for any condition and those who want to freeze their germ cells for later use. The possibility of freezing sperm, oocytes, and embryos has been available for a long time, and in 1983 the first birth with thawed oocytes was achieved. From the mid-2000s forward, the use of egg vitrification through intracytoplasmic sperm injection has improved pregnancy rates. Births using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have some adverse conditions and events. These risks could be associated with ART procedures or related to infertility. Cryopreservation generates changes in the epigenome of gametes and embryos, given that ART occurs when the epigenome is most vulnerable. Furthermore, cryoprotective agents induce alterations in the integrity of germ cells and embryos. Notably, cryopreservation extensively affects cell viability, generates proteomic profile changes, compromises crucial cellular functions, and alters sperm motility. This technique has been widely employed since the 1980s and there is a lack of knowledge about molecular changes. The emerging view is that molecular changes are associated with cryopreservation, affecting metabolism, cytoarchitecture, calcium homeostasis, epigenetic state, and cell survival, which compromise the fertilization in ART.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Criopreservação/normas , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Epigênese Genética , Células Germinativas/citologia , Infertilidade/terapia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Crioprotetores/química , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/normas , Fertilização In Vitro , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade/metabolismo , Infertilidade/patologia , Masculino , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638585

RESUMO

Mammalian sperm must undergo two post-testicular processes to become fertilization-competent: maturation in the male epididymis and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While caput epididymal sperm are unable to move and have not yet acquired fertilization potential, sperm in the cauda epididymis have completed their maturation, can move actively, and have gained the ability to undergo capacitation in the female tract or in vitro. Due to the impossibility of mimicking sperm maturation in vitro, the molecular pathways underlying this process remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the use of caput epididymal ligation as a tool for the study of sperm maturation in mice. Our results indicate that after seven days of ligation, caput sperm gained motility and underwent molecular changes comparable with those observed for cauda mature sperm. Moreover, ligated caput sperm were able to activate pathways related to sperm capacitation. Despite these changes, ligated caput sperm were unable to fertilize in vitro. Our results suggest that transit through the epididymis is not required for the acquisition of motility and some capacitation-associated signaling but is essential for full epididymal maturation. Caput epididymal ligation is a useful tool for the study of the molecular pathways involved in the acquisition of sperm motility during maturation.


Assuntos
AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Maturação do Esperma/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Epididimo/metabolismo , Epididimo/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização/fisiologia , Ligadura/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Capacitação Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502430

RESUMO

The fertilization of freshwater fish occurs in an environment that may negatively affect the gametes; therefore, the specific mechanisms triggering the encounters of gametes would be highly expedient. The egg and ovarian fluid are likely the major sources of these triggers, which we confirmed here for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The ovarian fluid affected significantly spermatozoa performance: it supported high velocity for a longer period and changed the motility pattern from tumbling in water to straightforward moving in the ovarian fluid. Rainbow trout ovarian fluid induced a trapping chemotaxis-like effect on activated male gametes, and this effect depended on the properties of the activating medium. The interaction of the spermatozoa with the attracting agents was accompanied by the "turn-and-run" behavior involving asymmetric flagellar beating and Ca2+ concentration bursts in the bent flagellum segment, which are characteristic of the chemotactic response. Ovarian fluid created the optimal environment for rainbow trout spermatozoa performance, and the individual peculiarities of the egg (ovarian fluid)-sperm interaction reflect the specific features of the spawning process in this species.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Fertilização/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Zigoto/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/citologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Zigoto/citologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502434

RESUMO

Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix communication. They are involved in the sperm maturation including capacitation and gamete interaction, resulting in successful fertilization. αV integrin belongs to the integrin glycoprotein superfamily, and it is indispensable for physiological spermiogenesis and testosterone production. We targeted the gene and protein expression of the αV integrin subunit and described its membrane localization in sperm. Firstly, in mouse, we traced αV integrin gene expression during spermatogenesis in testicular fraction separated by elutriation, and we detected gene activity in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids. Secondly, we specified αV integrin membrane localization in acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm and compared its pattern between mouse, pig, and human. Using immunodetection and structured illumination microscopy (SIM), the αV integrin localization was confined to the plasma membrane covering the acrosomal cap area and also to the inner acrosomal membrane of acrosome-intact sperm of all selected species. During the acrosome reaction, which was induced on capacitated sperm, the αV integrin relocated and was detected over the whole sperm head. Knowledge of the integrin pattern in mature sperm prepares the ground for further investigation into the pathologies and related fertility issues in human medicine and veterinary science.


Assuntos
Integrina alfaV/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Reação Acrossômica , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Suínos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576283

RESUMO

Alongside the well-known central modulatory role, the Kisspeptin system, comprising Kiss1, its cleavage products (Kisspeptins), and Kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1R), was found to regulate gonadal functions in vertebrates; however, its functional role in the male gamete and its localization during maturation have been poorly understood. The present study analyzed Kisspeptin system in dog testis and spermatozoa recovered from different segments of the epididymis, with focus on Kiss1R on sperm surface alongside the maturation during epididymal transit, demonstrated by modification in sperm kinetic, morphology, and protamination. The proteins Kiss1 and Kiss1R were detected in dog testis. The receptor Kiss1R only was detected in total protein extracts from epididymis spermatozoa, whereas dot blot revealed Kiss1 immunoreactivity in the epidydimal fluid. An increase of the Kiss1R protein on sperm surface along the length of the epididymis, with spermatozoa in the tail showing plasma membrane integrity and Kiss1R protein (p < 0.05 vs. epididymis head and body) was observed by flow cytometry and further confirmed by epifluorescence microscopy and Western blot carried on sperm membrane preparations. In parallel, during the transit in the epididymis spermatozoa significantly modified their ability to move and the pattern of motility; a progressive increase in protaminization also occurred. In conclusion, Kisspeptin system was detected in dog testis and spermatozoa. Kiss1R trafficking toward plasma membrane along the length of the epididymis and Kiss1 in epididymal fluid suggested a new functional role of the Kisspeptin system in sperm maturation and storage.


Assuntos
Epididimo/metabolismo , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Cães , Epididimo/anatomia & histologia , Cinética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Testículo/anatomia & histologia
13.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572103

RESUMO

Propagation of paternal sperm-contributed mitochondrial genes, resulting in heteroplasmy, is seldom observed in mammals due to post-fertilization degradation of sperm mitochondria, referred to as sperm mitophagy. Whole organelle sperm mitochondrion degradation is thought to be mediated by the interplay between the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic pathway (Song et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2016). Both porcine and primate post-fertilization sperm mitophagy rely on the ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptor, sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), and the proteasome-interacting ubiquitinated protein dislocase, valosin-containing protein (VCP). Consequently, we anticipated that sperm mitophagy could be reconstituted in a cell-free system consisting of permeabilized mammalian spermatozoa co-incubated with porcine oocyte extracts. We found that SQSTM1 was detected in the midpiece/mitochondrial sheath of the sperm tail after, but not before, co-incubation with oocyte extracts. VCP was prominent in the sperm mitochondrial sheath both before and after the extract co-incubation and was also detected in the acrosome and postacrosomal sheath and the subacrosomal layer of the spermatozoa co-incubated with extraction buffer as control. Such patterns are consistent with our previous observation of SQSTM1 and VCP associating with sperm mitochondria inside the porcine zygote. In addition, it was observed that sperm head expansion mimicked the early stages of paternal pronucleus development in a zygote during prolonged sperm-oocyte extract co-incubation. Treatment with anti-SQSTM1 antibody during extract co-incubation prevented ooplasmic SQSTM1 binding to sperm mitochondria. Even in an interspecific cellular environment encompassing bull spermatozoa and porcine oocyte extract, ooplasmic SQSTM1 was recruited to heterospecific sperm mitochondria. Complementary with the binding of SQSTM1 and VCP to sperm mitochondria, two sperm-borne pro-mitophagy proteins, parkin co-regulated gene product (PACRG) and spermatogenesis associated 18 (SPATA18), underwent localization changes after extract coincubation, which were consistent with their degradation observed inside fertilized porcine oocytes. These results demonstrate that the early developmental events of post-fertilization sperm mitophagy observed in porcine zygote can be reconstituted in a cell-free system, which could become a useful tool for identifying additional molecules that regulate mitochondrial inheritance in mammals.


Assuntos
Sistema Livre de Células/fisiologia , Fertilização , Mitofagia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Suínos , Proteína com Valosina/genética , Proteína com Valosina/metabolismo
15.
Andrologia ; 53(11): e14226, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478154

RESUMO

The measurement of protein expression level plays a pivotal role in both biological and medical studies. Housekeeping proteins, generally encoded by housekeeping genes are used as loading control proteins to normalize protein expression. Obviously, proper reference standards are essential for adequate analysis of protein expression. However, our study showed that the widely used normalisation proteins, whose expression levels varied greatly among sperm samples, were unsuitable for data standardisation. To uncover the proteins steadily expressed in sperm, we analysed several published transcriptome data of sperm. Seven proteins whose expression levels were relatively stable (co-efficient variation values less than 0.35) were selected and further evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western Blot (WB) and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that among the classical housekeeping proteins, only ß-tubulin remained constant in sperm samples from 85 individuals. Compared with other classical housekeeping proteins such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, actin and histone H3, Cullin-1 (CUL1) and F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) seemed to be more suitable to be used as internal controls for WB in sperm protein studies. Combined with the locations of these proteins, CUL1 and FBXO7 were suggested to be used as a housekeeping protein for total proteins.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Western Blotting , Espermatozoides , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Culina/genética , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473747

RESUMO

The developmental competence of male and female gametes is frequently reduced under in vitro conditions, mainly due to oxidative stress during handling. The amino-acid derived hormone melatonin has emerged as a potent non-enzymatic antioxidant in many biological systems. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilizing ability, and embryo development and competence in vitro after in vitro fertilization. Frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa were incubated either in the presence of 10-11 M melatonin (MT), or its solvent (ethanol; Sham-Control), or plain Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate medium (TALP, Control). Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry data after 30 min, 120 min, and 180 min incubation did not reveal any significant effects of melatonin on average motility parameters, sperm subpopulation structure as determined by hierarchical cluster, or on the percentage of viable, acrosome intact sperm, or viable sperm with active mitochondria. Nevertheless, in vitro matured cumulus-oocyte-complexes fertilized with spermatozoa which had been preincubated with 10-11 M melatonin (MT-Sperm) showed higher (P < 0.01) rates of monospermic fertilization, reduced (P < 0.05) polyspermy and enhanced (P < 0.05) embryo development compared to the Control group. Moreover, the relative abundance of MAPK13 in the in vitro-derived blastocysts was greater (P < 0.05) than observed in the Control group. In conclusion, adding melatonin to the sperm-preparation protocol for bovine IVF improved proper fertilization and enhanced embryonic development and competence in vitro.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Bovinos , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 13 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 13 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
17.
Hum Reprod ; 36(10): 2638-2648, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486673

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants affect the function of human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: The SSRI antidepressant Sertraline (e.g. Zoloft) inhibits the sperm-specific Ca2+ channel CatSper and affects human sperm function in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In human sperm, CatSper translates changes of the chemical microenvironment into changes of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and swimming behavior. CatSper is promiscuously activated by oviductal ligands, but also by synthetic chemicals that might disturb the fertilization process. It is well known that SSRIs have off-target actions on Ca2+, Na+ and K+ channels in somatic cells. Whether SSRIs affect the activity of CatSper is, however, unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We studied the action of the seven drugs belonging to the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants, SSRIs, on resting [Ca2+]i and Ca2+ influx via CatSper in human sperm. The SSRI Sertraline was selected for in-depth analysis of its action on steroid-, prostaglandin-, pH- and voltage-activation of human CatSper. Moreover, the action of Sertraline on sperm acrosomal exocytosis and penetration into viscous media was evaluated. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The activity of CatSper was investigated in sperm of healthy volunteers, using kinetic Ca2+ fluorimetry and patch-clamp recordings. Acrosomal exocytosis was investigated using Pisum sativum agglutinin and image cytometry. Sperm penetration in viscous media was evaluated using the Kremer test. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Several SSRIs affected [Ca2+]i and attenuated ligand-induced Ca2+ influx via CatSper. In particular, the SSRI Sertraline almost completely suppressed Ca2+ influx via CatSper. Remarkably, the drug was about four-fold more potent to suppress prostaglandin- versus steroid-induced Ca2+ influx. Sertraline also suppressed alkaline- and voltage-activation of CatSper, indicating that the drug directly inhibits the channel. Finally, Sertraline impaired ligand-induced acrosome reaction and sperm penetration into viscous media. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This is an in vitro study. Future studies have to assess the physiological relevance in vivo. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The off-target action of Sertraline on CatSper in human sperm might impair the fertilization process. In a research setting, Sertraline may be used to selectively inhibit prostaglandin-induced Ca2+ influx. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology (SCAHT), the Département de l'Instruction Publique of the State of Geneva, the German Research Foundation (CRU326), the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, Münster (IZKF; Str/014/21), the Innovation Fund Denmark (grant numbers 14-2013-4) and the EDMaRC research grant from the Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's Foundation. The authors declare that no conflict of interest could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NA.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Sertralina , Antidepressivos/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona/farmacologia , Sertralina/metabolismo , Sertralina/farmacologia , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379669

RESUMO

Extreme temperature exposure can reduce stored sperm viability within queen honey bees; however, little is known about how thermal stress may directly impact queen performance or other maternal quality metrics. Here, in a blind field trial, we recorded laying pattern, queen mass, and average callow worker mass before and after exposing queens to a cold temperature (4°C, 2 h), hot temperature (42°C, 2 h), and hive temperature (33°C, control). We measured sperm viability at experiment termination, and investigated potential vertical effects of maternal temperature stress on embryos using proteomics. We found that cold stress, but not heat stress, reduced stored sperm viability; however, we found no significant effect of temperature stress on any other recorded metrics (queen mass, average callow worker mass, laying patterns, the egg proteome, and queen spermathecal fluid proteome). Previously determined candidate heat and cold stress biomarkers were not differentially expressed in stressed queens, indicating that these markers only have short-term post-stress diagnostic utility. Combined with variable sperm viability responses to temperature stress reported in different studies, these data also suggest that there is substantial variation in temperature tolerance, with respect to impacts on fertility, amongst queens. Future research should aim to quantify the variation and heritability of temperature tolerance, particularly heat, in different populations of queens in an effort to promote queen resilience.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Óvulo/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
19.
Toxicology ; 460: 152886, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352348

RESUMO

Arsenic intoxication affects male reproductive parameters of prepubertal rats. Besides, morphological and functional alterations in their testis and epididymis may remain after withdrawal of arsenic insult, causing potential impairment in male fertility during adulthood. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the effect of prepubertal arsenic exposure on the fecundity of epididymal sperm from sexually mature Wistar rats, assessing fertility indexes, sperm parameters, and sperm phosphoproteins content. Male pups on postnatal day (PND) 21 received filtered water (controls, n = 10) and 10 mg L-1 arsenite (n = 10) daily for 30 days. From PND52 to PND81, rats from both groups received filtered water. During this period, the males mated with non-exposed females between PND72 and PND75. Our results showed that sexually mature rats presented low sperm production, epididymal sperm count, motility, and quality after prepubertal arsenic exposure. These findings possibly contributed to the low fertility potential and high preimplantation loss. Epididymal sperm proteome detected 268 proteins, which 170 were found in animals from both control and arsenic groups, 27 proteins were detected only in control animals and 71 proteins only in arsenic-exposed rats. In these animals, SPATA 18 and other five proteins were upregulated, whereas keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 was downregulated (q < 0.1). The results of KEGG pathway analysis demonstrated an enrichment of pathways related to dopaminergic response, adrenergic signaling, protein degradation, and oocyte meiosis in arsenic-exposed animals. Moreover, 26 proteins were identified by phosphoproteomic with different phosphorylation pattern in animals from both groups, but SPATA18 was phosphorylated only in arsenic-exposed animals. We concluded that prepubertal exposure to arsenic is deleterious to sperm quality and male fertility, altering the sperm phosphoproteins profile.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Epididimo/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia
20.
Redox Biol ; 46: 102071, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340027

RESUMO

To date 15% of couples are suffering from infertility with 45-50% of males being responsible. With an increase in paternal age as well as various environmental and lifestyle factors worsening these figures are expected to increase. As the so-called free radical theory of infertility suggests, free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in this process. However, ROS also fulfill important functions for instance in sperm maturation. The aim of this review article is to discuss the role reactive oxygen species play in male fertility and how these are influenced by lifestyle, age or disease. We will further discuss how these ROS are measured and how they can be avoided during in-vitro fertilization.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
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